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at last to the joy of the honest beholder, or perishes like some legendary Old Guard with his face to the foe. And that foe in politics, in finance, in sociology, is always the political sycophant, the financial swindler and confidence-man, the social intriguant and vandal —all combined—who occupy that place among mankind which the vampire, the vulture and the hyena do in the animal creation. Amidst these two groups however flourishing on successful chicanery and legalized fraud may be planted the one, what king, or prince, or potentate however strong and mighty is there who can expect his empire to endure if he turn from these of honorable achievements to those of corrupt splendor and wealth P These two forces are in opposition in the state, the one the deadly enemy of the other, and as Plato says, the one can not rise in power but the other must fall. Woe to the state, woe to the king, if it be the fall of genius and honor l * Among the great Dutch families of patrician degree in New York were de Peyster, de Veber, Schuyler, Van Brugh, Bayard, Van Ranssalaer, Stenwyck, Luyck, Beekman, Kip, de Milt, Van Buskirk, Paurtt, Van Curler, Colden, Cuyler, Cruger, Van Twiller, Houten, Krieckebreck, Elkens, de Vries, Stuyvesant, Kieft.

The following manours are described in the Heraldic Magazine of 1867: Courtlandt, 83, ooo acres, royal patent 1697 to Stephen Van Courtlandt, descended from the Dukes of Courland in Russia and bearing the same blason, Argent, the wings of a wind-mill, sable, voided of the field, between 5 etoiles gueles. His ancestor was Stephen Van Courtlandt of South Holland in 16Io, whose son Oloff came to New York in 1649 as a freeholder. His son, Stephen, first lord of the manour, was mayor of New York and royal counsellor in 1677, from whom was descended the last lord of the manor, Col. Philip Van Courtlandt, an United Empire Loyalist in 1783.

Fordham Manour by royal patent, Nov. 13, 1671, to John Archer, whose ancestry is traced to Humphrey Archer, born 1527. His son John, 2nd lord of the manour, married Sarah Odell in 1686. The best of this family were royalists in 1776.

Manour Morrisania, by royal patent 1697 to Lewis Morris, governor of New Jersey in 1638. He descended from William Morris, gent. of Tintern, Co. Monmouth, England, and bore, ist and 4th gules, a lion rampant, regardant or, 2nd and 3rd argent, 3 torteux in fesse; crest, a castle in flames. His son Lewis, born 1698, was a judge in admiralty as was his son Richard. The leaders of this family were U. E. L. and their property was confiscated by the republicans.

Scarsdale Manour was erected by royal patent Mar. 21, 1701, for Col. Caleb Heathcote, son of Gilbert, of Chesterfield, Co. Derby, and brother of Sir Gilbert, Lord Mayor of London. He married a daughter of Col. Smith of Long Island, former governor of Tangier. He was surveyor-general of the province. His manour passed to his daughter Ann who married James de Lancey, lieut.-governor and ancestor of that noble U. E. L. Gen. James de Lancey, of 1776-83, whose posterity are in the lower provinces.

Pelham manour, 9,166 acres, to Thomas Pell, 1666, grandson of John Pell and Margaret Overand who was son of Rev. John Pell, rector of Southwick, Co. Sussex, Eng., in 1590. His son John obtained additional patent in 1687. The family arms are: ermine, on a canton azure, a pelican or, vulned gules.

Livingston Manour, 120,000 acres, in 1686 to Robert Livingston who traced to Rev. Alex. Livingstone, of Stirling, of 1590 (Scotland). This particular family was of the extreme puritan-Presbyterian party containing several clergymen ancestors in succession.

Philipsburg Manour, 1500 square miles, royal patent of 1693 to the Royal Councillor Frederic Philippse, who was born in 1626 at Bolsward, Friesland, and whose arms were, azure a demi-lion rampant, issuing from a ducal coronet argent, crowned or; crest, the same. His son Philip married Mary, daughter of Gov. Sparks, of the Barbadoes. His son Frederic married Joanna, daughter of Gov. Anthony Rockholer, of New York, whose children were I., Col. Frederic, U.E.L., leaving 10 children; II., Philip, U.E.L.; III., Susan, married Col. Beverley Robinson, U.E.L.; IV., Mary, married Col. Morris, U.E.L.

duca philiBarbadoes: Antho . Erede til, Mary

Gardiner Manour, 3300 acres, Gardiner's Island, New York, 1639, for Col. Lionel Gardiner from England, which has been possessed by that family up to the Rev. olution of 1776, when its rank and privileges were destroyed.

Queen's Manour, Long Island, to the Lloyd family of illustrious Welch ancestry. Granted by royal patent in 1679. Of this family was Henry Lloyd, U.E.L., to Halifax in 1783. There has been every effort made in New York as elsewhere in those republican communities to humiliate the descendants of these families and to neglect a mention in the archives of these patrician founders of the colony.

There was always considerable hostility between the Dutch and English settlements, until it was ended by the Treaty of Breda which ceded New Netherland to England, the name of which was changed to New York, in honor of James Stuart, Duke of York, who held it as a fief from his brother, King Charles II. The article of the surrender of the province to England, stipulates ''security to property, liberty of conscience and of discipline and the maintenance of existing customs of inheritance for the Dutch population" (Robert's New York Vol. I., p. 93). Gov. Nicholls, commissioned by the Duke of York, met 34 delegates from 17 counties Feb. 28, 1665.

Under the English administration the patroonate system of the Dutch was continued into a manorial system as in Maryland, and several manours with local magistracy established a nobility in permanent official functions. Among these manorial families may be mentioned Livingston, Morris, de Lancy, while later the Johnson obtained a baronetcy, the best of whose descendants were royalist emigres to Canada at the close of the American Revolution in 1783.

Gov. Dongan, son of an Irish baronet, succeeded Nicholls, but the extent of his authority had been diminished by the cession of New Jersey to Cartaret and another, yet he claimed for the province, Pemaquid, Martha's Vinyard and Nantucket. He had been instructed by the Duke of York to represent the nobility by a council of 10 members among whom were Stephen

Van Courtlandt and Col. Frederic Phillipse, both lords of manours. An assembly was instituted of 18 members to be elected by the freeholders of the province. The governor and council were to have authority to establish courts, appoint officers, make war and peace for the protection of the province, but the war-revenue or any excessive call could be collected only by assent of the Assembly_(Robert's New York, Vol. I., pp. 189-90). The Assembly had "Free liberty to consult and debate on all laws."

The first government met at Albany Oct. 17, 1683, in which was signed the following resolutions: “That the supreme authority under the King and Lordproprietor shall reside in the governor, council and a general assembly. The elections of assembly are for all free-holders. No aid, tax, custom, loan, benevolence or imposition whatever shall be levied within this province, on any pretense, but by consent of the governor, council and representatives of the people in general assembly."

When the Duke of York became King James II. he rescinded portions of these resolutions as incompatible with the authority of the assembly and the constitution: namely, that the Lord-proprietor should not be mentioned with the King and that the general assembly was not the fount of authority in this province (which authority lies in the constitution at the head of which is the King. He extended liberty of conscience to all persons of what religion soever,” going beyond the resolution of the assembly which included only those ''professing faith in God by Jesus Christ.” It is worthy to observe that this King in colonies to which he had given charter (Maryland and New York) did more for liberty of conscience than all others, and above all the puritan pretentions which unseated him finally from the throne in England.

As for provincial New York, although it was the most foreign in its population of all the provinces, it furnished the most loyal example--with the exception of Georgia- of all the provinces. And Georgia, originally a part of Carolina, had been made a personal fief of Sir James Oglethorpe in 1732, and its leading people, friends of Oglethorpe and the poor-debtors to whom he had given homes in his colony, would have been unworthy the name of humanity had they been otherwise than loyal.

The Middle Colonies. Pennsylvania had been granted by King Charles II in 1657 to William Penn, a wealthy English Quaker, whose father, Admiral Penn, had been so angry with his son for adopting "Quakerish ideas" that it aroused the son's latent obstinacy on this subject until it became a mania in him and a source of ridicule in others. He prevailed on the good nature of Charles II, however, to grant him a tract of land in America, where he might try his scheme of founding a "Quaker State."

The Quaker did not believe in war or ostentation, so all those who wished to escape the danger of the one and the expense of the other were enrolled in this peculiar sect whose members adopted a sober garb, sat with their hats on in church and in court, refused to take an oath, and theed and thowed” all the world. It is said that they won more land in the New World by trading with the Indians on a glass-bead basis than any group of the other colonists won with the sword. They were a very prosperous and careful people. When the heirs of Penn were true to their allegiance in 1776-83 they took the occasion to cancel their obligations of debt towards them by an allegiance to the opposite party. They were never noted for hospitality on account of the cost and “ostentation."

Delaware had been in Lord Baltimore's grant as Avalon but was cut off, under the charge of Lord Deleware, for whom it was named. Its early people, some Swedes, some Dutch, some English, were like those of New Jersey, which had been separated from New York. They were the “ne'er do wells'' of the neighboring colonies-a trait their descendants have preserved to the present day, so far as honest industry and liberality of spirit go. Col. Ingersoll declared in one of his books that the people of Delaware (1888) were in a state of barbarism. Among them were many of Gov. Stone's puritan colony to Maryland who had been obliged to leave Maryland on account of their factious, bigoted, and intermeddling spirit.

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