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treaty of peace of 1783 delivered it over to the enemy, in spite of their protests of possession. The most important action, from its effect of preserving Canada to the crown, was the defense of Fort St. Jean, Sept. 5th, 1775; the American Generals, Montgomery and Schuyler, with 2,000 men, appeared before Fort St. Jean, on their way to capture Montreal, Three Rivers and Quebec. The English of the lower class in the country encouraged the insurgents; the French of the lower class were inclined the same way and were prevented going over to the enemy in a body only by the priests, who feared for their own rights under a revolutionary and puritanical regime. The seigneurs and officers of the noblesse, both French, and Scottish, the latter of whom had received seigneurial grants from Governor Murray, raised a seigneurial guard of two contingents, one of which, mostly Scottish, was directed towards Quebec, the other, mostly French, under the Baron de Longueuil, was sent to relieve Fort St. Jean. The arrival of this little company of élite at the fort raised the spirits of the garrison, whose officers were induced thereby to make a vigorous defense. This Seigneurial Guard did most of the fighting during the 45 days of resistance which held the American army back among the marshes of the Richelieu. It was among them only that any were killed in sortis. And when by lack of succor, and of provisions, the place surrendered finally, the delay had enabled Sir Guy Carleton to put Quebec in such a condition of defense that it held the disaffected in the country quiet and beat off the last efforts of the foe. From this time and until after the conclusion of the peace of 1783 Canada: ecame the objective point of settlement for the 45,000 erican loyalists who were directed towards Canada by and and sea with their wives and children and such poor relics of their former affluance, which they could carry with them from the clutches of an insolvent and cruel foe. Towns sprang up in the old province where they settled; the new provinces of New Brunswick (1784) and Ontario (1791) were created by them; refinement, wealth, and above all loyalty to principle—the best heritage—followed in their footsteps. They and the French royalists “have proved a barrier to the growth of any an

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nexation party” (Bourinot, "Story of Canada," p. 292). “Although no noble monument has been raised to these founders of new provinces... yet the names of all are written in imperishable letters in provincial annals ... and one who traces to this source is as proud of his lineage as a Derby or a Talbot of Malahide, or an inheritor of other noble name" (ibid, pp. 296-7). “They were an army of leaders, for it was the loftiest heads that attracted the hate of the revolutionists. The most influential judges, distinguished lawyers, capable and prominent physicians, most highly educated of the clergy, the royal councillors of the colonies, crown officers, people of culture and social distinction” (Roberts' Hist. of Canada," p. 202). “They were the gentry (noblesse) of the American colonies" (Lecky, Hist. of England).

As a gentry, a noblesse, they were incorporated in Canada with the constitution and principles for which they had fought and which the crown and parliament had guaranteed, as well as by Act of the Sovereign Council of Quebec, Nov. 9th, 1789, to wit:-“In presence of the Governor, Lord Dorchester, and Royal Councillors, the Hons. William Smith, Hugh Finlay, Thomas Dunn, J. G. Chossegros de Léry, F. Baby, Charles de Lanaudière, Lecompte Dupré, etc., his Lordship intimated to the council that it was his wish to put a Mark of Honor on the families that had adhered to the unity of the Empire and had joined the Royal Standard in America before the Treaty of Separation of 1783” .. “The Council concurred and it was ordered that the several Land Boards take course for preserving a Registry of all persons falling under description aforesaid so that their posterity may be distinguished from other settlers." . . They were entitled to write the letters “U.E.” (United Empire) after their names as an inheritance of distinction to their posterity in the family name of the original loyalists and as a means of taking precedence of others of the same rank

-an U. E. Seigneur, before a seigneur; an U. E. gentleman, before a gentleman.

Besides this creation by law of à precedence for the Order of the United Empire, the agreement of the British government that the constitution of Canada by the Act of 1774 should not be altered and by the Act of 1778 that the meaning of the Anglo-American constitution should not be infringed, recognized virtually the right of representation in the council of the province of the colonial aristocracy; it confirmed the laudable practise on the part of the governor of keeping a registry for the colony and the king of the best families for appointment in the council. The Lords of Manours and Patroons in New York, the Lords of Manours in Maryland, the Landgraves and Caciques in Carolina, the European noblesse and chivalry established in landed tenure in the other colonies and in Florida, the relics of the aristocracy deriving from the Order of the Empire of Charles V., whose first creation in America was the duchy of Veragua in Central America to the grandson of Christopher Columbus from this time saw their hopes realized in Canada.

In framing the model of government for Canada in 1791, based on this constitution—any model is null not so based-Lord William Pitt prepared for the honest practise which all colonial charters demanded, and which the Houses of Lords and Commons acknowledged anew in passing the bill. This bill provided for sittings in the Upper House in Canada to be annexed to hereditary honors in the colony. But the ministry in England and the governors sent over from England made no effort to put this acknowledgement in practise, and the politicians of Canada, ever fearful of the aristocracy, worked to oppose it and to ostracise and keep from public position the descendants of the patricians and founders of the country. In 1879 the descendants of these various orders of nobility, knighthood and chivalry in the old colonies (United States and Canada) took up the movement of their organization-although a movement had been suggested as early as 1798. The old order of the Empire of Charles V. in America was reorganized under the name of the Aryan Order of the Empire and reserved for the descendants of the Royalists of 1776-83, known as the Order of the United Empire, the Seigneurs of Canada, the Baronets of Nova Scotia, the Patrons and Lords of Manors of New York and Maryland, the Landgraves and Caciques of Carolina, and other patrician families established on landed tenure in America. It was decided that "none but those of the White Aryan race shall be elegible,

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notwithstanding what their other claims may be.” The first chancellor of the order in 1879 was the late Frederic Forsyth, Viscount de Fronsac, succeeded by Gen. Alex. P. Stewart of Mississippi, and he by Gen. John B. Gordon, of Georgia, and he by Sir Edward Warren, of Paris, and he by Harvey Leonadas Byrd, M.D., President of the Baltimore Medical College and a descendant of the renowned Sir William Byrd of Westover, Virginia. It counted among the early members Dr. Olando Fairfax, Richmond, Virginia; Dr. Leprohon, of Montreal, French Consul at Portland, Maine; Thomas Supplee, of Ohio; W. L. Ritter, of Baltimore, etc., until in 1891 the Chancellorship fell to Dr. Joseph Gaston Bulloch, of Savannah, Georgia, who published a pamphlet on the order the next year. In 1894 the State of Georgia granted the council the privilege of incorporation.

But the order was attacked by the republican press throughout the United States; it was accused of desiring to restore an empire, and of organizing an aristocracy on the principle that “a good name is rather to be chosen than great riches”; it was condemned for recognizing the truths of history and the laws of Nature. It became impossible for its continuance in the United States, where the edicts of majority-rule have declared that the lowest man who votes, whether negro or white, is the standard of selection and that there shall be no other standard of race recognized above this equality; it had gathered to-" gether the widely scattered of the legitimist families from the obscurity of their private life and endowed them with a corporate existence. Already the proper place, where these various orders of the colonies have a legal and constitutional recognition, was made manifest by those of the United Empire Loyalists in St. John, New Brunswick, forming a branch society in 1883 under the presidency of Sir Leonard Tilley, lieutenant-governor of the province, who was succeeded later by Sir John C. Allen, the chief-justice. In 1896, on a large scale, Frederic Gregory Forsyth, Viscount de Fronsac at Montreal, on May 18th, with a brief from the Aryan Order, laid the foundation of the United Empire Loyalist Association of Canada and was succeeded in the presidency of the general body by Sir William Johnson, Baronet of Chambly,

grandson of the great Sir John Johnson, Baronet, who led his battalions of loyalist troops into Canada in 1783. The next year (1896), by letters from the Viscount de Fronsac to Col. W. Hamilton Merritt of Toronto, a division was established there under presidency of the Hon. John Beverley Robinson, lieutenant-governor of Ontario, and grandson of the U. E. Loyalist, Lieutenant-Governor Sir Frederic Phillippse Robinson, baronet, who came to Ontario in 1783. In 1897 by the energy of Rev. Arthur Pyke, member of the general council at Montreal, the Nova Scotia division was established at Halifax under presidency of the Hon. A. G. Jones, now (1905) lieutenant-governor of Nova Scotia. About the same time the descendants of the Seigneurs of Canada in the Aryan Order chose as their president Charles Coleman Grant, Baron de Longueuil, replaced at his death by his brother. Reginald d' Iberville Grant, Baron de Longueuil. There remains yet in the Aryan Order for choice of officers under its own ancient charter, the descendants of the Baronets of Nova Scotia. The movement of reorganization although participated in by Canadian descendants had taken place first in the United States, because, strange as it may seem, there were individuals there stronger and more independent in royalist belief and sentiment, at that time (1879-80) than in Canada. They were the relics few and far between—but mostly in the Southern States, of those Royalist and Cavalier families who had fought for the Stuarts under Charles I. and James II., and had been the “first to charge the foe, on Preston's bloody sod” in the time of Prince Charlie (1745). They were of the Royalist Minute-men of 1776-8, who, while guarding the prerogative of the crown in the colonial charter, refused to recognize the Hanoverian usurpation outside of those charters, and had gone to their homes in 1778 rather than fight against the colonies with the U. E. Loyalists, after the charters were assured. They had spurned with contempt the supercilious condescension of the court of George III. that was offering them “pardons” if they submitted to its insolent and illegal domination in the colonies. But they were royalists and turned with even greater scorn from the dishonest propaganda of the Yankee republic. As Pol

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