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curvivedocracy from

navy, followed after Clarke, and a nephew of Washington died with the rank of Colonel in the armies of Greece, cursing his country. The few families of eminence that survived the insidious machinations of Congress against the aristocracy owed their survival to territorial grants they had held from the Crown in the colonies—for all those who had pledged their property in defense of the new states were robbed by their government, in the repudiation of all indebtedness towards its defenders.

Not only this, but they proceeded gradually to alter, abridge or modify the charters which they had claimed to defend, or else interpret their meaning in such a way as to destroy their significance in every state. The revolutionary government of France, which was modeled closely after the one set up in America, proceeded along the same lines, and, as Glasson says, “destroyed the feudality and the obligations subsisting between it and the people. From that time there was no pact, or contract, between the government and the people, as formerly, only the will of a majority composed of ignorant and irresponsible multitudes."

The English government itself, at the close of this war, when making the Treaty of Peace of 1783 with the American commissioners at Paris, out of revenge, most likely against the royalists for their first opposition to the London Parliament, insisted on no terms to prevent their suffering from further depredations in America. Ryerson (Vol. II., p. 164-5) says on this subject: “A campaign for the purpose, on the refusal of the American commissioners to recognize what was sanctioned by the laws and usages of nations, would have been honorable to the British government and popular in England... England was mistress of the seas, held New York, Charleston, Rhode Island, Penobscot and other military ports and could soon have reduced the Americans to do what their peace-commissioners at Paris had refused to do-place British subjects in America on the same footing as to property that they possessed before the war. .. England could have easily and successfully refused granting the United States one foot of land beyond the limits of the 13 colonies and thus have secured those vast Western territories, now the larger part of the United

in the grano sal empire,

States, and retained her garrisons in New York, Rhode Island and Charleston to hold those places as guarantees until the performance of these requisitions on the part of the United States.”

But the people in control in England ever since the Revolution of 1688 dethroned the Aryan aristocracy have degenerated slowly in the grander traits of rulership. Suported by the wealth of a colossal empire whose forward movement has not yet lost its momentum, although relaxed in vital energy by this displacing of classes, the power of England seems to be greater by this inflation. But as Tyndal says in his “Life of the Earl of Strafford": “It remains to be seen whether the many (the AngloSaxon democracy) can retain what the few (the FrancoNorman, or Gothic, aristocracy) have won.” They have commenced by losing the richest empire in America the world has ever seen.

although

PART V.–CHAPTER I. Confederation of the Royalist Orders for Constitutional

Recognition

“Let our halls and towers decay,

Be our name and line forgot,
Lands and manours pass away,-

We but share our Monarch's lot.
If no more our annals show

Battles won and banners taken,
Still in death, defeat and woe,

Ours be loyalty unshaken!"

II.
“Constant still in danger's hour,

Princes own'd our fathers' aid;
Lands and honors, wealth and power

Well this loyalty repaid.
Perish wealth and power and pride!

Mortal boons by mortals given;
But let Constancy abide,-
Constancy, the gift of Heaven.”

(Rokeby by Sir Walter Scott.) The cardinal principles of the Royalists as United Empire Loyalists are included in the three articles of the Minute Men, viz.: I. To defend the Royal Prerogative and Honor and Dignity of the Crown in the Colonies. II. To defend the Constitution of the Provinces against any infringements by the London Parliament, or the Colonial Democracy. III. To combine together for these purposes, and choose their leaders and obey them. These Minute Men fought against the pretensions of the London Parliament in America until 1778 when that parliament rescinded all its acts of interference with the royal prerogative in the colonies and with the provisions of the

Colonial Charters, or Constitutions. Then the Minute Men disbanded and demanded a settlement of the matter from Congress, that they had supported until this. But Congress, whose good material had left it in disgust, representing but the riff-raff and democracy refused, and the greater number of the Minute Men, reorganized as Loyalists, turned their arms against those who had perjured their trust and forsaken their allegiance, while others of the Minute Men retired into private life-especially those of the Stuart adherents who were not disposed to go so far as the others for the sake of the usurping House of Hanover.

In 1778 (Feb.) Sir Henry Clinton with authority from the king to recognize the United Empire Loyalists, issued a royal commission for such purpose to form a council for the “Associated Loyalists of America” to William Franklin, Governor of New Jersey; J. S. Martin, Governor of North Carolina ; Gen. Timothy Ruggles, and Hons. Daniel Coxe, G. Ludlow, Edward Lutwyche, George Romer, George Leonard, Anthony Stewart and Robert Alexander.

The Presidents of the various colonial branches in 1779, given in Ryerson, Vol. II., p. 182 (Loyalists of America"), were: Sir William Pepperrell, Massachusetts; Sir John Wentworth, New Hampshire; Hon. George Rowe, Rhode Island; Gen. James de Lancey, New York; Hon. David Ogden, New Jersey; Hon. Joseph Galloway, Pennsylvania and Deleware; Hon. Robert Alexander, Maryland, Maj. James R. Grymes, Virginia ; Hon. Henry Eustace McCulloch, North Carolina ; Atty, Gen. James Simpson, South Carolina; Hon. William Knox and Lieut.-Gov. John Graham, Georgia. The regiments raised and officered by them were The King's Rangers, The Royal Fencible-Americans, New York Volunteers, King's American Regiment, Prince of Wales' American Volunteers, Maryland Loyalist Regi. ment, De Lancey's Battalion, 2nd American Regiment, King's Carolina Rangers, South Carolina, Royal Regt.. North Carolina Highland Regt., King's American Dragoons, Loyal American Regt., American Legion, New Jersey Volunteers, British Legion, Loyal Forresters,

Orange Rangers, Pennsylvania Loyal Regt., Guides and Pioneers, North Carolina Volunteers, Georgia's Loyal Rangers, West Chester Volunteers, Loyal New Englanders, Associated Loyalist Militia, New Hampshire Loyalists, Hamilton's New York Battalions. For Canada there were raised by the Loyalists (French and Scotch) two regiments of their Seigneurial Guard; the first, under the Colonel, Baron de Longueuil, was directed to the relief of Fort St. Jean-Iberville, the second, sometimes known as the Royal Immigrant Regiment, commanded by those Scottish Seigneurs—former officers of the old 79th Cameronian Highlanders—who had had seigneuries conceded to them by Governor Murray after 1763—assisted Governor Sir Guy Carleton in the successful defence of Quebec. The two greatest exploits of arms of the Loyalists— apart from those of the regular troops in the field—were the defense of Savannah and the defence of Fort St. Jean. The Loyalists organized their military order and their rangers in Savannah, Georgia, in 1778, under command of Gen. John Prevost, who came up from St. Augustine in Florida for the purpose. The next year, the royal governor, Sir James Wright, baronet, returned from England and took supreme command. Gen. Lincoln, commanding the republican force in the vicinity, determined to capture Savannah, the royalist stronghold, and combined his movements with a great French fleet under the Comte d'Estang, which carried also an army of the veteran troops of France. In the attack which followed, the heavy cannon of the French, swept the ramparts of Savannah and silenced all the cannon of the royalists. Then the French and republican troops were massed and advanced to carry the intrenchments by the bayonet, as the royalists refused to surrender. But the royalists feared not, they grasped their muskets and sabres with stout hearts and iron hands, stood to the shock and beat back the numerous foe, so that the French were glad to return to their fleet and the republicans to their quarters in Carolina. From that success, the royalists advanced and obtained possession of all of Georgia as far North as Augusta, and held the province until the

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