Primate Paradigms: Sex Roles and Social Bonds

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University of Chicago Press, 1992 - Science - 386 pages
This critical review of behavior patterns in nonhuman primates is an excellent study of the importance of female roles in different social groups and their significance in the evolution of human social life.

"A book that properly illuminates in rich detail not only developmental and socioecological aspects of primate behavior but also how and why certain questions are asked. In addition, the book frequently focuses on insufficiently answered questions, especially those concerned with the evolution of primate sex differences. Fedigan's book is unique . . . because it places primate adaptations and our explanation of those patterns in a larger intellectual framework that is easily and appropriately connected to many lines of research in different fields (sociology, psychology, anthropology, neurobiology, endocrinology, and biology)—and not in inconsequential ways, either."—James McKenna, American Journal of Primatology

"This is the feminist critique of theories of primate and human evolution."—John H. Cook, Nature
 

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Contents

Primate Behavior and the Comparative Method
4
An Introduction to the Order Primates
8
WORDS
15
Anthropomorphism
16
Definition Metaphors and Analogies
18
Language and the Study of Sex Roles
22
INSTINCT INNATE AND LEARNED BEHAVIOR
27
PRIMATE SOCIETIES
39
Male Castration Testosterone and Behavior
163
Prenatal Hormone Alterations
165
Androgens and the Brain
171
A False Dichotomy
172
ONTOGENY AND SOCIALIZATION
175
Definitions of Socialization
176
Sex Differences and Other Differences
177
Continuity of Sex Differences in Behavior
178

Terms
40
Taxonomies of Primate Social Systems
42
Some Causal Factors in Social Variability
45
Natural Social Behavior and the Sources of Stability and Change
46
SEXUAL DIMORPHISM
51
Explanation of Sexual Dimorphism
56
Dentition and Ornaments
61
Sexual Dimorphism and Growth Patterns
63
Sexual Dimorphism in Size and Behavior
64
Conclusion
66
AGGRESSION
71
Definitions
72
Expression and Context of Aggression
73
Causes
76
Functions
78
Just How Aggressive are Primates?
80
Sex Differences in Aggression
87
DOMINANCE AND ALLIANCE
91
Definitions
93
Measurements
94
Correlations Between Measurements
99
Dominance Mounting and Grooming
100
Miscinceptions of Dominance
101
Alliance and Coalition
104
Leadership
105
AttenionStructure
106
Social Facilitation Coercion and Inhibition
107
ROLES
109
What is a Role?
111
What is Role Analysis?
112
Taxonomies of Roles
115
Dominance and Roles
116
Social Skills and Roles
117
KINSHIP THE TIES THAT BIND
121
Kinship the Ties that Bind
122
Differential Behavior and Social Dynamics
124
Kinship and Dominance
127
Male Emigration and Troop Fission
128
Kinship and Mating Patterns
130
Protoculture
132
Comparative Primate Kinship Systems
133
SOCIOSEXUAL BEHAVIOR
137
Breeding Seasons
140
Consorts
141
Bisexual Behavior and Homosexual Behavior
142
Female and Male Roles in Sexual Behavior
143
Sexual Bonds and Social Structure
146
Initiation of Consort Bonds
147
Maintenance and Termination of a Consort Bond
148
Mate Selection Aggression and Sexual Selection
149
Conclusion
151
FERTILITY VIRILITY HORMONES AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF SEX DIFFERENCES IN BEHAVIOR
155
Ovariectomies
158
Sex Differences in Behavior of Young Primates
180
Female Parental Care
181
Male Parental Care
190
Peers
194
Summary
197
DEPRIVATION
199
Sex Differences and Deprivation
203
Stress and Sex Differences in Behavior
207
Love and Sex Roles Made Simple
209
MULTIMALE MULTIFEMALE SOCIETIES
215
Introduction
216
MultiMale MultiFemale Primate Societies
217
The LifeWay of Japanese Monkeys Macaca fuscata
218
The LifeWay of Vervet Monkeys Cercopithecus aethiops
223
The LifeWay of Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes
227
References
234
POLYGYNOUS SOCIETIES
237
The LifeWay of Patas Monkeys Erythrocebus patas
240
The LifeWay of Nilgiri Langurs Presbytis jobnii
244
The LifeWay of Geladas Theropitbecus gelada
248
References
252
MONOGAMOUS SOCIETIES
253
The LifeWay of Marmosets Callitbricidar
255
The LifeWay of Dusky Titi Monkeys Callicebus moloch
259
The LifeWay of Siamangs Hylobates syndactylus
262
References
265
SEXUAL SELECTION FEMALE CHOICE OR HOBSONS CHOICE?
269
The Theory
270
The Problems
271
Applications of Sexual Selection Theory to Nonhuman Primates
277
SOCIOBIOLOGICAL THEORIES AND SEX ROLES
287
The Levels of Selection
288
Kin Slection
290
Application of Kin Selection Theory to Nonhuman Primates
291
Reciprocal Altruism
294
Application of Reciprocal Altruism to Nonhuman Primates
295
Trivers Model of Parental Investment
296
Application of Parental Investment Theory to Nonhuman Primates
298
Female Strategies
299
Is Sociobiology Sexist?
300
Another Look at Reproductive Costs and Male Versus Female Investments
301
How Are We Fallen?
303
Conclusions
305
THEORIES ON THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN SOCIAL LIFE
307
Baboonization The Common Baboon Model
308
What Our Ancestors Are The Gelada Model
314
Our Kitch and Kin The Chimpanzee Model
318
Conclusion
321
Bibliography
324
Author Index
374
Subject Index
380
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About the author (1992)

Linda Marie Fedigan is professor and Canada Research Chair in Primatology and Bioanthropology at the University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. She is also the past Executive Editor of the American Journal of Primatology and a fellow of the Royal Society of Canada.

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