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LIST OF AUTHORS.

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PAGE
ADAMS,

368
A DELER, Max

375
ANDERSON, ALEX .

158
ANONYMOUS 163, 190, 222, 220,

224, 248, 232, 235, 343, 315, 319
ARNOLD, SIR EDWIN

133, 212
Atlantic Monthly

221
BELL, H, G.

137
BLACKIE, J. S.

204
BLITCHFORD, R.

260
BROOKS, SHIRLEY

240
BROWNING, Robert 173, 156, 210, 203
BRYANT, W. C.

215
BUNGAY, I.

216
CAREY, M.

241
CARLETON, W.

160, 113, 230
CHALMERS, DR. T.

380
COLLINS, W.

206
COWAN, S. K.

196
DICKENS, C.

328, 331, 334
DOYLE, SIR F.
DUFFERIN, LADY

225
ELIOT, George

361, 321
FIELDS, F. T. .

245
GLADSTONE, W. E.

384
GOLDSMITH

108
Gow. M. M.
HARRIS, LEE 0.

217
HOLMES, O. W.

230, 266
Hood, T.

236, 238, 243, 279
Irving, W.
JBROME, J. K.

347, 372
JERROLD, D.

111
KINGSLEY, C.

303
KNOWLES, S.

97
LELAND, C.

246

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LIDDELL, MRS. E.

227
Longfellow, H. W. 168, 131,

182, 176, 202, 228
LOWELL, J. R. 147, 202, 187, 189
MACKAY, C.

197
MASSEY, GERALD

120, 178
MILTON, J.

94
Moore, T.

154
NESBIT, E.

123
PROCTOR, A. A.

115, 128
Punch

205
QUINCEY, DE

265
REID, J. R.

141
ROGERS, HENRY

255
ROGERS, SAMUEL

153
SCOTT, Sir W.

282
SHAKSPERE, W. 69, 42, 46, 45, 85,

56, 32, 62, 35, 14, 17, 21, 60, 77, 28,

67, 1, 49, 59, 52, 5, 73, 91, 93, 90
SHERIDAN, R. B.

101, 382
SHORTHOUSE, J. H.

294
SMEDLEY, M. B.

219
SOUTHEY, R.

118, 254
STEDMAN, E. C.

234
STEVENSON, R. L.

298
SWIFT, DEAN

337
TAYLOR, BAYARD .

186
THACKERAY, W. M.

258, 339
TROWBRIDGE, J. T.

249
Turner, E. F.

358
TWAIN, MARK

377, 351
VANDERGRIFT,
M.

253
WALLACE, W.

271
WILLIS, NATHANIEL

171
WHITTIER, J. G. 150, 151, 192, 179, 194
WORDSWORTH, W.

116

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.

199

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136

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311

THE ART OF ELOCUTION.

INTRODUCTION.

The main principles of Elocution, and a few practical suggestions as to their application, are all that the writer proposes to include in this brief manual. These principles govern various Arts which differ from each other in important respects.

The Art of Preaching, for instance, has characteristics which sharply distinguish it from other branches of public speaking. The same is true of the Actor's and Reciter's Arts, and of the Art of Conversation.

But to all these Arts certain fundamental principles of Elocution equally apply. These may be classified as :

A.—The development and control of the voice.

B.—The training of the mind, On the physical side, the speaker or reciter must see to the correct production of the voice, and must strive, by judicious exercise, to strengthen its power, enrich its tone, and extend its compass.

On the mental side, he will need to develop memory and imagination, to acquire a right sense of the value of 'words and of the beauty and significance of literary forms. The student who wishes to master this art should therefore understand from the beginning that the realization of his desire will be the work of many years.

We shall deal here with the training of the vehicle of speech only ; we have not space for a consideration of the higher artistic matters, Our aim is two-fold :-(a) to fully develop the voice in all its powers, and (b) to acquire definite control of all the machinery of speech-voice, facial expression and gesture.

The following exercises will be found useful :1.-To develop and gain control over the lungs : A.–Fill and empty the lungs ten or twenty times,

first slowly, then rapidly. B.—Count to 40, in one breath, or take the alphabet

twice in one breath. Gradually increase the exercise till 80 can be easily reached in one

breath. C.—Stand erect, hands touching the thighs. Slowly

move the hands out sideways to above the head, simultaneously filling the lungs. Revert to the

first position during expiration. 2.-Voice Development: A.—Sing up Scale from A to E, below middle C, on

oh: and from F to C, on ah. Repeat each tone

four times, B.—Sing as before, using movements of the arms

downward from the shoulders, in front, for tones to E ; and backward from chest for tones above E and up to C, to accentuate each tone. Fill the lungs, well to start with, then take a short breath

for each tone. C.—Take the same range, holding out each tone with

equable power: duration, about half a minute. All theses tones should be produced on the inhalation. 3.- Articulation : Tonics. A.—Speak (in most useful octave) the Vowels oo, oh,

ah, ai, ee. Increase force, steadily, until great
power is gained.

Sub-Tonics and Atonics.
B.-Speak in one breath, firmly and clearly, each of

the following exercises :-
Black babbling brooks break brawling o'er their bounds.
The painted pomp of pleasure's proud parade.
Decide the dispute during dinner-time by dividing the difference.
Tourists thronged from time to time to traverse the Thames tunnel.
Gregory going gaily galloped gallantly to the gate.
Crazed with corroding cares and killed with consuming complaints.

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Vanity of Vanities and all is Vanity.
Frank Feron flattered his friends and found fault with his foes.
His zeal was blazoned from zone to zone.
Serpents and snakes were scattered on the sea.
Judge and jury adjourned the judgment.
Chosen champion of the church he cherished her children.
The azure sea is shining with ships that shape their course for home.
This thread is thinner than that thistle there.
Year after year the o'er-ripe ear is lost.
Ye heard him yelling o'er your head.
Up a high hill he heaved a huge hard stone.
We wildly wish while wiser workmen win whate'er will worth reward.
And rugged rocks re-echo with his roar.
Lamely the lion limped along the lawn.
Many men of many minds mixing in multifarious matters of much

moment.
None know nor need to know his name.
England's king lay waking and thinking while his subjects were

sleeping. Ten to fifteen minutes daily should be given to the foregoing exercises, and, before attempting them, the student would do well to observe the following precepts :

(a) In Breathing, habituate yourself to the abdominal

method. Keep the shoulders down and still, and the chest raised. Inflate and deflate the lungs from the diaphragm, i.e., try to feel the breathing movements around the waist of the body

especially at the sides and around the back. (6) In beginning vocal-practice choose that range of voice which is natural to you.

It

may very low or it may be very high, but in the majority of cases it will be neither low nor high, but about the middle of the scale—say from lower C to middle C. When you have developed the resources of your voice within this easy range, you may gradually extend the compass, above and below, until the whole voice is at your command. Begin all exercises pianissimo and gradually

be

increase power.

(c) Sing and speak from the front of the mouth-as

down a tube. The habit of arresting the voice in the throat is injurious and provocative of thick, indistinct articulation,

(d) Never attempt to imitate voices unlike your own

simply because of some excellence you may admire in them, By persistent attempts in such directions many a goud voice has been ruined. Strive to

develop your own gifts.
In the articulation exercises, as in all good speaking:

(a) Open the mouth adequately.
(6) Use your lips in the framing and delivery of your

words.
(c) Keep the will exerted on the voice to the utterance

of the last syllable.

are

Let every

SUGGESTIONS ON DELIVERY. 1. We should always satisfy an

audience about two things : (a) That we thoroughly understand what we

interpreting. (b) That we have a real pleasure in the composition

for its own sake. 2. Do not memorize a poem before studying it. Study first, memorize afterwards.

3. In the use of gesture avoid extremes. gesture have a definite purpose behind it. The artist in recitation should think out all his gestures beforehand, leaving nothing to chance; to the speaker and preacher, greater liberty may be allowed.

4. Perfect harmony between the matter and the manner of utterance can only be achieved by a living personal sympathy with every sentence spoken. The speaker must speak with his heart as well as with his head ; the reciter must realize the mood of the poet as well as the meaning of the poem.

The foregoing exercises and suggestions, if carefully read and duly practised, will be found helpful to the beginner ; but the writer would strongly urge all students to obtain the counsel of a proficient teacher. More complete systems of vocal exercises will be found in the writer's two pamphlets, Elementary Exercises in Elocution” and “ Elocutionary Exercises."

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