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International scientific activities conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1983, listed by country or region—Continued
Technical Assistance Activities
Thailand Remote sensing; oil shale and lignite research; geologic workshops
and natural gas symposium.
Tunisia Remote sensing; Landsat mosaic compilation.
Venezuela Hydrology and water resources of Orinoco Basin.
Yemen Earthquake investigations.
East Africa Remote sensing for cartographic and geologic applications.
Latin America Earthquake disaster mitigation in Andean region.
Southeast Asia Earthquake engineering and hazards mitigation; engineering
seismology and geology; phosphate research. Worldwide Global seismic network; geologic and hydrologic training programs;
conventional energy resources identifications.
Scientific Cooperative Activities
Antarctica Topographic mapping.
Australia Lacustrine geologic studies; isotopic analyses.
Bolivia Tin resources surveys.
Brazil Mineral and energy resources assessments; river sediment studies.
Canada Strategic minerals inventory; sea-floor mineral exploration; borehole
Chile Aeromagnetic surveys.
Colombia Mineral resources assessment; geochemical data processing.
Dominican Republic Geothermal resources assessment; offshore shelf studies.
France Remote sensing; marine geology.
Germany Strategic minerals inventory; marine seismic studies of continental
Hungary Seismic stratigraphy, reflection seismic, electromagnetic,
mineralogic, paleomagnetic and paleoenvironmental studies.
Iceland Volcano and geothermal studies.
Japan Joint panels on earthquake prediction, marine geology, and marine
Mexico Volcano and geothermal studies; geochemical and geophysical exploration; mineral and metallogenic map analyses; regional structure and stratigraphic studies; tectonostratigraphic terrane studies.
Oman Sulfide deposit studies.
Pakistan Isotopic study of zircon.
People's Republic of China -- Earthquake studies; remote sensing; coal basin studies; petroleum
geology of carbonate rocks; circum-Pacific geologic and tectonic framework; karst genesis and classification; surface-water hydrology.
Peru Landslide hazards-Tablachaca Dam.
South Africa Strategic minerals inventory.
South Korea Offshore petroleum resources and geothermal resources
Sweden Nuclear waste disposal.
United Kingdom Coal resources and environmental studies.
U.S.S.R Joint committee on earthquake prediction.
Yugoslavia Crustal structure research; seismic studies; subsidence research;
Pacific region South Pacific cruise; hydrocarbon resources studies; oceanic crusts
studies; chromite resources.
Southeast-East Asia Sea-floor geologic mapping; petroleum geology research.
Worldwide International Strategic Mineral Inventory; The World Energy
The largest assistance programs were with the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources (regional geologic mapping, mineral surveys, and institutional development) and with the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Agriculture and Water (surface and ground water hydrology), both financed by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Assistance to several countries involved coal resource assessments and earthquake hazard mitigations, each sponsored for the large part by the Agency for International Development.
Scientific cooperation is conducted under cooperative agreements with counterpart organizations in other countries to help achieve common research objectives and to support foreign policy of the United States. The financing for such cooperative activities is jointly from funds appropriated for Survey research and funds or other financial resources made available by the cooperating country or organization. During 1983, such cooperation was carried out with 24 countries and several regional organizations (see table). The largest bilateral cooperative efforts, in terms of the numbers of scientists involved, were in Antarctica (sponsored by the National Science Foundation), China, Colombia, and Mexico. Another major undertaking was the hydrocarbon resources study in the Southwest Pacific in cooperation with Australia, New Zealand, and other countries of that region, sponsored in part by the Agency for International Development. The Survey continued to coordinate the preparation of maps under the CircumPacific Map Project on behalf of the Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources, which now involves about 35 countries.
Exchange of scientists and training of participants are two activities that are performed by the Survey to support bilateral scientific cooperation and technical assistance programs. The reciprocal exchanges provide the opportunities for global consulation and study by scientists of many countries and those of the U.S. Geological Survey. Training of participants is scheduled or arranged under foreign assistance programs using funds transferred to the Survey. Seventy-seven research scientists from 23 countries spent a total of 290 man-months at Survey facilities in 1983, studying or consulting on most all subjects of which the Survey has expertise. Arrangments often include training at other
institutions, such as colleges and universities and private companies. The Survey conducted five training courses for foreign participants in 1 983: Hydrologic Techniques, Advanced Remote Sensing Applications, Principles of Data Processing, and two International Remote Sensing workshops. Approximately 60 participants attended these courses.
In 1983, as many as 100 Survey employees represented the United States in meetings of international organizations and commissions and served on councils and committees of scientific commissions and international scientific unions.
The Geological Survey has frequently been called upon for information about known and potential resources abroad. To provide such information, the Survey has gradually broadened the scope of its efforts to collect and evaluate such information in cooperation with other agencies and countries. During 1983, cooperation was continued with the Department of State and the Bureau of Mines in the Resources Attache Program whereby reporting officers are stationed in selected U.S. embassies abroad to assemble data on resources indigenous to the country or region. A world energy resources assessment program also was continued, resulting in new provisional estimates of oil and gas resources worldwide. The Geological Survey cooperated with the Bureau of Mines and with mineral resource agencies of Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, South Africa, and Australia to conduct an international strategic minerals inventory, which focused on the compilation of data for chromium, cobalt, manganese, phosphate, platinum, tin, titanium, nickel, and rare earths worldwide.
Authority and Coordination
Authority and responsibility for Survey international activities derive in part from specific legislation and in part from agreements to permit the achievement of mandated research objectives. Technical assistance and partipant training are provided on behalf of the Department of State, the Agency for International Development, and the Trade Development Program as authorized under the Foreign Assistance Act. International scientific cooperation is authorized by the Secretary of Interior to supplement domestic research objectives and
to provide expertise for reimbursable programs commited by other agencies or requested by other countries. Exchange of scientists is commonly arranged on behalf of the International Communications Agency. Representational activities are carried out either on behalf of the Department of State or as an extension of scientific cooperation. Assessments of mineral and energy resources in other countries are partly in response to commitments of the Survey and partly to support programs of other Federal agencies.
All Divisions of the Survey participate in international programs. Projects are staffed on a rotational basis by personnel from domestic operations. Each Division has a designated representative or office for its international activities, and overall coordination is maintained through the International Activities Committee, which serves under the Executive Committee. The Office of International Geology in the Geologic Division provides logistical and administrative support for all Survey international activities, but technical management of each project is exercised by the appropriate Division.
In 1983, the agreement between the Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resources of Saudi Arabia and the Geological Survey was extended for another 2-year period, the seventh such extension for the program. Geologic mapping at a scale of 1:100,000, now complete in the southern part of the Arabian Shield, has been extended northward. Geologic maps are being recompiled at scale of 1:250,000 (1.5° x 1 ° quadrangle) for multicolor publication by the Ministry with the ultimate goal to show the geology of the entire Arabian Shield in this format. Resource evaluations applying mineralogy, geochemistry, geochronology, and isotope dating continued for a variety of mineral prospects in shield rocks and Cenozoic volcanics. Detailed studies on gold were conducted at the Mahd adh Dhahab mine, which was reactivated this year.
During the past several years, the Survey produced geodetically controlled duotone Landsat image mosaics at scales of 1:250,000 and 1:500,000 as bases for compilation of geographic and geologic
maps (fig. 1). A new series of four-color image maps is in the process of being developed; two quadrangles at a scale of 1: 500,000 will be printed this year, and experimental printing of four-color image maps at a scale of 1:250,000 will be done in 1984. The program to prepare topographic maps in the vicinity of Jiddah at a scale of 1:25,000 was completed in June 1983; the 14 maps in the series will be printed by the Geological Survey in December.
Under the agreement with the Ministry of Agriculture and Water, the Survey has emphasized studies in the occurrence and quality of ground and surface water. Compilation is proceeding on a comprehensive atlas of water resources, including the history of water development.
The Survey's program of technical assistance to Indonesia, principally in the mitigation of geologic hazards, under auspices of the Agency for International Development, was terminated in 1983 after 4.5 years during which 30 scientists on short-term consultancies completed 14 man-years of studies at a cost of about $2.4 million. In 1983, 1 5 consultants conducted 50 man-months of research on hazards associated with the volcanoes of Java and Sumatra. The program culminates this year with Survey representation at the Krakatau symposium commemorating the 100th anniversary of that major volcanic eruption.
The Survey is assisting the Venezuelan Ministry of Environmental and Renewable Natural Resources on the implementation of stream gaging and water-quality sampling programs for the Orinoco river and its tributaries. Too little is known at this time about the varied flow and sedimentdischarge characteristics of this major river to allow Venezuela to plan effectively for future hydroelectric and navigation development. The proposed techniques of study are those developed by the Geological Survey for other large rivers, such as the Mississippi and the Amazon.
The Survey, in cooperation with the Defense Mapping Agency, is preparing 13 Figure 1. — Status of
1:250,000-scale Landsat image maps in Saudi Arabia.
Landsat multispectral (bands 4, 5, 7) image maps at the scale of 1:250,000 which will provide base maps for an area in Morocco and Western Sahara that is largely unmapped. The coverage will be extremely useful to Morocco in geologic investigations, energy and mineral exploration, and natural resource programs. The maps will be printed in the conventional color-infrared image format.
People's Republic of China
Under the Earth Sciences Protocol signed in 1980 between the Chinese Ministry of Geology and Mineral Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey, some 20 projects have now been defined covering a wide variety of geoscience subjects. In May 1983, the Director, Chief Geologist,
and eight other scientific administrators visited China to gain an understanding of the scope and nature of activities in the Chinese geoscience community.
During this year, exchange studies involved 35 Geological Survey scientists on five projects. Remote sensing techniques involving study of the regional structure, surface and subsurface stratigraphy and sedimentology, and evolutionary history were applied to petroleum exploration in the Qaidam (Chaidamu) Basin in China and the Uinta Basin in Utah. This computerprocessed Landsat data was compared to geology in the field for selected areas. Identification of the coal-forming environments and the application of computerbased data systems for exploration and assessment of coal resources were the important objectives of a project that in
volved comprehensive studies in one or two selected coal basins in each country. The petroleum geology of carbonate rocks was studied in reef sequences of the Permian Basin of western Texas and the Nanpanjiang Basin in southern China, emphasizing types and distribution of sedimentary facies, diagenesis, and hydrocarbon generation and migration. Geologic and tectonic framework studies compared key structural characteristics and tectonic evolutionary history of Meso-Cenozoic time in selected areas of eastern China and the Western United States. Genesis, classification, and distribution of karst is being defined as a future research effort.
Australia, New Zealand, and the United States are cooperating on a program of marine geoscientif ic research in the South Pacific region in association with, and under coordination by, the United Nations Committee for the Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in the South Pacific Offshore Areas. The Survey ship, R/V Samuel P. Lee, made a three-leg cruise during April, May, and June 1982 in the offshore waters of the Kingdom of Tonga, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands to collect scientific data on the geology amenable to hydrocarbon resources (fig.
2). Interpretation of these data during 1983 resulted in the delineation of several sedimentary platforms or basins and defined several significant stratigraphic and structural features capable of trapping oil and gas. A preliminary evaluation of the petroleum potential of this region will be made after an examination of the results of laboratory analyses of samples and a detailed interpretation of the multichannel seismic reflection profiles. A comprehensive evaluation will be made following interpretation of additional data to be collected on a 1984 cruise of the Lee in the same waters.
Circum-Pacific Map Project
Innovative approaches are used to relate the known energy and mineral resources to major geologic features of the Pacific basin under a cooperative effort by participating geoscientists from 35 countries. This effort, the Circum-Pacific Map Project, is an activity of the Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources; project coordination and cartography are the responsibility of U.S. Geological Survey, and the maps are published by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Data are compiled by the appropriate panel representatives on five 1:10,000,000scale equal-area maps, four of which