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challenging and difficult assignments was given to 13 U.S. Geological Survey employees this year. These individuals and the bases for their awards were as follows:

Lawrence H. Borgerding, Chief, Mid-Continent Mapping Center, for his outstanding service and achievements with the Geological Survey as a cartographer and administrator in the development of the National Mapping Program;

Hilton H. Cooper, Jr., Research Hydrologist, in recognition of his unparalleled technical accomplishment in the mathematical analysis of the dynamic behavior of ground-water systems;

Robert E. Davis, former Chief, Office of Scientific Publications, in recognition of his outstanding achievements in the management of research programs in the earth sciences and the publications program of the Geological Survey;

Roy E. Fordham, Chief, Eastern Mapping Center, for his outstanding service and achievements with the Geological Survey as a cartographer and administrator in the development and execution of the National Mapping Program;

Philip W. Guild, Research Geologist, in recognition of his exceptional achievements in the investigation of mineral deposits and leadership in domestic and international programs for metallogenic studies and maps;

Daniel B. Krinsley, Research Geologist, in recognition of his outstanding achievements in pioneering scientific research, his major contributions to the use of earth science data by planners and decisionmakers, and his exemplary career as a manager of scientific programs;

Leslie B. Laird, former Assistant Chief Hydrologist for Research and Technical Coordination, for his exceptional contributions to the management of water resource programs in the Geological Survey;

Alfred T. Miesch, Research Geologist, Grand Junction, Colorado, in recognition of his outstanding contributions to geostatistics and geochemistry in the Geological Survey;

Roy R. Mullen, Associate Chief, National Mapping Division, for his exceptional contributions to the Geological Survey as a scientist and executive of the National Mapping Program;

Ralph J. Roberts, Research Geologist, in recognition of his many creative scientific contributions to Geological Survey studies and programs in the geology of mineral deposits, structural geology, and geologic processes;

Robert L. Smith, Research Geologist, Branch of Igneous and Geothermal Processes, in recognition of his outstanding contributions to the research program of the Geological Survey in the areas of silicic volcanism, igneous processes, and assessment of volcanic hazards;

Lowell E. Starr, Assistant division Chief for Research (NMD), for his outstanding leadership and exceptional contributions to the development of technology in the field of topographic mapping; and

Robert F. Yerkes, Research Geologist, Branch of Western Regional Geology, in recognition of his major contributions to the Geological Survey, fundamental geologic research, especially in the southern California region, and leadership in applying geology to solving man's problems.

National Mapping Program

Mission and Organization

The National Mapping Division conducts the National Mapping Program, which provides graphic and digital cartographic and geographic products and information for the United States, Territories, and U.S. possessions. The products include several series of topographic maps, land use and land cover maps and associated data, geographic names information, geodetic control data, and remote sensing data.

The products are produced by four regional mapping centers and the Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center. The Division's Printing and Distribution Center prints Survey map products and stores and distributes all Survey maps and texts. The Division also operates the National Cartographic Information Centers and the Public Inquiries Offices which, along with the Earth Resources Observation Systems Data Center, provide information about and fill orders for earth science, cartographic, geographic, and remote sensing data.

Major Programs and Activities

In support of the National Mapping Program, the Division concentrates its efforts on the following major activities:

• Primary quadrangle mapping and revision, including the production and revision of 7.5-minute 1:24,000- and 1:25,000scale maps in the conterminous United States and Hawaii and the 15-minute

1:63,360-scale maps in Alaska. During fiscal year 1983, about 1,300 revised and 1,370 new standard topographic maps were published, mostly in the 7.5-minute series (fig. 1). Published topographic maps are available for about 85 percent of Alaska and for 80 percent of the other 49-State area. Fifteen States have complete 7.5-minute series map coverage.

• Small-scale and special mapping, including the preparation of maps and map products from the intermediate-scale

(1:50,000 and 1:100,000) series to the small-scale (1:250,000) series and other smaller scale U.S. base maps. Complete topographic coverage of the United States is available at the scale of 1:250,000. More than 70 percent of the conterminous

United States is mapped in one or more of the intermediate-scale series (fig. 2), which include 1:50,000-scale quadrangle maps, 1:50,000- or 1:100,000-scale county maps, and 1:100,000-scale topographic or planimetric quadrangle maps. More than 80 topographic-bathymetric maps have been published for coastal area planning. Land use and land cover maps are complete for 2.2 million square miles.

• Digital cartography, including the production of base categories of cartographic data at standard scales, accuracies, and formats suitable for computer-based analysis. In early fiscal year 1983, the Geological Survey chaired a newly formed Department of the Interior committee to coordinate digital cartography activities within the Department. The Office of Management and Budget later issued a memorandum to foster better coordination of all Federal digital cartography programs. The Geological Survey has been delegated the lead role in this activity and will chair a Federal committee to implement this objective.

• Information and data services, including the acquisition and dissemination of information about U.S. maps, charts, aerial and space photographs and images, geodetic control, cartographic and geographic digital data, and other related information; distribution of earth science information to the public; and sale of maps and map-related products directly and through about 3,000 commercial dealers.

• Advanced development and engineering to improve the quality of standard products; to provide new products, such as digital cartographic data, that make maps and map-related information more useful to users; to reduce costs and to increase productivity of mapping activities; to acquire innovative and more useful equipment; and to design and develop techniques and systems to advance the mapping of high-priority areas of the country.

• Cartographic and geographic research, with particular emphasis on spatial data techniques for studies using modem geographic analysis with new and improved cartographic concepts and techniques.

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Highlights

In the following sections, highlights from some of the major activities are described.

Provisional Maps

In 1982, the Geological Survey initiated a series of provisional edition topographic maps to expedite completion of the 8,500 7.5-minute quadrangle areas not covered by 1:24,000-scale mapping. Under this accelerated mapping program, practically all of the unmapped areas are targeted for provisional mapping, allowing complete 7.5-minute map coverage of the conterminous United States by 1989. Provisional maps of unmapped 1 5-minute quadrangle areas in Alaska will also be produced, allowing 1:63,360-scale map coverage of

Alaska to be completed concurrently with the 1:24,000-scale coverage of the conterminous United States.

Provisional maps are prepared to the same map accuracy standards and contain essentially the same level of content as standard topographic maps but reflect a provisional rather than a finished map appearance. They are printed in four or five colors and are made available through standard distribution procedures. The maps can be produced manually or with automated techniques. The first maps in the provisional series were produced manually using standard compilation techniques, with some linework and lettering done by hand.

Computer technology is the basis for the automated processing of provisional maps. Maps are produced in the following stages: (1) information collection: aerial photographs are used in plotting equipment to record information from the photographs on computer tapes, (2) information editing: appropriate map symbols are applied to properly represent the features on the map, and errors and deficiencies are corrected, and (3) cartographic plotting: newly developed computer programs produce complete lettering and place certain descriptive lettering, contour labels, and control elevations on the maps. These automated processes further shorten the map production cycle for provisional maps and place the product in the hands of the user at an earlier date.

After completion of the provisional mapping program, the maps will be updated, fully finished, and reissued as standard topographic editions.

Digital Cartogaphy

Map data in digital form are being applied to an increasing number of complex problems. Applications are not limited to the earth sciences but are as diverse and complex as the many uses of a map. An important factor in the growth of digital cartographic data applications is the development of geographic information systems. These systems have the capability to compare rapidly and to sort through large amounts of digital data on multiple topics about the land and its resources. Also, maps can be prepared much faster and more accurately using automated procedures.

To meet the demand for standardized digital cartographic data, the Geological Survey is digitizing base categories of cartographic information from its various national series of topographic maps. The primary effort is devoted to building a national digital cartographic data base containing the basic categories shown on published 7.5-minute topographic maps. The digitized data, available in two forms, are digital line graphs and digital elevation models (fig. 3). The digital line graphs are graphic data digitized from published maps. Currently, four categories of digital line graphs are being collected: public land net, boundaries, hydrography, and transportation. The digital elevation models are digitized elevations collected at regularly spaced intervals throughout a quadrangle.

Other data being collected include the planimetric features from 1:2,000,000

scale sectional maps of the National AItas of the United States of America and selected 1:500,000-scale State base maps, elevation data from the 1:250,000scale map series, land use and land cover data, and geographic names data.

In a related, broader area of activity—the coordination of Federal digital cartographic data programs —the Survey expanded its coordination activities within the Department of the Interior by chairing the newly established Interior Digital Cartography Coordination Committee. Subsequently, the Office of Management and Budget issued a memorandum to foster better coordination of all Federal digital cartography programs. The Geological Survey was delegated the lead role in implementing this objective. In May 1983, representatives of Federal agencies met at the Survey's Reston, Virginia, offices to form a committee to begin coordination efforts.

Although the expanded Federal coordination activity has been underway only a short time, significant new requirements for digital cartographic data have been identified. The most pressing of these requirements is the development of a 1:100,000-scale digital cartographic data base to support the 1990 census. Accordingly, a pilot project has been initiated by the Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of the Census to digitize transportation and hydrography data in the State of Florida.

Plans for fiscal year 1984 include continued cooperation with the Bureau on the pilot project and, in the broader coordination area, the establishment of work groups to further identify Federal digital cartographic data requirements, to assist in insuring that needs are met, to provide a mechanism for development of data standards, to serve as a forum for exchange of information on technology and methods, and to facilitate private sector use of the data.

Image Mapping

The Geological Survey has recognized a national need for image products as valuable mapping tools, map supplements, and as alternatives to standard maps. As a result, it is responding to these needs through three programs that provide such products, namely its high-altitude photography, orthophotography, and satellite imagery programs.

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