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Missions, Organization, and Budget
The U.S. Geological Survey was established by an act of Congress on March 3, 1879, to answer the need for a permanent government agency at the Federal level to conduct, on a continuing, systematic, and scientific basis, investigations of the "geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain." Although a number of laws and executive orders have expanded and modified the scope of the Survey's responsibilities over its 104-year history, the Survey has remained principally a scientific and technical investigation agency as contrasted with a developmental or regulatory one. Today, the Survey is mandated to assess onshore and offshore energy and mineral resources; to provide information for society to mitigate the impact of floods, earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes, and droughts; to monitor the Nation's ground- and surface-water supplies; to study the impact of man on the Nation's water resources; and to provide mapped information on the Nation's landscape and land use. The Survey is the principal source of scientific and technical expertise in the earth sciences within the Department of the Interior and the Federal Government. This Yearbook provides highlights of the wide range of earth science research and services in the fields of geology, hydrology, and cartography. These activities represent the continuing pursuit of the longstanding scientific missions of the Survey.
The U.S. Geological Survey is headquartered in Reston, Virginia. Its activities are administered through the major program divisions of National Mapping, Geologic, and Water Resources. These program operations are supported by the Administrative and Information Systems Divisions. The Survey conducts its functions through an extensive field organization of offices located throughout the 50 States and Puerto Rico. At the national level, the functions of the Survey are coordinated through assistant directors for administration, program analysis, research, information systems, intergovernmental affairs, and engineering geology.
In fiscal year 1983, the U.S. Geological Survey had obligational authority for $556.0 million, of which $378.2 came from direct appropriations, $18.7 million came from transfers from accounts discussed below, and $ 1 59.1 million came from reimbursements. The Survey received funds under two congressional appropriations, "Barrow Area Gas Operations, Exploration and Development" ($6.4 million), and "Surveys, Investigations, and Research," which is the traditional source of direct funding for all other Survey activities ($371.8 million). Transfers to the latter account equaled $ 16.2 million unobligated balance from the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska account as required in the appropriation language, $2.2 million from the same account under emergency authority to cover the Redwood City, California, flood damage, and $0.3 million unobligated balance from the Office of Water Research and Technology for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center Program. The Survey also received funds for reimbursements for work performed under agreements with other Federal agencies, State and local governments, international organizations, and foreign governments. The Survey performs services under these agreements when earth science expertise is required by other agencies and their needs complement Survey program objectives. Work done for State, county, and municipal agencies is
Percentage allocation of funds, by Division.
Surveys, Investigations, and Research:
National Mapping, Geography and
Primary Quadrangle Mapping 38,960
Modernization of Mapping
Map Revision and
Digital Mapping 3,970
Small, Intermediate, and
Special Mapping 14,367
Intermediate-Scale Mapping -- 6,756
Airborne Profiling of Terrain
Small-Scale and Other Special
Cartographic and Geographic
Side-Looking Airborne Radar 3,000
Geologic and Mineral Resource
Surveys and Mapping 159,190
Geologic Hazards Surveys 51,611
Volcano Hazards 10,840
Ground Failure and
Construction Hazards 2,729
Reactor Hazards Research 3,090
Land Resource Surveys 16,845
Geologic Framework 13,735
Climate Change 995
Mineral Resource Surveys 41,072
Alaska Mineral Surveys 9,252
Conterminous U.S. Mineral
Wilderness Mineral Surveys — 8,425
Strategic and Critical Minerals - 5,752
Mineral Discovery Loan
Energy Geologic Surveys 34,176
Coal Investigations 14,175
Onshore Oil and Gas
Oil Shale Investigations 823
Geothermal Investigations 7,090
World Energy Resource
Offshore Geologic Surveys 15,486
Offshore Geologic Framework - 1 5,486
Water Resources Investigations 115,096
National Water Data System
Federal Program 54,201
Data Collection and Analysis — 1 5,888
National Water Data Exchange 1,247
Coordination of Water Data
Core Program Hydrologic
Improved Instrumentation 1,899
Subsurface Waste Storage 1,453
Flood Hazards Analysis 464
Water Resources Assessment - 329
Supporting Services 3,594
Acid Rain 2,462
Water Resources Scientific
Information Center 873
Data Collection and Analysis,
Areal Appraisals and
Special Studies 39,390
Water Use (Cooperative) 3,230
Coal Hydrology (Cooperative) - 3,162
Energy Hydrology 15,113
Coal Hydrology 6,849
Nuclear Energy Hydrology 6,993
Oil Shale Hydrology 1,271
Earth Sciences Applications 11,132
Earth Resources Observation
Environmental Affairs 943
Land Resources Data
General Administration 14,931
Executive Direction 4,956
Administrative Operations 8,628
Reimbursable to Department of
National Center—Standard Level
User Charge 7,364
TOTAL, Surveys, Investigations,
and Research 390,509
Barrow Area Gas Operation 6,400
TOTAL, U.S. Geological Survey 396,909
'Funding shown represents appropriations under "Surveys, Investigations, and Research" only and does not include other sources of funding such as reimbursements from other Federal or State organizations.
almost always done on a cost-sharing basis.
Most of the appropriations and reimbursements received by the Survey in fiscal year 1983 are distributed through budget activities that roughly correspond to its mapping, geologic, hydrologic, and administrative areas of responsibility.
At the end of fiscal year 1983, the U.S. Geological Survey had 7,245 permanent full-time employees on board, an increase of 80 from fiscal year 1982. With the exception of the transfer of approximately, 2,500 employees to the Minerals Management Service in 1982, the Survey's fulltime permanent work force has been relatively constant since 1973. The Survey's diversified earth science research programs and services are reflected in its workforce which is composed of personnel in over 170 disciplines, with more than 50% possessing a Bachelor's or higher level
degree. More than one-half of the Survey's staff are professional scientists, and approximately one-fourth are technical specialists. Hydrologists, geologists and cartographers predominate among the professional group which includes members of more than 30 other disciplines such as geophysicists, chemists and engineers.
The number of other-than-full-time permanent employees has more than doubled since 1973 and includes many students and faculty members from colleges and universities as well as part-time personnel. The Survey has profited greatly from its association with the academic community. The expertise of many eminent specialists has become available to the Survey in this manner and has provided great flexibility in solving problems and meeting surges in workload, especially during the field season. The relationship also has been an invaluable channel for recruiting young professionals of demonstrated ability for permanent full-time positions upon the completion of their studies.
Awards and Honors
Honors From Foreign Governments
Each year employees of the U.S. Geological Survey receive awards that range from modest monetary awards to recognition of their achievements by large professional societies. The large number of these awards attests to the quality of the individuals who are the U.S. Geological Survey. This year, the Survey wishes to acknowledge those individuals who either received high honors from or were elected to high office in professional societies and those individuals who received the Department of the Interior's highest award.
Kenneth L. Pierce, Geologist, was selected for the Kirk Bryan Award of the Geological Society of America in recognition of his studies on the glacial geology of Yellowstone Park.
Eugene M. Shoemaker, Geologist, was awarded the Arthur L. Day Medal of the Geological Society of America in recognition of his imaginative contributions to astrogeology, volcanology, and petrology and for his dedication to science.
James P. Bennett, Hydrologist, was named Engineer Ot the Year for the Department of the Interior by the National Society of Professional Engineers.
Thomas D. Fouch, Geologist, was appointed a Distinguished Lecturer by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists.
George E. Ericksen, Research Geologist, was made a Knight Commander in Chile's Order of Bernardo O'Higgins in Santiago, Chile, June 9, 1983. The Chilean government honored Ericksen's outstanding contributions to the study of mineral resources in that country.
Presidents of Professional Societies
Service in professional societies is one of the important professional contributions a scientist can make. Societies play a fundamental role in the distribution of new knowledge, in addition to providing a forum in which new ideas are tested. The active participation of Survey scientists in professional societies attests to the scientific vitality of the Bureau. The Bureau is particularly proud of those individuals who have been elected to society presidencies by their professional peers.
Robert M. Hamilton
Frederick J. Doyle
Department of the Interior Distinguished
The highest honor given by the Department of the Interior is the Distinguished Service Award. This award for outstanding achievements in