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with a bark, the outside of which is of a greyish brown, and the inside inclined to red. The blossoms have an agreeable smell, and grow in large clusters at the extremities of the pumerous branches. The fruit is something similar to an acorn, but not so large. The under bark separated from the tree constitutes the cinnamon; it is taken in the spring, and cut into thin slices, which, being exposed to the sun, curl up in drying. The spice is only in perfection when the tree is three or four years old. By boiling the seed, an oil is obtained, which swims at the top of the water and takes fire; this, when cold, hardens into a greenish wbite substance, from which candles are made, and reserved for the use of the King of the Island of Ceylon. The spice is fragrant, and though poignant, is pleasant to the taste. The genuine is fine, smooth, and thin, of a red colour, inclined to yellow, and brittle. It is frequently mixed with the Cassia Bark, but may easily be distinguished from it, by its breaking into splinters, and by its rough and aromatic flavour, while the bark breaks very smoothly. Distilled, it gives a simple and spiritous water, and an essential oil. It requires to be kept perfectly dry. The bark from the small branches is superior to that from the large. It now thrives in Jamaica, where it was introduced by Admiral Rodney, who took the plants from a French ship which he captured.
The name of a white earth, found in France, Norway, England, (33) &c. but originally discovered in the Island of Crete, whence its Latin name Creta. There are two sorts of Chalk, a hard dry kind, considered preferable for lime, and a soft unctuous sort, which easily dissolves with rain and frost, and is therefore best for lands, upon which it is used as
The method of obtaining it in Kent is very easy, it being found on the sides of the bills, much nearer the earth than is generally the case. After undermining a part, the workmen dig a trench at the top, which they fill with water; in the course of a night this soaks through, when the mass falls down. In other parts the depth at which it is found renders the aid of buckets necessary. It is used in medicine, and also in cleaning and polishing metallic or glass utensils, under the name of Whiting. (34) The black and red Chalks used by painters, are varieties of earths. The Black being supplied chiefly from Italy or Germany, though sometimes from England. This appears to be quite different from the common Chalk, and rather of the slaty bituminous sort. It is found in different sized pieces, and generally flat ; whilst in the earth moist and flaky, but wben dried, bard and light. The red Chalk is an indurated clayey ochre, (35) and is brought from Germany, Italy, Spain, &c. but chiefly from Flanders. It is very heavy and hard, and of a fine and even texture. No kind of Chalks are affected by acids, but the common Chalk melts easily with flint and alkali, into a colourless transparent glass. Chalk has not been found in any part of South America or Africa yet explored. It appears to be confined to the North of Europe and the Crimea. The decomposition of pyrites in Chalk, produces sulphate of lime, and in aluminous slate, alum. The substance generally called French Chalk, is a genus of the Magnesian order of earths, called also Steatite, or Soap earth, a mineral production, and principally found in Cornwall. It has the same property as Fuller's earth, and is very much used in extracting grease. The ancient Cimolia Purpurescens is supposed to be the same article. (See Cimolia.) It is generally of a white or grey colour, of a firm and hard texture, its surface smooth and glossy, and soft and greasy to the touch.
CAMPHOR, OR CAMPHIRE.
A solid concrete juice, extracted from the wood of the Laurus Camphora, a tree growing in Sumatra and Japan, but it may also be obtained from various vegetables, such as peppermint, &c. When pure, it is very white, pellucid, and rather unctuous to the touch, of a bitter taste, and fragrant smell. It is of important use iu medicine and the arts.
CASSADA (See Tapioca).
The fruit of the Citrus or Citron tree, of which there are several species, some bearing sour fruit, some sweet, &c. The principal are the Medica, or Citron tree, the Lima, or Lemon tree, and the Aurantium, or Orange tree. The fruit of the Citron is seldom used in this country, except in a candied state; the best is brought from Madeira. Of the two other species there are numerous varieties, both of which flourish in our climate, and are considered elegant evergreens. (36)
CARAWAY, OR CARUM.
A seed, principally used in confectionary, and sometimes medicinally. The plant is biennial, rising from seed one year, flowering the next, and dying soon after the seed ripens. In many parts of Britain it grows naturally.
Cimolia Alba is the officinal name of the earth of which tobacco pipes are made, and is found in many parts of England ; the colour of that from the Isle of Wight is most esteemed. It is a dense, compact heavy earth, of a dull white colour. There is also another kind, called Cimolia Nigra, which although of a dark lead colour, burns perfectly white. This is found principally in Northamptonshire, where it is manufactured into tobacco pipes. The Cimolia Terra, a valuable medicinal earth used by the ancients, but which is now supposed to be our pipe clay and Fuller's earth, was found particularly abundant in the Island of Cimolus, (37) whence its
From the same place there was another variety of this earth, called Purple, and this was doubtless our Steatite, or Soap earth.-(See Chalk.)
Clay, in a general sense, signifies earth, weighty and compact, stiff and ductile, when moist smooth to the touch, not easily breaking between the fingers, por readily diffusible in water ; and when mixed not subsiding from it. It shrinks in a remarkable degree in drying. There are many species of Clay used in manufactures, as pipe clay, potters' earth, porcelain clay, brick clay, &c. &e.