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much used as a sauce. It is difficult to preserve this plant in Britain, its vative soil being on rocks or on old walls. The flowers appear from between the branches, and are gathered in the bud and pickled ; they are considered to excite appetite and promote digestion, and are therefore wholesome. Our nasturtium forms a good imitation, pickled in the same manner, and is warmer and more aromatic.

CORAL.

Of the nature of this substance various opinions exist, some considering it to be formed of vegetables, hardened by the air, and others by a mass of insects, of the Polype (19) kind, which last supposition appears to be the most prevalent. It is correctly ascertained that most of the Islands in the South Sea are composed of Coral, covered with earth, and the Friendly Islands appear to be the most ancient of this nature. The coral insects do not commence their labours at the extreme depth of the ocean, but on rocky shoals, round which they form a united chain. When first taken out of the sea, the surface is soft, and yields a milky juice, wbich is supposed to proceed from the glands of the insect Polype. This matter gradually ceasing to flow, becomes hard and firm, and ultimately forms the hard substance called Coral. The productions of these little insects vary according to their form, size, and colour. There are properly but three kinds, red, white, and black, which last is most esteemed. Of the former very excellent imitations are made. It is found on the shores of France, about the Islands of the Mediterranean, and on the coast of Africa. The most extensive trade in this article is carried on at Genoa and Leghorn. The manner of fishing for it is every where nearly the same. Boats properly prepared with men, nets, &c. are sent to a part where beds of Coral are thought to exist; a coarse net, with two rafters tied across, with leaden weights attached, is let down, and when the Coral becomes entangled is drawn up again. The number of men and boats required to assist depends upon the weight, and accidents frequently occur in consequence of the rope breaking when pulling it in. It is principally used for ornaments, and the art of cutting it bas arrived at great perfection in this country. (20)

CEDAR.

This noted evergreen is a native of Mount Lebanon, and grows in Syria, Phoenicia, &c. The wood is very aromatic, and yields an oil famed for preserving books and writings; it is also considered proof against the putrefaction of animal bodies, and is therefore used for embalming. Moulds for black lead pencils are made from it, and cabinet makers use it for various articles. It is a preventive against moths and worms, and is frequently employed as a guard against those destructive insects. (21) An imitation is sometimes made by dyeing wood, which may easily be detected, from the absence of the fragrant scent. Solomon's noted Tempie, spoken of in Scripture, was made of this wood, as also many of the ancient temples dedicated to the Gods. It is of too dry a nature to be fastened with nails, consequently pins of the wood are generally substituted. The Wbite Cedar forms a variety of this tree, and lumps of a dry resin, called Olibanum, or Frankincense, are gathered from the bark. It is but little cul. tivated in England, which is to be regretted, as its spreading branches would afford a pleasing sbade to many barren hills.

COPPER.

A metal, frequently found in a native state, in mauy parts of Europe, particularly in England, Scotland, and Wales. It is the finest of the imperfect (22) metals, and easily unites with other metallic substances. The ores vary in appearance, some having a shining grey lustre, resembling iron, some are black, also ruby and brick red; the richest are a golden yellow. One sort, from its beautifully variegated colours, is termed Peacock Copper. There are several easy methods of determining the purity of the ore, one of which is by placing a small piece upon charcoal, with Borax, (23) wbich by aid of the blow-pipe will quickly melt, and if the ore be rich, it will be reduced into a bead of Copper, leaving the Borax green or red, and sometimes both. The smell emitted from it when heated or rubbed is unpleasant, as is also its taste. It is heavier than iron or tin, but lighter than gold, silver, or lead. It continues malleable in a red heat, and extends in it more easily than when cold. Powdered or in filings it produces a blue or green colour when thrown across a flame, and this renders it useful in fire-works. (24) It is considered poisonous when taken internally, but not so dangerous as arsenic, being more easily dissolved, and to prevent any evil consequences arising from its use in various culinary articles, the vessels made of it are always secured from its pernicious qualities by being covered inside with a thick coat of tin. It is easier to purify than iron. Several tons of Copper are procured from water running through veins of the metal, which becoming strongly impregnated with it, are secured by pieces of old iron being thrown into reservoirs made to receive the running stream. The iron is

dissolved by the vitrolic acid of the spring water, and the Copper is precipitated (25) in its metallic, form, in the place of the iron. When mixed with tin, Copper produces Bell-metal; in less proportion, Bronze ; with Nickel, Petit Or; with Zinc, Brass, Pinchbeck, &c. according to the proportions. (26)

COPPERAS.

A name given to. Green Vitriol, particularly to that of iron. It is principally employed in dyeing wool and hats black, in tanning, &c.

CLOVE TREE, OR CARYOPHYLLUS.

A native of the Molucca Islands, and principally cultivated in Amboyna. The bark of the tree resembles that of the olive, and the beight and leaves of the laurel. At the extremity of its numerous branches are the cloves, which are the flowers before their expansion. They change colour in the following gradations, being first wbite, then green, and lastly red, when they become hard, and may be called Cloves. In drying they assume a yellow colour, and when ripe become brown, when they are shaken off the trees, upon cloths spread under for the purpose of receiving them, and they are then further dried, either by the sun, or by the

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