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OF this valuable plant there are three species, perennial exotics of the Indies, the principal of which is the Arundinacea, or Starch Plant. The following process of obtaining starch from this root is thus described by Dr. Wright, of Jamaica :-. The roots, when a year old, are dug up,well washed in water, and then beaten to a pulp in deep wooden morfars. This is thrown into a tub of clean water. The whole is then well stirred, and the fibrous part wrung out by the hands, and thrown away. The milky liqúor being passed through a sieve, is suffered to settle, and the clear water is drained off. At the bottom of the vessel is a white mass, which is again mixed with clear water and drained ; lastly, the mass is dried in the sun, and thus becomes pure starch, for wbich, since 1796, it has been occasionall: used.?" It appears to afford more nutritive mucilage than any European vegetable. It is cultivated in

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this country, in hot-houses, as a curiosity, and in the gardens and provision grounds in the West Indies. It is strongly recommended to the planters there, and to the Colonists in Africa, as an object of commerce, considering that the fine starch procured from it would prove an eligible substitute for that made from wheat. The root of the species Galanga is used by the Indians for extracting the poison communicated by their arrows, from which circumstance it derives its name.

ALLSPICE, OR PIMENTO, OR JAMAICA

PEPPER.

The fruit of a species, of Myrtus, a native of Jamaica, and other American Islands, growing spontaneously, and in great abundance, particularly near the sea, on elevated situations, where the trees forma

groves, and the smell being aromatic fills the air with fragrance. The fruit is gathered green, and not allowed to ripen, as it would then be extremely difficult to cure, the pulp being very moist. After gathering the berries, they are exposed for many days to the sun, until they become thoroughly dried. Care is taken to protect them from the morning and evening dews, which are injurious. The crops are very uncertain, Its name is derived from its partaking of the united flavour of all the other spices, and it is used both in medicine and food, and abounds with a fragrant essential oil, (1) which is separated by distillation, (2) and is so heavy that it sinks in water.

ALUM.

A concrete salt, clear and transparent, used in medicine and in various arts. Generally it is an artificial manufacture, but it is occasionally found pure, having been washed from its ore by water, which, evaporating, leaves it in a dry form. It is separated by chemical processes from various substances; in Italy from a soft reddish stone, and in England from a blueish stone, called Irish slate, which abounds in the hills of Yorkshire and Lancashire. In Egypt, Sardinia, Spain, and Bohemia, it is sometimes discovered in crystals. There are several kinds of Alum, but they only differ according to the salts with which they are combined; that called the Roman Alum is considered the best ; it inclines to a red colour, possessing a small portion of iron, which however does not injure its qualities. The other varieties differ according to the alkali (3) used in the preparation. The manufacture of Alum was first begun in the reign of James I., who monopolized the trade, and forbade its importation. Alum mines were said to be first discovered in Italy this country, in hot-houses, as a curiosity, and in the gardens and provision grounds in the West Indies. It is strongly recommended to the planters there, and to the Colonists in Africa, as an object of commerce, considering that the fine starch procured from it would prove an eligible substitute for that made from wheat. The root of the species Galanga is used by the Indians for extracting the poison communicated by their arrows, from which circumstance it derives its name.

ALLSPICE, OR PIMENTO, OR JAMAICA

PEPPER.

The fruit of a species of Myrtus, a native of Jamaica, and other American Islands, growing spontaneously, and in great abandance, particularly near the sea, on elevated situations, where the trees form groves, and the smell being aromatic fills the air with fragrance. The fruit is gathered green, and not allowed to ripen, as it would then be extremely difficult to cure, the pulp being very moist. After gathering the berries, they are exposed for many days to the sun, until they become thoroughly dried. Care is taken to protect them from the morning and evening dews, which are injurious. The crops are very uncertain, Its name is derived from its partaking of the united flavour of all the other spices, and it is used both in medicine and food, and abounds with a fragrant essential oil, (1) which is separated by distillation, (2) and is so heavy that it sinks in water.

ALUM.

A concrete salt, clear and transparent, used in medicine and in various arts. Generally it is an artificial manufacture, but it is occasionally found pure, having been washed from its ore by water, which, evaporating, leaves it in a dry form. It is separated by chemical processes from various substances; in Italy from a soft reddish stone, and in England from a blueish stone, called Irish slate, which abounds in the bills of Yorkshire and Lancashire. In Egypt, Sardinia, Spain, and Bohemia, it is sometimes discovered in crystals. There are several kinds of Alum, but they only differ according to the salts with which they are combined; that called the Roman Alum is considered the best ; it inclines to a red colour, possessing a small portion of iron, which however does not injure its qualities. The other varieties differ according to the alkali (3) used in the preparation. The manufacture of Alum was first begun in the reign of James I., who monopolized the trade, and forbade its importation. Alum mines were said to be first discovered in Italy

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