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to square with these, or else struck them out as exceptions, thus sacrificing every thing to their beloved theories. Now the very method here insisted on, Bacon argues, of rigidly adhering only to those principles which are common to all the particulars and examples, precludes the possibility of arriving at the same results with the ancients.
Nor can it be fairly charged upon this method of carefully attending to all the facts of the case before drawing the conclusion, that it leads to scepticism, since it is not the disposition to doubt, but the art of doubting properly, that is alone inculcated; and it is preferable to know something in a certain manner without supposing we know all, than to think we know all, and yet remain in actual ignorance of that which is most necessary to be known.
Lest it should be supposed, moreover, that the proposed plan only extended to the improvement of natural philosophy, more properly so called, he distinctly informs his readers that his design is of the most general kind possible. The method of induction is equally useful in all the sci
It is alike applicable to ethics, politics, the philosophy of the human mind, chemistry, botany, and every other branch of knowledge.
As a further stimulus to a vigorous pursuit of science in this enlightened method, this first part of the Novum Organum closes with a few additional reflections. It is urged that the discovery of truth, and noble inventions, holds the most excellent place among the actions of mankind. Antiquity, with all its errors, was perfectly alive to this sentiment, as is sufficiently evident by its attributing divine honors to the inventors of the arts, as to Prometheus, who is represented as being the giver of fire to mortals, and is celebrated in Æschylus as a deity—while it was usual to award heroic honors chiefly to mere legislators and the founders of empires. The inventions of science, it is observed, “ benefit mankind to the end of time; while the advantages conferred by warriors and statesmen may last, in many cases, but for a few ages, and sometimes have their origin in tumults, and the most terrible desolations of war.
The effects of the invention of printing and
of the mariner's compass, for example, have been altogether prodigious : by these great instruments, navigation and commerce have been extended over the whole earth; “ divine and human learning,” to use the words of Milton, “ have been raked out of the embers of forgotten tongues," and the face of the world has been changed, in all its features, physical and moral.
The design of promoting the advancement of the sciences is further pronounced a far nobler object of ambition than either private aggrandizement, or even patriotism itself. “ The first,” says Lord Bacon, “is vulgar and degenerate; the second, that is, the ambition of those who endeavor to raise their own country in the scale of nations, is more noble, but has not less of cupidity : but if any one should labor to restore and enlarge the power and dominion of the •whole race of man over the universe of things—this kind of ambition, if so we may call it, is without doubt more wise and dignified than the rest. Now this power of man over things is entirely founded in arts and sciences."
Finally,” adds this illustrious author, “should any one object that the arts and sciences may be abused to evil purposes, as luxury and wickedness, let this sentiment be allowed to have no weight. The same objection would equally apply to all the most excellent things in the world -as genius, courage, strength, beauty, riches, and even light itself. Let the human race regain their dominion over nature, which belongs to them by the bounty of their Maker, and right reason and sound religion will direct the
Thus did this vast genius point out to mankind the causes of those errors which so long effectually obstructed the paths of science; thus did he encourage them to hope for a brighter æra, and give directions for the more successful pursuit, in future, of knowledge and truth. The second part of the Novum Organum contains a further developement of the principles of the Inductive Method, with the author's own examples of its use : and it will form the subject of another Treatise.
BY JOHN J. F. HERSCHEL, Esq. M. A.
OF MAN, REGARDED AS A CREATURE OF INSTINCT, OF REA
SON, AND SPECULATION.- GENERAL INFLUENCE OF
(1.) The situation of man on the globe he inhabits, and over which he has obtained the control, is in many respects exceedingly remarkable. Compared with its other denizens, he seems, if we regard only his physical constitution, in almost every respect their inferior, and equally unprovided for the supply of his natural wants and his defence against the innumerable enemies which surround him. No other animal passes so large a portion of its existence in a state of absolute helplessness, or falls, in old age, into such protracted and lamentable imbecility. To no other warmblooded animal has nature denied that indispensable covering, without which the vicissitudes of a temperate, and the rigors of a cold climate, are equally insupportable; and to scarcely any has she been so sparing in external weapons, whether for attack or defence. Destitute alike of speed to avoid, and of arms to repel, the aggressions of his voracious foes; tenderly susceptible of atmospheric influences; and unfitted for the coarse aliments which the earth affords spontaneously during at least two thirds of the year, even in temperate climates,-man, if abandoned to mere instinct, would be of all creatures the most destitute and miserable. Distracted by terror, and goaded by famine; driven to the most abject expedients for concealment from his enemies, and to the most cowardly devices for the seizure and destruction of his nobler prey, his existence would be one continued subterfuge or stratagem; his dwelling would be in dens of the earth, in clefts of rocks, or in the hollows of trees; his food worms, and the lower reptiles, or such few and crude productions of the soil as his organs could be brought to assimilate, varied with occasional relics, mangled by more powerful beasts of prey, or contemned by their more pampered choice. Remarkable only for the absence of those powers and qualities which obtain for other animals a degree of security and respect, he would be disregarded by some, and hunted down by others, till, after a few generations, his species would become altogether extinct, or, at best, would be restricted to a few islands in tropical regions, where the warmth of the climate, the paucity of enemies, and the abundance of vegetable food, might permit it to linger.
(2.) Yet man is the undisputed lord of the creation. The strongest and fiercest of his fellow-creatures, the whale, the elephant, the eagle, and the tiger,-are slaughtered by him to supply his most capricious wants, or tamed to do him service, or imprisoned to make him sport. The spoils of all nature are in daily requisition for his most common uses, yielded with more or less readiness, or wrested with reluctance, from the mine, the forest, the ocean, and the air. Such are the first fruits of reason. Were they the only or the principal ones—were the mere acquisition of power over the materials, and the less gifted animals, which surround us, and the consequent increase of our external comforts, and our means of preservation and sensual enjoyment, the sum of the privileges which the possession of this faculty conferred, we should, after all, have little to plume ourselves upon. But this is so far from being the case, that every one who passes his life in tolerable ease and comfort, or, rather, whose whole time is not anxiously consumed in providing the absolute necessaries of existence, is conscious of wants and cravings, in which the senses have no part, of a series of pains and pleasures totally distinct in kind from any which the infliction of bodily misery, or the gratification of bodily appetites, has ever afforded him; and if he has experienced these pleasures and these pains in any degree of intensity, he will readily admit them to hold a much higher rank, and to deserve much more attention, than the former class. Independent of the pleasures of fancy, and imagination, and social converse, man is constituted a speculative being ; he contemplates the world, and the objects around him, not with a passive, indifferent gaze, as a set of phenomena in which he has no further interest than as they affect his immediate situation, and can be rendered subservient to his comfort, but as a system disposed with order and design. He approves and feels the highest admiration of the harmony of its parts, the skill and efficiency of its contri
Some of these, which he can best trace and understand, he attempts to imitate, and finds that, to a certain extent, though rudely and imperfectly, he can succeed-in others, that, although he can comprehend the nature of the contrivance, he is totally destitute of all means of imitation ; while in others, again, and those evidently the most important, though he sees the effect produced, yet the means by which it is done are alike beyond his knowledge and his control. Thus he is led to the conception of a Power and an Intelligence superior to his own, and adequate to the production and maintenance of all that he sees in nature,-a Power and Intelligence, to which he may well apply the term infinite, since he not only sees no actual limit to the instances in which they are manifested,