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the Royal Academy at Woolwich, and afterward obtained for him a commillion in the corps of engineers.--He prosecuted his mathematical studies under Mr. Thomas Simpson, and, from being his scholar, became his friend and intimate : such, we are told, was the opinion which Mr. Simpson entertained of Mr. W.'s abilities, that at his decease he left him his unfinished mathematical papers, with a request that he would revise then, and make what alterations and additions he might think mecellary. One of these manuscripts is said to be a treatise on the construction of bridges, which is finished by Mr. W.
During the war which broke out in 1756, Colonel Watson gave fignal proofs of his superior abilities as an engineer; para ticularly at the siege of Belleille in 1761, and at the Havannah in 1962.-His talents foon became lo conspicuous as to attract the notice of Lord Clive, whom he accompanied to Bengal, and where he was appointed chief engineer.
li was not difficult for a person of the Colonel's penetration to see the advantageous situation of the Bay of Bengal. He knew that if proper forts were built, and the English marine put on a tolerable footing in that pari, they might soon become masters of the eat'ern seas; he, therefore, got a grant of lands from the East India Company for constructing wet and dry docks, and a marine yard ac Calcutta, for cleanfog, repairing, and furnishing with jtores, the men of war and merchanimen.
A plan of the under. taking was drawn, engraved, and presented to his Majesty and the East India Company, and fully approved of; and the works were carried on for some years with a spirit and vigour that manifested the judginent and abilities of the undertaker; and, though the vtility of such a great and national concern is too obvious to be insisted on, yet the Colonel, after finking upwards of 100,cool, of his own property in the noble design, was obliged to delilt, to the eternal disgrace of this nation.'
Colonel Waison had determined to come to England to seek redress, but was induced to change bis resolution, and to send Mr. Creaffy (the fuperintendant of his works) in his stead. This happened just at the time of the last Spanish war; and as the Colonel had great quantities of iron and timber in store, be resolved to build three thips, two of 36, and one of
32 gups; and, in consequence, he sent instructions to his agents in England to procure letters of marque. The design, however, was frustrated; perhaps by the fame means that stopped his proceeding with the docks; for his agents, on applying for the letters, received a positive denial. On this ill success, he employed the two vesels, which he had finished, in commercial services; the third, says the writer, remains to this day unfinished.
• By • By long and hard service in an unfavourable climate, the Co. lonel found his health much impaired, two or three years before he Jeft India; and, therefore, in 1785, he put his affairs in a train of seulement, in order to return to England, not only to try the effects of his native air, but to profecute the East India Company for not supporting the faith of the grant they had folemnly made to him for the dock-yard. In the spring of 1786, he embarked on board the Deptford Indiaman; but the fux, and a bilious complaint with which he had been sometimes afflicted, so much reduced him by the time he tad reached St. Helena, that he was not able to prosecute his voyage in that ship. This island is remarkable for the salubrity of its air; of which the Colonel foon found the benefit; but the importunity of his friends, or his own impatience to see England, got the besier of his prudenre, for, as soon as he began to gather ftrength, he took his paslage in the Asia; the consequence was a relapse, which weakened him to such a degree by the time he arrived at Dover, that he lingered but a short time, and ar that place departed this life on September 17, 1786.
• He was buried in a vault made in the body of the church at Dover, on the 22d of the same month, in a private manner; only three of his confidential friends attended the funeral, namely, John Barchard, Esq. his agent, Mr. James Creally, and Mr. George Louch, his thip.builder.'
The biographer remarks, that the death of such a man is a national lofs: his genius was formed for great undertakings: he was judicious in planning, cool and intrepid in action, and undismayed in danger. As an engineer, he has not, perhaps, left his superior For nearly ten years he was the chief engineer of Bengal, Bahar, and Orifla. The East India. Company, in a great meafure, owe their valuable poninions in that quarter to his unexampled exertions; for, in spite of party dir. putes, of bribery on the part of the natives then at war with the Company, and of the numerous cabals which perplexed and embarrated their councils, he executed the works of Fort William, which will long remain a monument of his superior skill, and, for their strength, may justly be styled the Gibraltar of India :-nor are the works at Buge Buge and Melancholy Point constructed with less judgment.
We cannot close this article without noticing the disinterested zeal of Mr. Sewell, (the publisher of this treatile,) in promoting, at the risk of incurring considerable expence, whatever may tend to the increase of nautical science.
For JULY, 1792.
EAST INDIES. Art. 2o. Narrative of the Operations of the British Army in India, from April 21st, to the 16th July 1791.
With a particular Account of the Action on the 15th of May, near Seringapatam.
4to. 45. sewed. Faden. 1792. This appears to be a faithful, though brief, account of the cam
paign in India, during the period above mentioned. The dif. ficuliies which our force's had so furmount were certainly very great; which renders the advantage obtained by them the more brilliant. The engraved kerch of the positions of the British and Mysorean armies at the battle fought May 15th, 1991, is nearly executed, from the drawing made by Captain Agnew, Aide du Camp to Colonel Maxwell. Another plate is given, exhibiting the order of the battle fought near Seringapatam, on the 15th of May 1791. -For our account of Major Rennel's larger and more detailed account of the same events, with his map and plan, &c. see M. R. for May 1792, p. 50. Art. 21. A Sketch of fome late Arrangements, and a View of the
rising Resources, in Bengal. By Thomas Law, Eig. late a Member of the Council of Revenue in Fort William. 8vo. pp. 283. 55. Boards. Stockdale. 1792.
This volume consists, chiefly, of official correspondence, on matters of provincial regulation, respecting the teoures of land, and the collection of the revenue. The author, after binring that 'the duty of a local servant has been performed,' proceeds to India concerns, in a more general and pational view. He affords favourable hopes of our receiving fufficient supplies of sugar from India, the sugar cane being much cultivated; and as to its quality, the sugar in Bengal,' fays he is so much fuperior to the Weft India saw sugars, that I conjecture the sample mills of the natives do noc express any drofs *.' In his preface, he declares, . I have seen, I think, in the course of my travels, about 50,000 acres of plantation, which is mentioned as a proof of the general produce of sugarcane all over the country:' general, indeed, by adverting to a circumstance incidentally mentioned in another place : • it is a curious fact, that coarse fugar is introduced in India, by the natives, as an ingredient in the composition of mortar; but our practice of uling merely lime, has of late been mu hałoplett.' The obftructions to our availing ourselves of the manv ample resources in our Eastern puii ilions, are itated in an intelligent anonymous lerier, copied in the joiroduction to this work,) to be the extravagant freight of goods in our East India ships, which is compared with the price of West India freight; and from the result, aided by other argements, the writer pleads throngly for an open trade with the Enit. In his, as in all other subjects, there is a fufficient number * Poze 02, 2:18.
t Pag“ 2!7note.
of reasons for the use of advocates on the different sides of a question; and we may amuse ourselves with them as long as we please : but when circumstances are ripe for alteration, altera:ions will take place, and work their way, like water, to a natural level.
TRADE and COMMERCE. Art. 22. Wool encouraged without Exportation; or, Practical Ob
servations on Wool and the Woollen Manufacture, In Two Paris. Part I. containing Strictures on Appendix, No. IV. to a Report made by a Committee of the Highland Society on the Subject of Shetland Wool*. Part II. containing a Brief Hiilory of Wool, and the Nature of the Woollen Manufactures as connected with it. By a Wiltshire Clothier, F. A. S. 8vo. pp. 72. 25. Cadell. 1791.
This Wiltshire clothier animadverts on Dr. Anderson for con. demning the prohibition of the exportation of wool, with much tartness and asperity; which, fuppofing him to have the better of the argument, will scarcely add to it the credit of liberality of mind. He accuses the Doctor of milquoting history, and of mil. understanding what he quotes. The validity of criticisms mult, in many cases, be referred to those who make particular subjects the objects of their study; and credit should be given to them, until they are refuted by known facts, stronger reasoning, or boter authority Thus, when the present writer affirms that the fine wooled sheep of Spain,' is a meer carrion, and never eaten t;' we may indeed hesitate, for want of authority, but may not be able to controvert the truth of the assertion.
The author gives us a very comprehensive view of the manifold uses of the sheep:
• Amongst the various animals with which Divine Providence has stored the world for the use of man, none is to be found more innocent, more useful, or more valuable than the Sheep. The Sheep supplies us with food and clothing, and finds ample employment for our poor, at all times and seasons of the year, whereby a variety of manufactures of woollen cloth is carried on without intersuprion to domestic comfort and loss to friendly society or injury to health, as is the case with many other occupations. Every lock of wool chat grows on its back becomes the means of support to Staplers, Dyers, Pickers, Scourers, Scritlers, Carders, Combers, Spinners, Spoclers, Warpers, Queelers, Weavers, Fullers, Tuckers, Burlers, Shearmen, Prelers, Clothiers, and Packers, who, one after another, fumble and tos, and twist and bake and boil this raw material, till they have each extracted a livelihood out of it; and then comes the Merchant, who, in his turn, ships it (in its highest state of improvement) to all quarters of the globe, from whence he brings back every kind of riches to his country, in return for the labours of these his neighbours exported with it.
• Besides this, the useful animal, after being deprived of his coat, grows us another against the next year; and when we are hungry
and kill him for food, he gives us his skin to employ the Fell-mongers ano Parcomeni-makers, who supply us with a durable material for fecuring our Eftates, Rights, and Pollefions; and if our enemies take the field againit us, fupplies us with a powerful infirument for rouring our courage to repel their attacks.
Wren the Parchment-maker has taken as much of the skin as he can use, the Glue-maker comes after and picks up every morlel that is left, and therewith supplies us a material for the Carpenter and Cabinet-maker, which they cannot do without, and which is effentially necessary before we can bave elegant furniture in our houses, tables, chairs, Icokingglasses, and a hundred other articles of convenience: and when ihe winter nights come on, and we are deprived of the cheering light of the Sun, the Sheep fupplies us with an artificial mode of light, whereby we preserve every pleasure of domestic fuciety, and with whole aflifance we can continue our work, or write or read, and improve our minds, or enjoy the focial mirth of our tables. Another part of the flaug btered animal supplies us with an ingredient necessary for making good common Soap, a useful store for producing cleanliness in every family rich or poor. Neither need the horns be thrown away, for they are converted by the Burton-makers and Turners into a cheap kind of buttons, tips for bows, and many use ful ornaments. From the very trotters an oil is extracted useful for many purposes, as well as their affording good food when baked in
• We have now picked the poor animal to the bones, yet thefe are useful also, for by a late invention of Dr. Higgins, They are found, when reduced to ashes, to be a useful and effential ingrediept in the composition of the finest arcificial it ne in ornamental work for chimney-pieces, cornices of rooms, houses, &c. which senders the composition more durable by effe&tually preventing its cracking *
• If it is objeElid to the meek inoffensive creature, that he was expenfire while living, in eating up our grass, &c. it may be answer. ed that it was quite the contrary, for he could feed where every other animal had been before him and grazed all they could find, and that if he took a little grass on your downs, or in your fields, he amply repaid you (for every blade of grals) in the richness of the manure he left behind him. I forgot to mention the service he yieids to the ladies, whose fair soft hands he protects from the
Any curious person would be much entertained to see the manufactory of Bone Alh, now carried on by Mr. Minih of Whitechapel, New Road, wherein the bones of Sheep and Cows undergo many ingenious processes.--Ist, There is a mill to break them ; 2d, a cauldron to extract their oil, marrow, and fat;-3d, a reverba. tory 10 heat them red hot ;-41h, an oven for chose bones to moulder to ashes ;-5th, a ftill to collect the fumes of the burns bones inio a brown fluid, from whence hartfhorn is made ;-óth, furnaces for making parts thereof into Glauber's falts;-7th, a fund beat containing twelve jars, for collecting a chrystallizing vapour into Sal-ammoniac.'