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! It is with regret I quit a subject, on which so much might yet be said. But as I cannot pretend to go beyond a few hints, I shall only offer one observation more, which is, that,
This matter deserves the serious attention of the friends of li. berty in Britain. A general spirit of reform now pervades us; and an inclination to enlarge in every fhape the powers and privileges of the People. But, perhaps, it may be found, that we are beginning at the wrong end of things; and that, before we make the people more powerful, we should endeavour to make them better qualified for it; left, by giving them Power, before they have got WISDOM, we make them more unhappy, and more vicious, than before.'
This last hint appears to us of the utmost importance to the success of those laudable plans for emancipating mankind from every kind of tyranny, civil, religious, and moral, to which every enlightened citizen, and genuine philanthropist, must with fuccefs.
In the title page of this work, we observe the term medical : but we find nothing of this kind in the volume, excepting a dedication to Dr. Percival, containing fome remarks on the connection between medicine and philosophy,
ART. III. Anecdotes of the Right Hon. William Pitt, Earl of Chat
bam, and of the Principai Events of his Time. With his Speeches in Parliament, from the Year 1736 to the Year 1778. 4to. 2 Vols. pp. 370 in each.
il. jos. Boards. Jordan. 1792. THE
He outlines of the political life of the late Earl of Chatham
are already well known to, if not within the memory of, all such of our readers as have public spirit enough to interest themselves in the measures of government; and these will doubtless review, with pleasure, the principal events of their own times, including the share which that great man took in them; especially when they see them collected into one point of view. His career, indeed, passed in the usual manner. He entered young into parliament, forced himself into notice and consequence, as an opposition man, by his talents and powers of elocution ; circumstances favoured his own acquisition of ministerial power; success crowned his fpirited measures, and rendered his ministry brilliant, to a dangerous extreme; he was supplanted when at the pinnacle of his glory by rivals in the same line ; received his reward; and then funk finally under the pressure of competition, as all have done before him, and as all will do after him.
In the preface to this publication, the writer disclaims the intention of offering this work as a HISTORY: He presumes no more, than having collected and preserved a fund of mate. rials, which may afford light and information to the future in quirer ; who could not have found them in any of the books hitherto printed. This limitation of his purpose is farther confirmed in the work, where he mentions the death of Frederic Prince of Wales, who is dismified as laconically as porfible, under a profession, that it is not the design of this work to Itate the particulars of any event, which have been related in other books, unless such relation is very erroneous.” (Vol. i. p. 114.) If this purpose were strictly executed, so far from producing any thing like a history, the writer would fur: nish only supplemental scraps, and errata to other histories and nothing connected, nor very satisfactory to the purchasers of these particular volumes :--but this is only one among many instances, where the author is apt to overshoot himself by a hafty mode of expression, for which his readers will occasionally find it necessary to allow.
The author has in reality made a valuable collection of anecdotes, especially of the latter and most conspicuous part of Lord Chatham's life, and of other matters connected with it; and has seasoned them at times to a degree of poignancy that may happen to be too strong for some palates: yet as he makes se rious professions of his adherence to truth, affirming that he is conscious that his stile and some circumstances are not in his favour ; but he is not conscious of having advanced one falsehood ;' and if we give credit to this declaration, (and we have found no cause to doubt it,) we may, for the sake of being treated with sterling ingredients compounded by a well informed purveyor, put up with his Cayenne pepper; or, by dilution, bring the dishes down to our own tatte.
Of the early part of the noble Peer's life, when he was better known, and more respected, under the plain name of Pitt, the materials here collected are but scanty; for political occurrences were not so amply detailed before parliamentary orations were openly published, as they have been since the privilege, of knowing what our representatives are doing, was arferted; and it is to be observed that we are no where introduced 10 Mr. Pitt as a private man in social life. We here see him only in his public capacity, and though he is by name the principal character before us, we have some doubt whether the jate Lord Temple, whenever he is introduced, may not be intended to appear as the principal hero in the drama.
The matter and style of these anecdotes may be conceived from two or three specimens; the first of which shall be chapter XI. of vol. 1. trcating of disputes concerning the education of the Prince of Wales:
Upon Upon the death of Frederick Prince of Wales, the education of the Prince (George III.) had been committed to Lord Harcours as Governor ; to Dr. Hayter, Bishop of Norwich, as Preceptor; and to Andrew Stone, Esq. brother to the Primate of that name, as Sub-governor; recommended by the Duke of Newcastle; and to Mr. Scott, as Sub-preceptor; recommended by Lord Bolingo broke. In about a year and a half, a disagreement broke out amongst them, of a very interesting nature. It was said by the friends of Leicefter-house, that the Governor and Preceptor did not discharge che duties of their trust with alacrity. . But it came out afterwards, that this complaint lay deeper than was at first rupposed. There were two persons concerned in this affair, whom it is proper to mention particularly. Mr. Stone, was the most par. ticular friend and adviser of the Duke of Newcastle. The other, Mr. Murray, afterward Lord Mansfield, was in precisely the same fituation, and degree of credit, with Mr. Pelham. Between Mr. Stone and Mr. Murray there fubfifted the warmest intimacy; not only their friendships, but their principles and politics were perfeály congenial. "Lord Bute, who had been Lord of the Bedchamber to the late Prince, and was continued in the family, gained a superiour influence, by afliduity and attention. He was moreover favoured by the Princess. The reserve of Lord Harcourt, and the very orderly demeanour of the Bithop, gave great advantage, as well as opportunity, to Lord Bute, who excelled in the affumption of theatrical grace and getture ; which, added to a good figure, rendered his conversation particularly pleasing, and at length created a parciality in his favour. The Duke of Newcastle and Mr. Pelham had information of every circumstance at Leicester-house. In a tittle time, the Bishop found some very improper books put into the hands of the Prince. He complained of ibis matter to the Duke of Newcastle. And in a sew days Lord Harcourt and the Bishop resigned. From the period of making this counter complaint, it became a struggle between the party of Leicester. house, and the Pelhams, which mould have the power of educating the Prince. While this dispute was going on, a third party (the Bedfords) interfered for the same purpose, by attacking Stone and Murray. These gentlemen were charged with being Jacobites. Lord Ra. vensworth brought the charge. A Committee of the Privy Council was directed to enquire into it. The Committee fat several times upon it: but the two Confidents had the address to acquit themselves ; though Mr. Fawcett, Recorder of Newcaitle, swore to their having drank the Pretender's health several times.
• On the 22d of March 1753, the Duke of Bedford made the following motion in the House of Lords : " That an humble address be presented to his Majesty, that he would be gracioufly pleased to give orders, that there be laid before this House, the several ex. aminations of the Lord Ravensworth, the Dean of Durham, Mr. Fawcett, the Lord Bishop of St. Afaph, the Lord Bishop of Gloucefter, the Honourable Mr. Murray, his Majesty's Solicitor Gene. rál; Andrew Stone, Esq. and such other examinations upon oath, as have been taken before the Lords appointed by his Majesty to
enquire into informations of a very material nature, relating to a person in the service of their Royal Highnesses the Prince of Wales and Prince Edward ; and the other persons mentioned in the courfs of the said examinations, likewise all letters and papers relative thereto, and the report made by their Lordships to his Majesty thereupon.” But the Duke of Newcastle, and the rest of the Mi. niltry were againit the motion ; and therefore it was negatived. Lord Harcourt said in the debate, that he found he had no authoa rity over the Prince's education; nor could he be of any service, unless the Sub-governor and others (Scott and Cresset *) were dismissed, all of whom he had strong reators to believe were Jacobites, and therefore he had resigned. The Pelhams thought they had gained their point, in the protection of Stone and Murray, and in appointing Lord Waldegrave and the Primate to succeed the resigners; while the fact was, they were deceived and betrayed by their own people. By this secret mancuvre, the influence and afcendancy of Lord Bute were completely established. At that time was circulated by the Bedford party a remarkable paper, which the reader will find in the note t. And in the weekly paper, called the Protefter, (printed in small folio, like the North Briton, Auditor, &c.; and which seems to be the paper alluded to by Lord Melcombe, in his Diary, pp. 235 and 236,) number fifteen, September 8, 1753, after saying a good deal about Stone, are these words, " And
whatever ** Cresset was Secretary to the Princess; and upon her recommendation, was appointed Treasurer to the Prince.'
† A Memorial of several Nollemen and Gentlemen of the first rank and fortune.
« The Memorialists represent,
THAT the education of the Prince of Wales, is of the utmost importance to the whole nation ; that it ought always to be en. trusted to Noblemen of the most unblemished honour, and to Prelates of the most distinguished virtue, of the most accomplished learning, and of the most unsuspected principles, with regard to government both in Church and Siate: That the misfortunes which the nation formerly suffered, or escaped, under King Charles I. King Charles II. and King James II. were owing to the bad education of those Princes, who were early initiated in maxims of arbitrary power: That for a faction to engross the education of the Prince of Wales to themselves, excluding men of probity and learoing, is unwarrantable, dangerous, and illegal: That to place men about the Prince of Wales, whose principles are suspected, and whose belief in the mysteries of our faith is doubtful, has the most mischievous tendency, and ought juftly to alarm the friends of their country, and of the Protestant succession : That for a Minister to support low men, who were originally improper for the high trust to which they were advanced, after complaints made of dark, suf. picious, and unwarrantable methods made use of by such men, in their plan of education, and to protect and countenance such men in their insolent and unheard of behaviour to their superiors, is a foundation for suspecting the worst designs in such Ministers ; That, whatever may be the misgivings and repinings of those who expe&ted a kingdom of their own, and who now see themselves for ever excluded, Those who have the forming of the Youth, have reason to promise themselves a like ascendancy over the Man."
• This business being settled, Leicester-house went on as it pleased. Stone and Murray, and Lord Bute, were in perfect union; not indeed oftenfibly, buc confidentially. And in a very liale time, (that is before the war broke out,) Lord Bath paid his Court to Lord Bute, and was admitted of his Cabinet. From this time may be dated that unbappy and dangerous idea, which Lord Bute had imbibed, of forming a double Cabiner. He had it from Lord Bath, who told him, the oficial men ought never to be trusted with information of any mea:ure, until it was given them to execate. They were the servants, he said, of the executive power ; not the power itself. This extraordinary doctrine will appear more folly, if the letters at Fontbill are printed; for Mr. Alderman Beckford was one of those, who at this time, paid their devoirs at Leicester-house.
• After Stone and Morray had been acquitted by the Privy Council, very little attention was paid to Leicetter- house, or its concerns, by the Pelhams, or their Whig friends. In a very few years, the ideas of a separate interest, and of a separate party, were become perfectly visible at Leicetter-house.'
Left it being notorious that books", inculcating the worst maxims of government, and defending the most avowed tyrannies, have been put into the hands of the Prince of Wales, it cannot but affect the Memorialists with the most melancholy apprehensions, when they find that the men who had the honesty and resolution to complain of such astonishing methods of instruction, are driven away from Court t, and the men, who have dared to teach such doctrines, are continued in trust and favour. That the security of this Government, being built on Whig principles, is alone fupported by Whig zeal. That the establishment of the present Royal Family being
settled 6 # Father Orleans's Revolutions of the House of Stuart.---Ramsay's Travels of Cyrus.—Sir Robert Filmer's Patriarch, and other books inculcating the same principles.'
"Alluding to the resignations of Lord Harcourt and Dr. Hayter, who were succeeded by Lord Waldegrave and Dr. Stone.
• The following lines were written under Dr. Hayter's portrait, published at this time:
Not gentler virtues glow'd in Cambray's breast,