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bonesty and virtue, but with a crafty de- a claim to their care and compassion, who fign to promote and advance more effec- are walking in the paths of death, while tually their own interests; and therefore they fancy themselves engaged in a course the justice of the divine providence hath of virtue! I shall therefore endeavour to hid this truest point of wisdom from their lay down some rules for the discovery of eyes, that bad men might not be upon those vices that lurk in the secret corners equal terms with the just and upright, and of the soul; and to fhew my reader those serve their own wicked designs by honelt methods, by which he may arrive at a aod lawful means.

true and impartial knowledge of himself. Indeed, if a man were only to deal in The usual means prescribed for this purthe world for a day, and should never have pose, are to examine ourselves by the rules occafion to converse more with mankind, which are laid down for our direction in never more need their good opinion or sacred writ, and to compare our lives with good word, it were then no great matter the life of that perfon who acted up to the speaking as to the concernments of this perfection of human nature, and is the world) if a man spent his reputation all at itanding example, as well as the great ence, and ventured it at one throw: but if guide and inítructor, of those who receive . he be to continue in the world, and would his doctrines. Though these two heads have the advantage of conversation whilst cannot be too much inlifted upon, I shall he is in it, let him make use of truth and but just mention them, since they have fincerity in all his words and actions ; for been handled by many great and eminent nothing but this will last and hold out to writers. the end: all other arts will fail, but truth I would therefore propose the following and integrity will carry a man through, methods to the confideration of such as and bear him out to the lalt.

would find out their secret faults, and make

Spectator. a true estimate of themselves. | 23. Rules for the Knozuledge of Ore's well, what are the characters which they

In the firit place, let them consider Self.

bear among their enemies. Our friends Hypocrisy, at the fashionable end of the very often tatter us as much as our own town, is very different from that in the hearts. They either do not see our faults, city. The modifh hypocrite endeavours or conceal them from us, or soften them by to appear more vicious than he really is; their representations, after such a manner, the other kind of hypocrite more virtuous. that we think them too trivial to be taken The former is afraid of every thing that notice of. An adversary, on the contrary, has the shew of religion in it, and would be makes a stricter search' into us, discovers thought engaged in many criminal gallan- every flaw and imperfection in our temtries and amours, which he is not guilty pers; and, though his malice may set them of; the latter assumes a face of fanctity, in too strong a light, it has generally some and covers a multitude of vices under a ground for what it advances. A friend seeming religious deportment.

exaggerates a man's virtues, an enemy in· But there is another kind of hypocrisy, flames his crimes. A wise man should which differs from both these, and which give a just attention to both of them, so I intend to make the subject of this paper: far as they may tend to the improvement I mean that hypocrisy, by which a man of the one, and the diminution of the other. does not only deceive the world, but very Plutarch has written an essay on the bene. often imposes on himself; that hypocrisy fits which a man may receive from his ene. which conceals his own heart from him, mies; and among the good fruits of enard makes him believe he is more virtuous mity, mentions this in particular, “ that, taan he really is, and either not attend to by the reproaches which it cafts upon us, his vices, or mistake even his vices for vir- we see the worst fide of ourselves, and open tues. It is this fatal hypocrisy and self- our eyes to feveral blemishes and defects deceit, which is taken notice of in these in our lives and conversations, which we Fords, 'Who can understand his errors ? should not have observed without the help * cleanse thou me from my secret faults.' of such ill-natured monitors."

If the open professors of impiety deserve In order likewise to come to a true the utmott application and endeavours of knowledge of ourselves, we should confimoral writers, to recover them from vice der, on the other hand, how far we may 2.d folly, how much more may those lay deserve the praises and approbations which



the world befost upon us; whether the our fouls in such a solid and fubstantial actions they celebrate proceed from lau- virtue as will turn to account in that great dable and worthy motives; and how far day, when it must stand the test of infinite we are really poslefled of the virtues, which wisdom and justice. gain us applause among those with whom I shall conclude this essay with observ. We converse. Such a refle&tion is abso. ing, that the two kinds of hypocrisy I lutely necessary, if we consider how apt have here spoken of, namely, that of'de. we are cither to value or condemn ourselves ceiving the world, and that of imposing by the opinion of others, and to sacrifice on ourselves, are touched with wonderful the report of our own hearts to the judg- beauty in the hundred thirty-ninth psalm. ment of the world.

The folly of the first kind of hypocrisy is In the next place, that we may not de- there set forth by reflections on God's omceive ourselves in a point of so much im- niscience and omnipresence, which are ce. portance, we fould not lay too great a lebrated in as noble strains of poetry as any stress on any supposed virtues we possess, other I ever met with, either facred or prothat are of a doubtful nature: and such fane. The other kind of hypocrisy, wherewe may esteem all those in which multi- by a man deceives himself, is intimated in tudes of men dissent from us, who are as the two last verses, where the psalmiit adgood and wife as ourselves. We should dresses himself to the great searcher of always act with great cautiousness and cir. hearts in that emphatical petition; “ Try cumspection, in points where it is not im- me, O God, and seek the ground of my podible that we may be deceived. Intem- “ heart; prove me and exainine my peratë zeal, bigotry, and persecution, for " thoughts: look well if there be any way any party or opinion, how praise-worthy « of wickedness in me, and lead me in the soever they may appear to weak men of “ way everlasting." Spectator. our own principles, produce infinite calamities among mankind, and are highly cri- § 24. No Life pleasing to God, but that minal in their own nature; and yet how

vhich is useful to Mankind. An eafters many persons, eminent for piety, suffer

Story. such monstrous and absurd principles of It pleased our mighty fovereign Abbas action to take root in their minds under Carascan, from whom the kings of the the colour of virtues.. For my own part, earth derive honour and dominion, to set I mut own, I never yet knew any party Mirza his servant over the province of fo just and reasonable, that a man could Tauris. In the hand of Mirza, the bafollow it in its height and violence, and at lance of distribution was suspended with the same time be innocent.

impartiality; and under his administration We should likewise be very apprehen. the weak were protected, the learned refive of those a&tions, which proceed from ceived honour, and the diligent became natural constitution, favourite pafsions, par- rich: Mirza, therefore, was beheld by ticular education, or whatever promotes every eye with complacency, and every our worldly interest or advantage. In tongue pronounced bleffings upon his head. these or the like cases, a man's judgment. But it was observed that he derived no joy is easily perverted, and a wrong bias hung from the benefits which he diffused; he upon his mind. These are the inlets of became pensive and melancholy; he spent prejudice, the unguarded avenues of the his leisure in solitude; in his palace he fat mind, by which a thousand errors and fe- motionless upon a sofa; and when he went cret faults find admision, without being out, his walk was now, and his eyes were observed or taken notice of. A wise man fixed upon the ground: he applied to the will fufpect those actions to which he is di- business of state with reluctance; and rerected by something besides reason, and solved to relinquith the toil of government, always apprehend lome concealed evil in of which he could no longer enjoy the reevery refolution that is of a disputable na- ward, ture, when it is conformable to his parti- He, therefore, obtained permission to ap. cular temper, his age, or way of life, or proach the throne of our sovereign; and when it favours his pleasure or his profit. being asked what was his request, he made

There is nothing of greater importance this reply: “ May the Lord of the world to us, than thus diligently to lift our forgive the slave whom he has honourthoughts, and examine all these dark re- “ ed, if Mirza presume again to lay the gefles of the mind, if we would c{tablish « bounty of Abbas at his feet. Thou hast

“ given

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eten me the dominion of a country, « humble, enable me to determine with
ouitfal as the gardens of Damascus; of wisdom.”
" and a city glorious above all others, ex- Mirza departed; and on the third day,

cept that only which reflects the fplen- having received ro command, he again « door of thy presence. But the longest requested an audience, and it was granted. * life is a period scarce fufficient to pre. When he entere i the royal presence, his

pare for death: all other bufiness is vain countenance appeared more chearful; he " and trivial, as the toil of emmets in the drew a letter from his bosom and having

pach of the traveller, under whose foot kissed it, he presented it with his righe. they perish for ever; and ail enjoyment hand. “ My Lord!” faid he, “ I have " is lalabftantial and evanescent, as the “ learned by this letter, wisich I received * colours of the bow that appears in the

" from Cofrou the Iman, who stands now * interval of a storm. Suffer me, there- “ before thee, in what inanner life may * fore, to prepare for the approach of “ be best improved. I am enabled to exerzity; let me give up my soul to « look back with pleasure, and forward * meditation; let solitude and silence ac- “ with hope; and I thall now rejoice ftill

quaint me with the mysteries of devo- " to be the shadow of thy power at Tauris, "top; let me forget the world, and by " and to keep those honours which I so a the world be forgotten, till the moment “ lately wished to refign." The king, " arrives in which the veil of eternity shall who had listened to Mirza with a mixture " fail, and I shall be found at the bar of of surprize and curiosity, immediately " the Almighty." Mirza then bowed gave the letter to Cofrou, and commanded himself to the earth, and stood filent. that it should be read. The eyes of the

By the command of Abbas it is record- court were at once turned upon the hoary ed, that at these words he trembled upon fagę, whose countenance was fuffused with the throne, at the footstool of which the an honest blush; and it was not without world pays homage; he looked round some hesitation that he read these words. upon his nobles; but every countenance “ To Mirza, whom the wisdom of Ab, was pale, and every eye was upon the earth. « bas our mighty Lord has honoured with No man opened his mouth; and the king “ dominion, be everlasting health! When Ert broke filence, after it had continued “ I heard thy purpose to withdraw the Dear an hour,

« blessings of thy government from the " Mirza, terror and doubt are come " thousands of Tauris, my heart was upon me. I am alarmed as a man who « wounded with the arrow of amiation,

inddenly perceives that he is near the « and my eyes became dim with sorrow, "brink of a precipice, and is urged for- “ But who shall speek before the king & ward by an irresistible force: but


I “ when he is troubled; and who shall boat "know not whether my danger is a rea- “ of knowledge, when he is distressed by

biry or a dream. I am as thou art, a “ doubt? To thee will I relate the events * repiile of the earth: my life is a mo- of my youth, which thou hast renewed * ment, and eternity, in which days, and “ before me; and those truths which they

years, and ages, are nothing, eternity is “ taught me, may the Prophet multiply to before me, for which I also should pre

« thee! "par:: but by whom then must the Faith. u Under the instruction of the physician "fel be governed by those only, who “ Aluzar, I obtained an early knowledge " have no fear of judgment? by those “ of his art. To those who were smitten only, whose life is brutal, because like " with disease, I could adminiiter plants, brates they do not consider that they « which the fun has impregnated with the ftall die?' Or who, indeed, are the « spirit of health. But the scenes of pain,

Faithful? Are the busy multitudes that « languor, and mortality, which were pero :: crowd the city, in a state of perdition ? " petually rising before me, made me of

" and is the ceil of the Dervise alone the « ten tremble for myself. I saw the grave

gate of Paradise? To all, the life of a open at my feet: I determined, there. * Dervise is not posible: to all, there- fore, to contemplate only the regions

fore, it cannot be a duty. Depart to * beyond it, and to despise every acquifi' the house which has in this city been « tion which I could not kçep: I con prepared for thy refidence: I will me- « ceived an opinion, that as there was no

tate the reason of thy request; and “ merit bat in voluntary poverty, and • may He who illuminates the mind of the “ filent meditation, chose who defired moa



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* ney were not proper objects of bounty; “ resolution ; but my eyes at length began « and that by all who were proper objects “ to fail me, and my knees (mote each " of bounty money was despised.],“ other; I threw myself backward, and “ therefore, buried mine in the earth; " hoped my weakness would soon increase “ and renouncing society, I wandered “ to‘insenúbility. But I was suddenly “ into a wild and sequestered part of the “ roused by the voice of an invisible being,

country: my dwelling was a cave by “ who pronounced these words: • Corthe side of a hill; I drank the running rou, I am the angel, who by the command * water from the spring, and ate such of the Almighty, have registered the fruits and herbs as I could find. To thoughts of thy heart, which I am now “ increase the austerity of my life, I fre- cominissioned to reprove. While thou

quently watched all night, fitting at the wait attempting to become wise above that

entrance of the cave with my face to which is revealed, thy folly has perverted “the east, resigning myself to the secret the inftruction which was vouchlafed thee. “ influences of the Prophet, and expecting Ait thou disabled as the Fox? haft thou « illuminations from above. One morn- not rather the powers of the Eagle? Arise, “ ing after my nocturnal vigil, just as I let the Eagle be the object of thy emula“ perceived the horizon glow at the ap- tion. To pain and sickness, be thou again “ proach of the fun, the power of feep the messenger of ease and health. Virtue “ became irresistible, and I sunk under it. is not rest, but action. If thou dost good “ I imagined myself still fitting at the to man as an evidence of thy luve to God,

entrance of my cell; that the dawn in- thy virtue will be exalted from moral to “ creased; and that as I looked earnestly divine; and that happiness which is the “ for the first beam of day, a dark spot pledge of Paradise, will be thy reward “ appeared to intercept it. I perceived upon earth.' " that it was in motion; it increased in " At these words I was not less asto“ size as it drew near, and at length I dif- “ nished than if a mountain had been “ covered it to be an eagle. I still kept “ overturned at my feet. I hunibled my

my eye fixed stedfastly upon it, and saw “ self in the duit; I returned to the city ; “ it alight at a small distance, where I now I dug up my treasure; I was liberal, yet I a descried a fox whose two fore-legs ap- “ became rich. My skill in restoring health "peared to be broken. Before this fox “ to the body gave me frequent opportu" the eagle laid part of a kid, which she “ nities of curing the diseales of the soul. " had brought in her talons, and then dis- I put on the sacred vestments; I grew " appeared. When I awaked, I laid my “ eminent beyond my merit; and it was “ forehead upon the ground, and blessed " the pleasure of the king that I should

the Prophet for the instruction of the “ stand before him. Now, therefore, be “ morning. I reviewed my dream, and “ not offended; I boast of no knowledge “ said thus to myself: Cofrou, thou haft " that I have not received: As the fands * done well to renounce the tumult, the “ of the desart drink up the drops of rain, “ business, and vanities of life: but thou “ or the dew of the morning, fo do I “ haft as yet only done it in part; thou « also, who am but dust, imbibe the in“ art ftill every day busied in the search “ (tructions of the Prophet. Believe then “ of food, thy mind is not wholly at rest, « that it is he who tells thee, all know“ neither is chy trust in Providence com- “ ledge is prophane, which terminates in “ plete. What art thou taught by this “ thyself; and by a life wasted in specu« vifion? If thou hast seen an eagle com- “ lation, little even of this can be gained. “ missioned by Heaven to feed a fox that “ When the gates of Paradise are thrown « is lame, shall not the hand of Heaven "

open before thee, thy mind thall be irra« allo supply thee with food; when that “ diated in a moment; here thou canst.

which prevents thee from procuring it “ little more than pile error upon error; “ for thyself; is not neceflity but devotion ? “ there thou shalt build truth upon truth. « I was now so confident of a miraculous “ Wait, therefore, for the glorious vision ; “ fupply, that I neglected to walk out for " and in the mean time emulate the Ea. ko my repast

, which, after the first day, I “ gle. Much is in thy power; and, there« expected with an impatience that left “ fore, much is expected of thee. Though ic me little power of attending to any other “ the ALMIGHTY only can give virtue,

object: this impatience, however, I la. “ yet, as a prince, thou may'it stimulate I boured to suppress, and perfitted in my “ those to beneficence, who act from no




s higher motive than immediate interest: them in, and there leave them, as the ser.' " thou canst not produce the principle, but pent, the crocodile, and oftrich; others & may'it enforce the practice. The re- hatch their eggs and tend the birth, until * lief of the poor is equal, whether they it is able to shift for itself. * receive it from oftentation, or charity ; What can we call the principle which * and the effect of example is the fame, directs every different kind of bird to oba ** whether it be intended to obtain the fa- ferve a particular plan in the structure of « voor of God or man. Let thy virtue its neft, and directs all of the same species * be thus diffused; and if thou believest to work after the same model? It cannot * with revererce, thou shalt be accepted be imitations for though you hatch a crow « above. Farewell. May the smile of under a hen, and never let it see any of the * Him who refides in the Heaven of Hea- works of its own kind, the nest it makes "vens be upon thee! and against thy shall be the same, to the laying of a stick,

name, in the volume of His will, may with all the nests of the same species. It * Happiness be written !”

cannot be reason; for were animals endued The King, whose doubts like those of with it to as great a degree as man, their Mirza, were now removed, looked up with buildings would be as different as ours, acafmile that communicated the joy of his cording to the different conveniencies that mind. He dismissed the prince to his go- they would propose to themselves, vernment; and commanded these events Is it not remarkable that the same temto be recorded, to the end that pofterity per of weather which raises this general Day know “ that no life is pleasing to warmth in animals, should cover the trees a Ġed, bat that which is useful to Man- with leaves, and the fields with grass, for * kind."

Adventurer. their security and concealment, and pro

duce such infinite (warms of insects for the. 25. Providence proved from Animal support and fuftenance of their respective Inftinet,

broods? I molt confess I am infinitely delighted Is it not wonderful, that the love of the with those speculations of nature which are parent should be fo violent' while it lasts, to be made in a country life; and as my and that it should lait no longer than is nereading has very much lain among books of cessary for the preservation of the young? natural history, I cannot forbear recollect- The violence of this natural love is exing, upon this occasion, the several remarks emplified by a very barbarous experiment; Faich I have met with in authors, and which I hall quote at length, as I find it in comparing them with what falls under my an excellent author, and hope my readers own observation; the arguments for Pro- will pardon the mentioning such an instance vidence, drawn from the

natural history of of cruelty, because there is nothing can to arimals, being, in my opinion, demonftra- effectually thew the strength of that prindire.

ciple in animals of which I am here speakThe make of every kind of animal is ing: “ A person, who was well skilled in different from that of every other kind; « dissections, opened a bitch, and as she lay and yet there is not the least turn in the “ in the most exquisite torture, offered her mascles or twist in the fibres of any one, one of her young puppies, which she imwhich does not render them more proper “ mediately fell a licking; and for the for that particular animal's way of life, “ time seemed insensible of her pain: on ban any other cast or texture of them “ the removal, she kept her eye fixed on it, would have been.

“ and began a wailing sort of cry, which The most violent appetites in all crea- “ seemed rather to proceed from the lors tures are luft and hunger: the first is a per- “ of her young one, than the sense of her petual call upon them to propagate their own torments.”! kind; the latter to preserve themselves. But notwithstanding this natural love

It is astonishing to consider the different in brytes is much more violent and intense degrees of care that descend from the pa- than in rational creatures, Providence has rent of the young, fo far as is absolutely taken care that it should be no longer necefsary for the leaving a pofterity, Some troublesome to the parent than it is useful creatures cast their eggs as chance directs to the young; for so soon as the wants of them, and think of them no farther, as in- the latter cease, the mother withdraws her fects and several kind of fish; others, of a fondness, and leaves them to provide for sicer frame, find out proper beds to deposit themfelves: and what is a very remarkable



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