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the noble works of the Grecian artists that number of statues and pictures, to set off had been set up for some time in the tem- their triumphs, and to adorn the city of ples, and porticos, and all the most public Rome. It is surprising what accessions of places of the city, and who used frequently this kind were made in the compafs of a to spend the greatest part of the day in little more than half a century after Marcontemplating the beauties of them, ex- cellus had set the example. The elder tolled Marcellus as much for the pleasure Scipio Africanus brought in a great numhe had given them « We shall now,” ber of wrought vases from Spain and said they, “ no longer be reckoned among Afric, toward the end of the second Punie “ the Barbarians. That ruft, which we war; and the very year after that was “ have been so long contracting, will soon finished, the Romans entered into a war “ be worn off. Other generals have con- with Greece, the great school of all the “ quered our enemies, but Marcellus has arts, and the chief repository of most of the “ conquered our ignorance. We begin to finett works that ever were produced by “ see with new eyes, and have a new world them. It would be endless to mention all “ of beauties opening before us. Let the their acquisitions from hence; I hall only “ Romans be polite, as well as victorious; put you in mind of some of the most con« and let us learn to excel the nations in fiderable. Flaminius made a great shew • taste, as well as to conquer them with our both of statues and vales in his triumph

over Philip king of Macedon; but he was Whichever side was in the right, the much exceeded by Æmilius, who reduced party for Marcellus was the luccessful that kingdom into a province. Emilius's one; for, from this point of time we may triumph lasted three days; the firit of which date the introduction of the arts into Rome. was wholly taken up in bringing in the The Romans by this means began to be fine statues he had selected in his expedifond of them; and the love of the arts is a tion; as the chief ornament of the second passion, which grows very fast in any breast, consisted in vases and sculptured vessels of wherever it is once entertained.

all sorts, by the most eminent hands. Thele We may fee how fast and how greatly it were all the most chosen things, culled prevailed at Rome, by a speech which old from the collection of that successor of Cato the censor made in the senate, not Alexander the Great; for as to the infe. above seventeen years after the taking of rior spoils of no less than seventy Grecian Syracuse. He complains in it, that their cities, Æmilius had left them all to his people began to run into Greece and Afia; soldiery, as not worthy, to appear among and to be infected with a desire of playing the ornaments of his triumph. with their fine things : that as to such years after this, the young Scipio Africaspoils, there was leis honour in taking nus (the person who is moit celebrated for them, than there was danger of their be- his polite taste of all the Romans hitherto, ing taken by them: that the gods brought and who was scarce exceeded by any one from Syracuse, had revenged the cause of of them in all the succeeding ages) deits citizens, in spreading this tatte among stroyed Carthage, and transferred many of the Romans: that he heard but too many the chief ornaments of that city, which daily crying up the ornaments of Corinth had so long bid fair for being the seat of and Athens; and ridiculing the poor old empire, to Rome, which soon became unRoman gods; who had hitherto been pro- doubtedly so. This must have been a vast pitious to them; and who, he hoped, would accession : though that great man, who itill continue so, if they would but let their was as just in his actions as he was elegant ftatues remain in peace upon their pedes- in his taste, did not bring all the fineit of tals. Spence. his spoils to Rome, but left a great part

of $ 64. The Roman Generals, in their fever merly been taken by the Carthaginians;

them in Sicily, from whence they had forral Conquests, convey great Numbers of The very fame year that Scipio freed Pictures and Statues to Rome.

Rome from its most dangerous rival, Car. It was in vain too that Cato spoke thage, Mummius (who was as remarkable against it; for the love of the arts pre- for his rusticity, as Scipio was for elegance vailed every day more and more ; and and taste) added Achaia to the Roman from henceforward the Roman generals, ftate; and facked, among several others, in their several conquests, seem to have the famous city of Corinth, which had been strove who fhould bring away the greatett long looked upon as one of the principal

Not many

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reservoirs

reservoirs of the finest works of art. He in all Sicily, which he did not see; nor any cleared it of all its beauties, without know- one he liked, which he did not take away ing any thing of them: even without know. from its owner. What he thus got, he sent ing, that an old Grecian statue was better into Italy. Rome was the centre both of than a new Roman one. He used, how- their spoils in war, and of their rapines in ever, the surest snethod of not being mis- peace : and if many of their prætors and taken; for he took all indifferently as they proconsuls acted but in half fó abandoned came in his way; and brought them off in a manner as this Verres appears to have fuch quantities, that he alone is said to done, it is very probable that Rome was have filled Rome with ftatues and pictures. more enriched in all these fort of things Thus, partly from the taste, and partly from secretly by their governors, than it had been the vanity of their generals, in less than openly by their generals.

Spence. feventy years time (reckoning from Marcellus's taking of Syracuse to the year in $65: The Methods made use of in drawing

the l'orks of the best ancient Artists into which Carthage was destroyed) Italy was

Italy. furnished with the noblett productions of the ancient artists, that before lay scattered

There was another method of augmentall over Spain, Afric, Sicily, and the rest ing these treasures at Rome, not to infaof Greece. Sylla, beside many others, mous as this, and not so glorious as the added vastly to them afterwards ; particu- former. What I mean, was the custom of larly by his taking of Athens, and by his the Ædiles, when they exhibited their conquests in Afia; where, by his too great public games, of adorning the theatres and andulgence to his armies, he made tatte and other places where they were performed, rapine a general thing, even among the with great numbers of statues and pictures : common foldiers, as it had been, for a long which they bought up or borrowed, for ume, among their leaders.

that purpose, all over Greece, and someIn this manner, the first considerable ac- times even from Asia. Scaurus, in parti. quifitions were made by their conquering cular, in his ædileship, had no less than armies; and they were carried on by the three thousand statues and relievos for the perlons sent out to govern their provinces, mere ornamenting of the stage, in a theaWhen conquered. As the behaviour of these tre built only for four or five days. This in their governments, in general, was one was the same Scaurus wbo (whilft he was of the greatest blots on the Roman nation, in the fame office too) brought to Rome xe mult not expect a full account of their all the pictures of Sicyon, which had been Transactions in the old historians, who treat so long one of the most eminent schools in particularly of the Roman affairs : for such Greece for painting; in lieu of debts owof these that remain to us, are either Ro- ing, or pretended to be owed, from that inans chemselves, or else Greeks who were city to the Roman people. 100 much attached to the Roman interest, From these public methods of drawing to speak out the whole truth in this affair. the works of the best ancient artists into But what we cannot have fully from their Italy, it grew at length to be a part of priown historians; may be pretty well supplied vate luxury, affected by almost every body from other hands. A poet of their own, that could afford it, to adorn their houtes, who seems to have been a very honest man, their porticos, and their gardens, with the has set the rapaciousness of their governors beft ftatues and pictures they could procure in general in a very strong light; as Ci- out of Greece or Alia. None went earlier cero has set forth that of Verres in parti- into this taste, than the family of the Lucular, as strongly.. If we may judge of culli, and particularly Lucius Lucullus, their general behaviour by that of this go- who carried on the war against Mithrivernor of Sicily, they were more like mon- dates. He was remarkable for his love of kers and harpies, than men. For that the arts and polite learning even from a public robber (as Cicero calls him, more child; and in the latter part of his life than once) hunted over every corner of his 'gave himself up so much to collections of island, with a couple of finders (one a this kind, that Plutarch reckons it

among Greek painter, and the other a statuary of his follies. “ As I am speaking of his the same nation) to get together his collec- faults (says that historian in his life) I uion; and was so curious and so rapacious should not omit his vait baths, and piazzas in that search, that Cicero fays, there was for walking; or his gardens, which were not a gem, or statue, or relievo, or picture, much more magnificent than any in his time

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at Rome, and equal to any in the luxurious streets, with an addition of some of the fineft ages that followed; nor his exceflive fond- ftatues in the world.

Spence. ness for ftatues and pictures, which he got $ 66. On the Decline of the Arts, Elo. from all parts, to adorn his works and gardens, at an immense expence; and with

quence, and Poetry, upon the Deatb of the vast riches he had heapcd together in

Auguftus. the Mithridatic war.” There were feve- On the death of Augustus, though the ral other families which fell about that arts, and the taste for them, did not suffer time into the same sort of excess; and, so great a change, as appeared immediamong the rest, the Julian... The first em- ately in the taste of eloquence and poetry, peror, who was of that family, was a great yet they must have suffered a good deal. collector ; and, in particular, was as fond There is a secret union, a certair. kind of of old gems, as his successor, Auguftus, was sympathy between all the polite arts, which of Corinthian vases.

makes them languish and flourish together. This may be called the first age of the The same circumstances are either kind or flourishing of the politer arts at Rome; or unfriendly to all of them. The favour of rather the age in which they were intro- Auguftus, and the tranquillity of his reign, duced there for the people in this period was as a gentle dew from heaven, in a fawere chiefly taken up in getting fine things, vourable season, that made them bud forth and bringing them together. There were and flourish; and the four reign of Tibeperhaps some particular persons in it of a rius, was as a sudden frost that checked very good taste : but in general one may their growth, and at lait killed all their fay, there was rather a love, than any great beauties. The vanity, and tyranny, and knowledge of their beauties, during this disturbances of the times that followed, age, among the Romans. They were gave the finishing stroke to sculpture as brought to Rome in the first part of it, in well as eloquence, and to painting as well greater numbers than can be cañiy con- as poetry. The Greek artists at Rome ceived ; and in some time, every bi dy be- were not so soon or fo much infected by gan to look upon them with pleasure. The the bad taste of the court, as the Roman coi ection was continually augmenting af- writers were; but it reached them too, terwards, from the several methods I have though by flower and more imperceptible mentioned ; and I doubt not but a good degrees. Indeed what else could be extalte would have been a general thing pited from such a run of monsters as Tj. among them much earlier than it was, had berius, C.ligula, and Nero? For these it not been for the frequent convulsions in were the emperors under whose reigns the their itate, and the perpetaal struggles of arts began to languith; and they fuffered fome great man or other to get the reins so much from their baleful influence, that of government into his hands. These con- the Roman writers soon after them speak tinued quite from Sylla's time to the esta- of all the arts as being brought to a very blishment of the ttate under Auguftus. low ebb. They talk of their being exThe peaceful times that then succeeded, tremely fallen in general; and as to paintand the encouragement which was given ing, in particular, they represent it as in a by that emperor to all the arts, afforded mest feeble and dying condi:ion. The rethe Romans fall leisure to contemplate the ries of so many good emperors, which hapfine works that were got together at Rome pened after Domitian, gave iome spirit in the age before, and to perfect their taste again to the arts; but soon after the Anin all the elegancies of life. The artists, tonines, they all declined apace, and, by who were then much invited to Rome, the time of the thirty tyrants, were quite worked in a style greatly superior to what fallen, so as never to rise again under any they had done even in Julius Cæsar's time: future Roman emperor. so that it is under Auguftus that we may You may fee by these two accounts I begin the second, and most perfect age of have given you of the Roman poetry, and fculpture and painting, as well as of poetry. of the other arts, that the great periods of Augustus changed the whole appearance their rise, their flourishing, and their de. of Rome itself; he found it ill built, and cline, agrce very well; and, as it were, left it a city of marble. He adorned it tally with one another. Their style was with buildings, extremely finer than any it prepared, and a vast collection of fine could boast before his time, and set off all works laid in, under the first period, or in those buildings, and even the common the times of the republic: In the second,

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or the Augustan age, their writers and ar- orator a finer field than Demosthenes in his tits were both in their highest perfection; Olynthiacs and Philippics, which are his and in the third, from Tiberius to the Ana capital orations : and, no doubt, to the notonines, they both began to languish; and bleness of the subject, and to that integrity then revived a little; and at lait funk to- and public spirit which eminently breathe tally together.

in them, they are indebted for much of In comparing the descriptions of their their merit. The subject is, to rouze the poets with the works of art, I should there. indignation of his countrymen against Phifore chuse to omit all the Roman poets af- lip of Macedon, the public enemy of the ter the Antonines. Among them all, there liberties of Greece; and to guard them is perhaps no one whole omission need be against the insidious measures, by which regretted, except that of Claudian; and that crafty prince endeavoured to lay them even as to him it may be considered, that asleep to danger. In the prosecution of he wrote when the true knowledge of the this end, we see him taking every proper arts was no more; and when the true talte method to animate a people, renowned for of poetry was ftrangely corrupted and loft; justice, humanity and valour, but in many even if we were to judge of it by his own instances become corrupt and degenerate. writings only, which are extremely better He boldly taxes them with their venality, than any of the poets long before and long their indolence, and indifference to the after him. It is therefore much better to public cause; while, at the same time, with confine one's self to the three great ages, all the art of an orator, he recals the than to run so far out of one's way for a glory of their ancestors to their thoughts, single poet or two; whose authorities, after thews them that they are still a flourishing all, mult be very disputable, and indeed and a powerful people, the natural protec(carce of any weight.

Spence. tors of the liberty of Greece, and who

wanted only the inclination to exert them$67. On DEMOSTHENES.

selves, in order to make Philip tremble. I shall not spend any time upon the cir- With his cotemporary orators, who were cumstances of Demofthenes's lífe; they are in Philip's intereit, and who persuaded the well known. The strong ambition which people to peace, he keeps no measures, he discovered to excel in the art of speak- but plainly reproaches them as the betraying; the unsuccessfulness of his firit at- ers of their country. He not only prompts tempts; his unwearied perseverance in fur- to vigorous conduct, but he lays down the mounting all the disadvantages that arose plan of that conduct; he enters into parfrom his person and address; his fhutting ticulars; and points out, with great exhimself up in a cave, that he might study actness, the measures of execution. This with less distraction; his declaiming by the is the strain of these orations. They are sea-shore, that he might accustom himself Atrongly animated; and full of the impeto the noise of a tumultuous assembly, and tuosity and fire of public spirit. They with pebbles in his mouth, that he might proceed in a continued train of inductions, correct a defe&t in his speech; his practif- consequences, and demonstrations, founding at home with a naked sword hanging ed on found reason. The figures which over his shoulder that he 'might check an he uses, are never fought after ; but alungraceful motion, to which he was sub- ways rise from the subject. He employs ject; all those circumstances, which we them sparingly indeed; for splendour and learn from Plutarch, are very encouraging ornament are not the distinctions of this to such as ftudy Eloquence, as they fhew orator's compofition. It is an energy of how far art and application may avail

, for thought, peculiar to himself, which forms acquiring an excellence which nature seem- his character, and sets him above all ed unwilling to grant us. Blair. others. He appears to attend much more $68. DeMOSTHENEs imitated the man

to things than to words. We forget the

orator, and think of the businels. He ly Eloquence of PericlES.

warms the mind, and impels to action. Despising the affected and forid man. He has no parade and oftentation; no mener which the rhetoricians of that age fol- thods of insinuation; no laboured introlowed, Demosthenes returned to the for- ductions; but is like a man full of his subcible and manly eloquence of Pericles; and jeć, who, after preparing his audience, by It rength and vehemence form the princi- a sentence or two for hearing plain truths, pal characteristics of his Style. Never had enters directly on business. Ilid.

§ 69. DEMOSTHENES contrafted with is, on every occasion, grave, serious, pas

. He ÆSCHINES.

fionate ; takes every thing on a high tone; Demosthenes appears to great advan- never lets himself down, nor attempts any tage, when contraited with Atchines, in thing like pleasantry. If any fault can be the celebrated oration « pro Corona.” found in his admirable eloquence, it is, that Æschines was his rival in business, and he sometimes borders on the hard and dry. personal enemy; and one of the most dif- He may be thought to want smoothness and tinguished orators of that age. But when

grace; which Dionyfius of Halicarnaffus we read the two orations, Åschines is fee

attributes to his imitating too closely the ble in comparison of Demofthenes, and manner of Thucydides, who was his great makes much less impression on the mind. model for Style, and whose history he is His reasonings concerning the law that said to have written eight times over with was in queftion, are indeed very subtile; his own hand. But these defects are far but his invective against Demosthenes is more than compensated, by that admirageneral, and ill-fupported. Whereas De- ble and masterly force of masculine elo. mofthenes is a torrent, that nothing can quence, which, as it overpowered all who resist. He bears down his antagonist with heard it, cannot, at this day, be read withviolence; he draws his character in the out emotion. strongest colours; and the particular merit After the days of Demosthenes, Greece of that oration is, that all the descriptions loft her liberty, eloquence of course lanin it are highly picturesque. There runs guished, and relapsed again into the feeble through it a strain of magnanimity and manner introduced by the Rhetoricians and high honour: the orator speaks with that Sophists. Demetrius Phalerius, who lived strength and conscious dignity which great in the next age to Demofthenes, attained actions and public spirit alone inipire. indeed some character, but he is representBoth orators use great liberties with one ed to us as a flowery, rather than a peranother; and, in general, that unrestrain- fuafive speaker, who aimed at grace raed licence which ancient manners permit. ther than substance. “ Delectabat Atheted, even to the length of abusive names “ nienses,” says Cicero, “ magis quam and downright fcurrility, as appears both “ inflammabat.” “He amused the Athehere and in Cicero's Philippics, hurts and “ nians, rather than warmed them.” And offends a modern ear. What those ancient after his time, we hear of no more Greorators gained by such a manner in point cian orators of any note.

Ibid. of freedom and boldness, is more than compensated by want of dignity; which

§ 71. On CICERO. seems to give an advantage, in this re- The object in this period most worthy fpect, to the greater decency of modern to draw our attention, 'is Cicero himtell; speaking

Blair. whose name alone suggests every thing

that is splendid in oratory. With the hil$ 70. On the Style of DeMOSTHENES.

tory of his life, and with his character, as The Style of Demosthenes is strong and a man and a politician, we have not at concise, though sometimes, it must not be present any direct concern. We consider diffembled, harsh and abrupt. His words him only as an eloquent speaker; and, in are very expressive; his arrangement is this view, it is our business to temark both firm and manly; and, tho' far from being his virtues, and his defects, if he has any. unmusical, yet it seems difficult to find in His virtues are, beyond controversy, emihim that studied, but concealed number, nently great. In all his orations there is and rhythmus, which fome of the ancient high 'art. He begins, generally, with a recritics are fond of attributing to him. gular exordium; and with much preparaNegligent of those lesser graces, one would tion and insinuation prepossesses the hearers, rather conceive him to have aimed at that and studies to gain their affections. His sublime which lies in sentiment. His ac- method is clear, and his arguments are artion and pronunciation are recorded to ranged with great propriety. His method have been uncommonly vehement and is indeed more clear than that of Demosardent; which, from the manner of his thenes; and this is one advantage which composition, we are naturally led to be- he has over him. We find every thing in lieve. The character which one forms of its proper place; he never attempts to him, from reading his works, is of the move till he has endeavoured to convince;

and

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