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CONNECTICUT. WILLIAM SAMUEL JOHNSON, ROGER SHERMAN.
NEW YORK. ALEXANDER HAMILTON.
MARYLAND. JAMES MCHENRY, DANIEL OF ST. TH. JENIFER, DANIEL CARROLL.
VIRGINIA, JOHN BLAIR, JAMES MADISON, JR.
NEW HAMPSHIRE, JOHN LANGDON, NICHOLAS GILMAN.
MASSACHUSETTS. NATHANIEL GORHAM, RUFUS KING,
NEW JERSEY. WILLIAM LIVINGSTON, D'AVID BREARLY, WILLIAM PATTERSON, JONATHAN DAYTON.
PENNSYLVANIA. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, THOMAS MIFFLIN, ROBERT MORRIS, GEORGE CLYMER, THOMAS FITZSIMMONS, JARED INGERSOLL, JAMES WILSON, GIOUVERNEUR MORRIS.
DELAWARE. GEORGE READ, GUNNING BEDFORD, JR., JOHN DICKINSON, RICHARD BASSETT, JACOB BROOM.
NORTH CAROLINA. WILLIAM BLOUNT, RICHARD DOBBS SPAIGHT, HUGH WILLIAMSON.
SOUTH CAROLINA. JOHN RUTLEDGE, CHARLES C. PINCKNEY, CHARLES PINCKNEY, PIERCE BUTLER.
GEORGIA. WILLIAM FEW, ABRAHAM BALDWIN.
Attest: WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary. AMENDMENTS.
RESTRICTIONS ON POWERS OF CONGRESS. SECTION 1. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof, or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. [Proposed September 25, 1789; ratified December 15, 1791]
RIGHT TO BEAR ARMS. SECTION 1. A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.—[1d.]
BILLETING OF SOLDIERS. SECTION 1. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.-[Id.]
SEIZURES, SEARCHES, AND WARRANTS. SECTION 1. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue but upon reasonable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the person or things to be seized.-[18.]
ARTICLE V. CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS AND CONDEMNATION OF
PROPERTY. SECTION 1. No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the
same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.—[1d.]
ARTICLE VI. MODE OF TRIAL IN CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS. SECTION 1. In all criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense. -[1d.]
TRIAL BY JURY. SECTION 1. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved ; and no fact, tried by jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States than according to the rules of common law.-[Id.]
BAILS-FINES-PUNISHMENTS. SECTION 1. Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. [Id.]
ARTICLE IX. CERTAIN RIGHTS NOT DENIED TO THE PEOPLE. SECTION 1. The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.—[Id.]
STATE RIGHTS. SECTION 1. The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States, respectively, or to the people.-[1d.]
JUDICIAL POWERS. SECTION 1. The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by the citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign State.---[Proposed March 5, 1794; ratified January 8, 1998]
ARTICLE XII. ELECTION OF PRESIDENT AND VICE-PRESIDENT. SECTION 1. The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President; and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as VicePresident, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, if such a number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed ; and if no person have such a majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President, whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as VicePresident shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States. [Proposed December 12, 1803; ratified September 25, 1804]
SLAVERY. SECTION 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
SEC. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. [Declared ratified December 18, 1865. (U. S. Statutes at Large, Vol. 13, p. 775)]
CITIZENSHIP, REPRESENTATION, AND PAYMENT OF
PUBLIC DEBT. Citizenship.
SECTION 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without · due process of law, nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. Apportionment of Representatives.
SEC. 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States, according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being tw y-one years of age and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime,