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States, so that no period of adjournment be for a longer duration than the space of six months; and shall publish the journal of their proceedings monthly, except such parts thereof relating to treaties, alliances, or military operations, as in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the delegates of each state on any question shall be entered on the journal, when it is desired by any delegate; and the delegates of a state, or any of them, at his or their request, shall be furnished with a transcript of the said journal, except such parts as are above excepted, to lay before the legislatures of the several states.

ART. X. The Committee of the States, or any nine of them, shall be authorized to execute, in the recess of Congress, such of the powers of Congress as the United States, in Congress assembled, by the consent of nine states, shall, from time to time, think expedient to vest them with ; provided, that no power be delegated to the said committee, for the exercise of which, by the Articles of Confederation, the voice of nine states in the Congress of the United States assembled is requisite.

ART. XI. Canada acceding to this Confederation, and joining in the measures of the United States, shall be admitted into, and entitled to all the advantages of this Union; but no other colony shall be admitted into the same, unless such admission be agreed to by nine states.

ART. XII. All bills of credit emitted, moneys borrowed and debts contracted, by or under the authority of Congress, before the assembling of the United States, in pursuance of the present Confederation, shall be deemed and considered as a charge against the United States, for payment and satisfaction whereof the said United States and the public faith are hereby solemnly pledged.

ART. XIII. Every state shall abide by the determinations of the United States, in Congress assembled, on all questions which by this Confederation are submitted to them. And the Articles of this Confederation shall be inviolably observed by every state, and the Union shall be perpetual; nor shall any alteration at any time hereafter be made in any of them, unless such alteration be agreed to in a Congress of the United States, and be afterwards confirmed by the leg slature of every state.

AND WHEREAS, It hath pleased the Great Governor of the world to incline the hearts of the legislatures we respectively represent in Congress, to approve of, and to authorize us to

ratify the said Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union. Know ye that we, the undersigned delegates, by virtue of the power and authority to us given for that purpose, do by these presents, in the name and in behalf of oui respective constituents, fully and entirely ratify and confirm each and every of the said Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union, and all and singular the matters and things therein contained.

And we do further solemnly plight and engage the faith of our respective constituents, that they shall abide by the determinations of the United States, in Congress assembled, on all questions which by the said Confederation are submitted to them ; and that the articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the states we respectively represent, and that the Union shall be perpetual.

In witness whereof, we have hereunto set our hands in Congress. Done at Philadelphia, in the State of Pennsylvania, the 9th day of July, in the year of our Lord, 1778, and in the 3d year of the Independence of America.

JOSIAH BARTLETT, JOHN WENT

On the part and beWORTH, JR., half of the State of

Aug. 8, 1778. New Hampshire. JOHN HANCOCK, FRANCIS DANA, On the part and beSAMUEL ADAMS, JAMES LOVELL,

half of the State of ELBRIDGE GERRY, SAMUEL HOLTON, Massachusetts Bay.

On the part and be

half of the State of WILLIAM ELLERY, JOHN COLLINS,

Rhode Island and HENRY MARCHANT,

Providence Planta

tions. ROGER SHERMAN, TITUS HOSMER, On the part and beSAM'L HUNTINGTON, ANDREW ADAM,

half of the State of OLIVER WOLCOTT,

Connecticut. JAMES DUANE, WILLIAM DUER, On the part and beFRANCIS LEWIS, GOUVERNEUR

half of the State of MORRIS, New York.

On the part and beJOHN WITHERSPOON, NATHANIEL

half of the State of SCUDDER, ! New Jersey, No

Įvember 26, 1778. ROBERT MORRIS, WILLIAM CLINGAN, On the part and beDANIEL ROBERDEAU, JOSEPH REED,

half of the State of J. BAYARD SMITH, July 22, 1778. Pennsylvania. THOMAS MOKEAN, JOHN DICKINSON. On the part and be

Feb. 12, 1779. May 5, 1779. } half of the State of NICHOLAS VANDYKE

Delaware.

JOHN HANSON, DANIEL CARROLL, ? On the part and be-
March 1, 1781. March 1, 1781. half of the State of

Maryland.
RICHARD HENRY LEE JOHN HARVIE,

On the part and be-
JOHN BANISTER, F. LIGHTFOOT LEE, half of the State of
THOMAS ADAMS,

Virginia.
JOHN PENN,
CORNELIUS

On the part and be-
July 21, 1778.

HARNETT, half of the State of

JOHN WILLIAMS, North Carolina. HENRY LAURENS, RICHARD HUTSON, On the part and beWM HENRY DRAYTON THOS. HEYWARD, JR., half of the State of JOHN MATTHEWS,

South Carolina. JOHN WALTON, EDWARD TELFAIR,

On the part and be

half of the State of
July 24, 1778.

Edw'D LANGWORTHY, Georgia.
The Articles of Confederation were ratified by the States as
follows:
South Carolina Feb. 5, 1778 Massachusetts --Mar. 10, 1778
New York - Feb. 6, 1778 North Carolina-April 5, 1778
Rhode Island ---Feb. 9, 1778 New Jersey -----Nov. 19, 1778
Connecticut Feb. 12, 1778 Virginia

Dec. 15, 1778
Georgia

-Feb. 26, 1778 Delaware Feb. 1, 1779 New Hampshire_Mar. 4, 1778 Maryland Jan. 30, 1781 Pennsylvania ---Mar. 5, 1778

The ratification by all the States was formally announced to the public March 1, 1781.

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CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES.

PREAMBLE. We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

ARTICLE I.

LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT. Congress.

SECTION 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. Election of Representatives.

SEC. 2. 1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature. Qualifications of Representatives.

2. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained the age of twenty-five years and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen. Apportionment of Representatives.

3. [Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each state shall have

at least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.]

This clause has been superseded, so far as it relates to representation, by section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. Vacancies.

4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies. Officers of the House.

5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment.

THE SENATE. Number of Senators.

SEC. 3. 1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each state, elected by the people thereof for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislatures. [Proposed by Sirty-second ('ongress, second session; proclaimed Way 31, 1913]

Original text.- SEC. 3. 1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six years, and each Senator shall have one yote. Classification of Senators-Vacancies.

2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class, shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one third may be chosen every second year. When vacancies happen in the representation of any state in the Senate, the executive authority of such state shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies; provided, that the legislature of any state may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments

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