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Uniform general laws.

SEC. 11. All laws of a general nature shall have a uniform operation. [Constitution of 1849, Art. I, § 11]

56 Cal. 638 ; 57 Cal. 160; 58 Cal. 61 ; 59 Cal. 12; 60 Cal. 189; 65 Cal. 35; 68 Cal. 145; 69 Cal. 151; 71 Cal. 630, 631; 76 Cal. 442; 84 Cal. 76; 89 Cal. 472, 523; 90 Cal. 538 ; 91 Cal. 238, 249; 94 Cal. 603, 620, 624, 632; 104 Cal. 351, 645; 105 Cal. 616; 109 Cal. 334, 497; 110 Cal. 652; 111 Cal. 371, 372, 569 ; 112 Cal. 474; 113 Cal. 646; 115 Cal. 550 ; 118 Cal. 305, 408; 120 Cal. 650; 122 Cal. 147 ; 124 Cal. 347; 126 Cal. 37; 127 Cal. 7; 129 Cal. 343; 134 Cal. 53, 55; 136 Cal. 528, 538; 137 Cal. 481 ; 138 Cal. 381 ; 140 Cal. 487; 143 Cal. 414; 144 Cal. 269; 147 Cal. 334 ; 148 Cal. 265, 748; 149 Cal. 400; 151 Cal. 334 ; 153 Cal. 61, 62 ; 135 Cal. 381, 657 ; 157 Cal. 55, 75, 158, 159, 163, 164; 162 Cal. 590, 691 ; 164 Cal. 326, 400, 568; 1 Cal. App. 199; 6 Cal. App. 240, 241; 11 Cal. App. 407; 12 Cal. App. 405; 17 Cal. App. 425; 18 Cal. App. 33; 24 Cal. App. 89, 218; 170 Cal. 50; 172 Cal. 398; 25 Cal. App. 95; 29 Cal. App. 216.

Civil power supreme.

SEC. 12. The military shall be subordinate to the civil power. No standing army shall be kept up by this State in time of peace, and no soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, except in the manner prescribed by law. [Constitution of 1849, Art. I, 8 $ 12 and 13]

19 Cal. App. Dec. 843.

Criminal prosecutions-Rights of accused.

SEC. 13. In criminal prosecutions, in any court whatever, the party accused shall have the right to a speedy and public trial; to have the process of the court to compel the attendance of witnesses in his behalf, and to appear and defend, in person and with counsel. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy for the same offense; nor be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against himself; nor be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law. The Legislature shall have power to provide for the taking, in the presence of the party accused and his counsel, of depositions of witnesses, in criminal cases other than cases of homicide, when there is reason to believe that the witness, from inability or other cause, will not attend at the trial. [Constitution of 1849, Art. I, portion of $ 8]

54 Cal. 531 ; 55 Cal. 290, 296; 57 Cal. 251 ; 62 Cal. 491 ; 63 Cal. 219, 293; 64 Cal. 401; 65 Cal. 223, 232; 66 Cal. 102, 603; 67 Cal. 99; 68 Cal. 18, 630; 69 Cal. 301, 372; 70. Cal. 18; 73 Cal. 582; 74 Cal. 22, 38; 76 Cal. 57, 344; 77 Cal. 30, 177, 183, 213; 79 Cal. 181, 429; 82 Cal. 459, 461, 462, 463, 465, 466, 468; 84 Cal. 441; 83 Cal. 383, 516; 91 Cal. 30; 92 Cal. 486; 98 Cal. 681; 99 Cal. 231, 361; 100 Cal. 153; 103 Cal. 193, 245, 354; 104 Cal. 527; 105 Cal. 606, 615, 643; 107 Cal. 288; 108 Cal. 324, 607; 113 Cal. 284 ; 114 Cal. 57; 115 Cal. 61; 116 Cal. 77, 250,

117 Cal. 10; 122 Cal. 126; 127 Cal. 7; 130 Cal. 123; 132 Cal. 501 ; 133 Cal. 351, 354, 355 ; 136 Cal. 125, 295; 143 Cal. 698; 144 Cal. 56, 334; 145 Cal. 90; 146 Cal. 315; 150 Cal. 34, 550 ; 151 Cal. 204 ; 152 Cal. 617; 154 Cal. 308, 322, 390 ; 160 Cal. 338, 427 ; 165 Cal. 61 ; 48 Cal. Dec. 554; 1 Cal. App. 199; 2 Cal. App. 204; 5 Cal. App. 214, 590, 759; 6 Cal. App. 236; 7 Cal. App. 753; 8 Cal. App. 117; 9 Cal. App. 200, 250; 11 Cal. App. 472; 13 Cal. App. 545 ; 14 Cal. App. 114; 17 Cal. App. 6; 18 Cal. App. 65; 24 Cal. App. 800; 168 Cal. 781 ; 170 Cal. 341; 26 Cal. App. 337; 27 Cal. App. 503; 29 Cal. App. 3; 23 Cal. App. Dec. 162, 759; 24 Cal. App. Dec. 64, 362.

392;

Rights of private property.

SEC. 14. Private property shall not be taken or damaged for public use without just compensation having first been made to, or paid into court for, the owner, and no right of way shall be appropriated to the use of any corporation other than municipal until full compensation therefor be first made in money or ascertained and paid into court for the owner, irrespective of any benefits from any improvement proposed by such corporation, which compensation shall be ascertained by a jury, unless a jury be waived, as in other civil cases in a court of record, as shall be prescribed by law. The taking of private property for a railroad run by steam or electric power for logging or lumbering purposes shall be deemed a taking for a public use, and any person, firm, company or corporation taking private property under the law of eminent domain for such purposes shall thereupon and thereby become a common carrier. [Amendment adopted October 10, 1911]

Original text.—SEC. 14. Private property shall not be taken or damaged for public use without just compensation having been first made to, or paid into court for, the owner, and no right of way shall be appropriated to the use of any corporation other than municipal until full compensation therefor be first made in money or ascertained and paid into court for the owner, irrespective of any benefit from any improvement proposed by such corporation, which compensation shall be ascertained by a jury, unless a jury be waived, as in other civil cases in a court of record, as shall be prescribed by law. [Constitution of 1849, Art. I, portion of $ 8]

50 Cal. 285, 411; 54 Cal. 324; 59 Cal. 265, 267; 60 Cal. 210; 61 Cal. 91 ; 64 Cal. 114, 178; 65 Cal. 250, 294; 66 Cal. 492, 501 ; 67 Cal. 49, 62, 64, 545; 68 Cal. 62, 65 ; 69 Cal. 206, 265, 301 ; 73 Cal. 40; 74 Cal. 261, 262; 77 Cal. 29; 78 Cal. 72; 79 Cal. 162, 551; 83 Cal. 569; 85 Cal. 614; 86 Cal. 48; 91 Cal. 456; 94 Cal. 492; 95 Cal. 223; 98 Cal. 262, 617, 618; 102 Cal. 663; 103 Cal. 461, 470, 616; 104 Cal. 20; 106 Cal. 284; 109 Cal. 622; 111 Cal. 563; 112 Cal. 309; 118 Cal. 281, 287, 288, 572, 584; 124 Cal. 643; 125 Cal. 106; 126 Cal. 22, 153; 130 Cal. 495, 634, 636, 637; 133 Cal. 105; 137 Cal. 579, 621, 629; 141 Cal. 49; 142 Cal. 650; 144 Cal. 212 ; 150 Cal. 175; 151 Cal. 273, 275, 279 ; 154 Cal. 322; 155 Cal. 320; 157 Cal. 75, 79; 160 Cal. 299; 162 Cal. 717; 166 Cal. 658, 661, 688; 1 Cal. App. 444 ; 2 Cal. App. 560; 5 Cal. App. 730; 10 Cal. App. 381 ; 19 Cal. App. 134 ; 24 Cal. App. 266; 23 Cal. App. 273 ; 19 Cal. App. Dec. 182 ; 169 Cal. 555–557; 171 Cal. 103, 104, 398, 679, 710; 172 Cal. 333; 27 Cal. App. 568; 29 Cal. App. 219; 52 Cal. Dec. 613; 53 Cal. Dec. 49, 153 ; 23 Cal. App. Dec. 778; 24 Cal. App. Dec. 142.

No imprisonment for debt.

SEC. 15. No person shall be imprisoned for debt in any civil action, on mesne or final process, unless in cases of fraud, nor in civil actions for torts, except in cases of wilful injury to person or property; and no person shall be imprisoned for a militia fine in time of peace. [Constitution of 1849, Art. I, $15]

67 Cal. 216; 80 Cal. 212; 86 Cal. 71; 134 Cal. 661; 138 Cal. 250; 26 Cal. App. 25; 30 Cal. App. 465.

Bill of attainder-Ex post facto law-Obligation of contract.

SEC. 16. No bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law

impairing the obligations of contracts, shall ever be passed. [Constitution of 1849, Art. I, § 16]

54 Cal. 41; 59 Cal. 288 ; 65 Cal. 67, 383; 68 Cal. 91, 428; 72 Cal. 466; 74 Cal. 224; 79 Cal. 183, 537; 85 Cal. 81 ; 89 Cal. 387; 93 Cal. 427; 104 Cal. 448; 116 Cal. 340, 523; 117 Cal. 140; 119 Cal. 160; 146 Cal. 610, 624;

162 Cal. 233; 166 Cal. 638; 19 Cal. App. Dec. 94. Rights of aliens.

SEC. 17. Foreigners, of the white race, or of African descent, eligible to become citizens of the United States under the naturalization laws thereof, while bona fide residents of this State, shall have the same rights in respect to the acquisition, possession, enjoyment, transmission, and inheritance of all property, other than real estate, as native born citizens; provided, that such aliens owning real estate at the time of the adoption of this amendment may remain such owners; and provided, further, that the Legislature may, by statute, provide for the disposition of real estate which shall hereafter be acquired by such aliens by descent or devise. [Amendment adopted November 6, 1894]

Original text.-SEC. 17. Foreigners of the white race, or of African descent, eligible to become citizens of the United States under the naturalization laws thereof, while bona fide residents of this State, shall have the same rights in respect to the acquisition, possession, enjoyment, transmission and inheritance of property as native, born citizens. [Constitution of 1849, Art. I, § 17]

13 Cal. 160; 61 Cal. 358; 65 Cal. 593, 594, 595 ; 67 Cal. 382, 386; 68 Cal. 50; 70 Cal. 153, 155; 127 Cal. 434,

437 ; 158 Cal. 325. Slavery prohibited.

SEC. 18. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, unless for the punishment of crime, shall ever be tolerated in this State. [Constitution of 1849, Art. I, § 18] Unreasonable seizure and search-Warrant.

SEC. 19. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects, against unreasonable seizures and searches, shall not be violated; and no warrant shall issue but on probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, particularly describing the place to be searched and the person and things to be seized. [Constitution of 1849, Art. I, § 19]

68 Cal. 284, 288; 73 Cal. 408; 105 Cal. 606, 615; 126 Cal. 238; 155 Cal. 546; 15 Cal. App. 285; 23 Cal. App. 665; 19 Cal. App. Dec. 430.

Treason.

SEC. 20. Treason against the State shall consist only in levying war against it, adhering to its enemies, or giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the evidence of two witnesses to the same overt act, or confession in open court. [Constitution of 1849, Art. I, § 20]

68 Cal. 180, 181. Privileges and immunities.

Sec. 21. No special privileges or immunities shall ever be granted which may not be altered, revoked, or repealed by the Legislature, nor shall any citizen, or class of citizens, be granted privileges or immunities which, upon the same terms, shall not be granted to all citizens.

60 Cal. 189; 62 Cal. 539; 65 Cal. 35; 69 Cal. 151; 72 Cal. 389; 73 Cal. 371, 375; 83 Cal. 396, 412; 110 Cal. 652; 112 Cal. 471; 114 Cal. 496; 118 Cal. 5; 127 Cai. 7; 129 Cal. 343; 134 Cal. 55, 59; 137 Cal. 481; 143 Cal. 414, 573; 144 Cal. 173; 148 Cal. 265; 149 Cal. 400; 151 Cal. 334; 152 Cal. 233; 154 Cal. 330 ; 156 Cal. 74; 157 Cal. 55 ; 162 Cal. 590, 691 ; 164 Cal. 568; 6 Cal. App. 237, 240, 241 ; 8 Cal. App. 535; 12 Cal. App. 405; 18 Cal. App. 25; 24 Cal. App. 89; 170 Cal. 50; 172 Cal.

398; 25 Cal. App. 539 ; 24 Cal. App. Dec. 362. Constitution mandatory.

SEC. 22. The provisions of this Constitution are mandatory and prohibitory, unless by express words they are declared to be otherwise.

54 Cal. 247 ; 56 Cal. 655; 57 Cal. 609; 65 Cal. 271 ; 69 Cal. 485, 492, 502, 512; 83 Cal. 403, 494 ; 86 Cal. 50; 92 Cal. 316; 94 Cal. 608; 104 Cal. 351; 115 Cal. 548; 128 Cal. 247 ; 129 Cal. 403 ; 132 Cal. 219; 134 Cal. 296 ; 144 Cal. 387; 147 Cal. 582; 160 Cal. 40, 41; 164 Cal.

710; 166 Cal. 587; 9 Cal. App. 159; 170 Cal. 394. Rights reserved.

SEC. 23. This enumeration of rights shall not be construed to impair or deny others retained by the people. [Constitution of 1849, Art. I, § 21]

129 Cal. 347.

No property qualification of electors.

Sec. 24. No property qualification shall ever be required for any person to vote or hold office.

92 Cal. 321; 117 Cal. 123; 155 Cal. 389, 789; 160 Cal. 355.

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