Explaining Pictures: Buddhist Propaganda And Etoki Storytelling in Japan
Early Japanese Buddhism patronized the literate classes and remained a prerogative of the elite until the end of the twelfth century. With the fiscal and political decline of its aristocratic patrons, the Buddhist establishment turned to lay commoners and women--two groups previously excluded from the benefits of the Dharma--for financial support, using paintings to accommodate its new, and often subliterate, audiences. This type of preaching, known as etoki (pictorial decipherment), helped bridge the worlds of esoteric Buddhism and lay practice and reveals much about the role of art in the context of didactic storytelling and proselytization. Beginning with the provocative claim that the popularization of Buddhism in the medieval period was a phenomenon of visual culture, Explaining Pictures reexamines the history (and historiography) of medieval Japanese Buddhism. With theoretical sophistication and a full appreciation of the power of imagery to convey and control religious meaning, it investigates a range of aspects of etoki, including the particularly active role of itinerant nuns as well as the visual hagiography of the reputed founder of Japanese Buddhism, the pictorial projections of Buddhist paradise and hell, and the explanation, through visual imagery, of sacred mountains.
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Amida Buddha Ariyori Ashikuraji audience bijutsu Biography of Prince Bodhisattva Bukkyo century Chitei Chusei colors on paper court cult decipher deities depicts emaki emakimono Emperor engi etoki performers etoki preachers faith FIGURE Fujiwara Fujiwara no Yorinaga handscrolls hanging scrolls Honen Horyuji icon images ink and colors Ippen itinerant etoki Iwakuraji Japan Japanese Buddhism Jizo Kadokawa Shoten Kamakura kanjin Kannon Karukaya kenkyu Kumano bikuni Kumano Ten-Worlds Mandala Kyoto legend Mandala medieval period meditation missionaries monk Mount Koya mountain worship Nara Nihon Onba Osaka Oyama painting performed etoki Pictorial Biography pictorial sermons Picture Hall picture scrolls pilgrimage popular preaching prefecture priest Prince Shotoku propaganda proselytization Pure Land Buddhism religious ritual rtoki Ryonin sacred salvation sanjo scene screen Shakamuni Shinran Shitennoji Shoten Shotoku Taishi Shrine story storytelling Taima Taima Mandala Tateyama Tateyama Mandala Tateyama mountain Tateyama shinko Thirty-two Artisans Scroll tion Tokyo translation women Yorinaga Yuzu Nenbutsu
Page 6 - A real translation is transparent; it does not cover the original, does not block its light, but allows the pure language, as though reinforced by its own medium, to shine upon the original all the more fully.
Page 8 - ... the Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda Fide (Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith), a committee of cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church that Pope Gregory XV founded in 1622 to oversee the jurisdiction of missionary territories in foreign countries. In this context, propaganda's literal meaning, "extension," is used in naming a religious office that took care of the missionary work of "propagating