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CHAP. I V.
ries of the Lord Governour in person, and by honest
traders with the Indians, wee finde beside the Indians Kings by him known and printed, in this Province there is in all twenty three Indian Kings or chief Commanders, and besides the number of 800 by him named, there is at least 1200 under the two Raritan Kings on the North side next to Hudsons river, and those come down to the Ocean about little Egbay and Sandy Barnegate, and about the South cape two small Kings with forty men a piece, called Tirans and Tiascons, and a third reduced to fourteen men at Roymont, the Sasquehannocks are not now of the Naturals left above 110, though with their forced Auxiliaries the Ihon a Does, and Wicomeses they can make 250: these together are counted valiant and terrible to other cowerdly dul Indians, which they beat with the sight of guns only; but in truth meeting with English, are the basest cowards of all, though cunning and subtile to intrap and surprise on all straits, coverts, reeds, and ambushes, for at the last Maryland March against them, these 250 having surprised in the reeds, and killed three English men with the losse of one of theirs, Captain Cornwallis, that noble, right valiant, and politick soldier, losing but one man more, killed with fifty three of his, and but raw and tired Marylanders, twenty nine Indians as they confessed, though compassed round with two hundred and fifty; and Summer this twelve moneth, Captain Lewis of Maryland at the Coves drawing but twenty men out of his winde bound Sloupes, and in two small Cocke-boates, much distant, finding twenty four Canoes, and therein an hundred and forty Sasquehannocks, reduced by these three Swedes into a half moon, with intent to encompasse the first small boat before the second could reach the former, at the first volley of ten shot, and losse of one Indian, they run all away; for note generally twelve English with five foot Calivers, shoot thirty pellets, or dagge shot, and fifty yards distance, and the naked Indian shooteth but one arrow, and not thirty yards distance, so as his Lordship knoweth well with such a squadron of twelve or thirteen mark-men, to encounter three hundred, and to bring off the lock the proudest Sagamoore, to bee ransomed for any Trespasse: and not to suffer any Indian or trader without his Lordships badge or stamped livery worn, to come within twenty miles of his Plantation, or ten miles of their Cattle,
N". since Master Elmes letter and seven years discoveas in all the out-skirts of Pirginia is used, but to kill them. Insomuch that the Emperour Nicotowance saying was, my countrymen tell me I am a fier, when I tell them the English men will kill you if you goe into their bounds, but valiant Captain Freeman made him no lier, when lately he killed three Indians so without badge incroaching. W. And therefore fair and far off is best with Heathen Indians; and fit it is to reduce all their trading to five Ports or Pallisadoed trucking houses, and to kill all straglers and such spies without ransome. Then shall christians and their cattle be safe and quiet, and severely putting to death all that sell the Indians guns, arms and ammunition, then Indians are sooner ruled, civilized and subjected, as . in New England is daily seen. In Long Isle are about four Kings, and eight hundred Bow-men, most of them two hundred miles off his LP" seat of Watcessit in Charles river, these of Long Isle are well civilized, living within ten miles, and in sight of eight thousand English in that part of New England being, and the five towns in Connectacut river, and New Haven town being populous, discourageth any hostility: but chiefly his Lordships sixe good free-holding towns in Long Isle, is a bridle to check and contain them; for Southampton, Hempsteed, Flushing, Gravesand and Ainsford are placed like distinct Garisons to command them. Then between the two South Capes there are two petty Kings called Aquats and little Matankin, having both an hundred Bow-men, and above Watcessit, South-west, are the black and white Mincos neer three hundred men, being speciall friends to Watcessit, and enemies to the Sasquehannocks. Now for choice seats for English, Watcessit first, where were seventy English, as Master Miles deposeth, he swearing the officers. there to his Majesties allegiance, and to obedience to your Lordship as Governour, being twenty one leagues up Delaware Bay in Charles river, to which any ship may come, and about IT Manteses plain, which Master Evelin avoucheth to be twenty miles broad, and thirty löng, and 50 miles washed by two fair navigable rivers, and is 300000 Acres fit to plow and sow all Corn, Tobacco, and Flaxe, and Rice, the four staples of Albion. The second seat is three miles off to Watcessit adjoyning to Charles and Cotton river, so named of six hundred l. of Cotton wilde on trees growing: and is called Ritchneck, being twenty four miles compasse, oak wood, huge Timber trees, and two foot black mould, much desired of the Virginians to plant Tobacco, they alledging each plant where dried and cured, will bring a pound, whereas worn land five and sixe to a-pound, and their large leaves in the new land, and freshes, serve to lap up all the bad S. Christophers, and Barbadoes rolled Tobacco,
and maketh it fire sooner: of the three upper leaves they make Varinas and Spanish. The Dutch give for this double price, and the j double for sweet sented: and though Charles river is 120 miles North of Iames river in Virginia, yet having a more faire constant and tempered growing heat, Tobacco three years together tried, is riper, and sooner struck by wet seasons by full three weeks, then in Virginia, and hath yeelded double the price: and no doubt Cotton will grow as in Millai”, being three degrees more North-ward, though as there it dieth yearly by frost, is re-planted by the seed as a Rosebush giveth a full cod. The third seat is at Roymont a strong, rich and fit place for a Fort. Sir Walter Rawley left there thirty men, and four guns, the Dutch seated there fifteen men and a Fort, both to plant in that rich five miles neck to Roymont river (which runneth down into Chisapodck Bay) choice Tobacco, and thereby to prejudice and undersell Virginia, as to set up a fishing Stage for Whales, these proved but Grampus, and they killing basely an Indian refusing quarter or ransome, were by the Indians killed and expelled twenty years since. This place is close to the In-south Cape, having a Creek of sixe foot water only, and two furlongs of the grand Delaware Bay: on one side is an Isthmos or Peninsule, nine miles compasse, fit for pasturage, and Hogs and Goats: and on the other side is a second Isthmos, four miles compasse, easily fenced, and is but sixty miles over land to the Northermost and neerest part of Virginia, to drive cattle by land, and have supplies by horse and foot: and here is never ice or frost: sea fish, all oysters, and shell-fish, and fowl, all winter Cod to lade ships three moneths after December fit for salt and trade: and there is a poor Indian of fourteen men only, and weak to hinder any, all the soile is under a brick earth, stone slat hard by, and timber to build. The fourth seat is Vvedale under Websneck, and is a valley sixe miles long, sheltred by hils from the North-west windes: below it is sixe miles a thicket of four sorts of excellent great Wines running on Mulberry and Sassafras trees; there are four sorts of Grapes, the first is the Tholouse Muscat, sweet sented, the second the great foxe and thick Grape, after five moneths reaped being boyled and salted, and well fined, it is a strong red Xeres; the third a light Claret, the fourth a white Grape creeps on the land, maketh a pure GoLD colour white wine: Tenis Pale the French man of those four made eight sorts of excellent wine, and of the Muscat acute boyled that the second draught will fox a reasonable pate four moneths old: and here may be gathered and made two hundred tun in the Vintage moneth, and re-planted will mend; two other valleys there of the same Grapes and large, above Vvedale, the hill is called Websneck, environed with three rivers round, one of sixteen foot water navigable, all but a neck, a caliver shot over, easily imbarked, being 9000 acres, the cliffes all of rich black mould, with huge timber trees, most fit for Tobacco and Corn: not far off are rich lead mines, containing silver tried, and iron stone, and by it waters, and fals to drive them in an inhabited desert, no Christians or Indians neer it, where Elkes, Stagges and Deer are most quiet, most fat, and not disturbed, so as five men in three or four days kill and salt sixty Deer, or an hundred twenty sides for Summers food: four or five hundred Turkeys in a flock, Swans, Hoopers, Geese, Ducks, Teles, and other Fowles, a mile square, and seven mile together on the shores, for here is all Ches-nuts Wall-nuts, and Mast berries, and March seeds wilde Oats, and Vetches to feed them. Neer hand is also in August Custard apples, and Papawes to make the best Perry English for 100 tun in a place, and all Plums, Hurtleberries, Black Cherries, wilde Anniseed, Persimenas, and other dainty fruits, and roots, are had, as in all the huge long Meads and Marshes, sweet seg roots, ground nuts, Tucaho and Cuttinamon roots for Hogs and whole Warrens, and berries of sweet Muskerats, and here black Bears and Lions feeding on sweet foods, are killed and eaten. In the head of Chisepeack river by Tomkins and Walton, was seen a Camel Mare brown black, seven foot high, of which 300 mile West-ward are stores their skins brought and sold by the Indians confirm it. The fifth seat is Brents fort, a steep rock, invincible and not to be battered, having an Isthmos of low hard ground like a Tongue below it environed with fresh water, and under it a Cove close to hide two ships or gallies, ships of 500 tun may come up to it, and hard by is good Mead and rich land, and Woods to plant; and in this desert is best living, stored as before with all game and their food to maintain them. The sixt is an Ile called Palmers Ile, containing 300 acres, half meade, halfe wood; in it is a rock forty foot high, like a Tower, fit to be built on for a trading house for all the Indians of Chisepeack Gulfe: it lieth a mile from each shore in Sasquehannocks river mouth, and there four Sakers will command that river, and renue the old trade that was; it lieth in forty degrees and twelve minutes, it is most healthy, but cold neer the hils, and full as all the seventeen rivers there of eleven sorts of excellent fresh fish; the Indians in stead of salt doe barbecado or dry and smoak fish, to each house a reek or great pile, and another of Sun dried on the rocks, Strawberries, Mulberries, Symnels, Maycocks and Horns like Cucumbers. - - The seventh is five mile off it, called Mount Royall or Bolalmanack hill, and more properly Belveder, for thence you may see 100 miles off high hils, above the clouds like sugar-. loaves that shelter and bear off the North-west windes; here is a clear Indian field sixe miles long to plant and plow rich land, and as well stored as the rest, and under it is Elk river, having many branches navigable, in all these the Tide of fresh sweet water ebbes and flowes, and hath three fathome deep, the mouth of it is like a fort with fit Isthmos and necks, and runneth up seven leagues to a street, but eleven miles over land into Charles river, and Delaware Bay, this neck is a rare work of God, for it is 450 miles compasse to goe by sea and water, from one side to the other of this eleven miles street, and Vwedale is on one of these branches. * o The eight seat is Kildorpy, neer the sals of Charles river, neer 200 miles up from the Ocean, it hath clear fields to plant and sow, and neer it is sweet large meads of clover or honysuckle, no where else in America to be seen, unlesse transported from Europe, a ship of 140 tuns may come up to these sals which is the best seat for health, and a trading house to be built on the rocks, and ten leagues higher are lead mines in stony hils. The ninth is called Mount Ployden, the seat of the Raritan King on the North side of this Province twenty miles from Sandhay sea, and ninety from the Ocean, next to Amara hill, the retired Paradise of the children of the Ethiopian Emperour, a wonder, for it is a square rock, two miles compasse, 150 foot high, a wall-like precipice, a strait entrance, easily made invincible, where he keeps two hundred for his guard, and under it is a flat valley, all plain to plant and sow. The Sasquehannocks new Town is also a rare, healthy and rich place, with it a Crystall broad river, but some fals below hinder navigation, and the Hooke all on the Ocean with its clear fields neer Hudsons river on one side, and a ten leagues flowing river on the south side is much commended for health and fish, were it not so Northerly. The bounds is a thousand miles compasse, of this most temperate, rich Province, for our South bound is Maryland North bounds, and beginneth at Aquats or the Southermost or first Cape of Delaware Bay in thirty eight and forty minutes, and so runneth by, or through, or including Kent Isle, through Chisapeack Bay to Pascatway; including the sals of Pawtomecke river to the head or Northermost branch of that river, being three hundred miles due West, and thence Northward to the head