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to the Indians, instructing them in the use of our fights and arms; insomuch as 2000 Indians by them armed, Mohacks, Raritans, and some of Long Isle with their own guns so sold them, fall into war with the Dutch, destroyed all their scattering Farms and Boors, in forcing them all to retire to their Up fort 40 leagues up that river, and to Manhatas, for all or most retreating to Manhatas, it is now a pretty town of trade having more English then Dutch: and it is very considerable that three years since Stuy their Governour put out his Declaration, tonfessing that the neighbour English might well be offended with their selling Indians arms and ammunition, but being but a few and so scattered, they could not live else there, or trade, the Indians refusing to trade or suffer the Dutch to plow without they would sell them guns. The like folly they committed, and inconvenience to themselves, and all English, for eight years since, in their West-India Fleet, battered by the Spanish Armado, they brought home forty Swedish poor soldiers; and hearing that Captain Young and Master Evelin had given over their Fort begun at Eriwomeck within Delaware Bay, there halfe starved and tottered they left them, who learning the Indian language and finding much talk and trials of a gold mine there, though in truth fifty shillings charges produced of that light sand but nine shillings in gold, and therefore was of Captain Young that tried it slighted; yet one Bagot under the Swedes name and Commission, there traded to crosse the Dutch of Manhatas, and to undersell them, and left and seated there eighteen Swedes, who proclaiming a gold mine drew more to them, and have gotten a great trade; and now this last Summer fifteene Swedes and fifteene Dutch had a skirmish; the Swedes pulled down a Dutch trading house, and doe both undersell them, and spoiled much their and English trading with the Indians, both striving to please and side with the Indians, both entertaining and refusing to return all English fugitives and servants. The Swedes hiring out three of their souldiers to the Sasquehannocks, have taught them the use of our arms and fights, and marching with them into the Kings owne Colony of Virginia, have caried thence the King of Pawtomeck prisoner, and expelled his and eight other Indian Nations in Maryland civilized and subject to the English Crown. Now if a Proclamation of open war be set out against the Dutch and Swedes for this their villany, and all English forbid to trade, victuall or relieve them, they must both vanish, especially if those bad English that live, adhere and obey these Aliens in these his Majesties countries be warned of the statute of King lames of famous memory, in these words: That all . Subjects giving any obedience or acknowledegment to any fo
rain Prince, State, Pope, or Potentate, within his Majesties Territories and Dominions in England or beyond the sea, is a traitor, and shall forfeit and suffer as a traitour. And certainly all English, and chiefly those of New England, being ready in twenty four hours, will joyn to expel them both to regain their own trade, to get their Seates, and to be rid of the danger of armed gunning Indians.
CHAP. III. . .
- Hereas that part of America, or North Virginia, lying W V about 39 degrees at Delaware Bay called the Province of New Albion, is scituate in the best and same tem
. and as Italy, between too cold Germany, and too hot Barary: so this lying just midway betweene New England, 200 miles North, and Virginia 150 miles South, where now are settled 8000 English, and 140 ships in trade, is freed from the extream cold and barrennesse of the one and heat and aguish Marshes of the other, and is like Lombardy, and a rich fat soil,
plain, and having 34 rivers on the main land, 17 great Isles, and
partaketh of the healthiest aire and most excellent commodities of Europe, and replenished with the goodliest woods of Oaks
and all Timber for ships and Masts, Mulberries for silk, sweet Cypresse, Cedars, Pines and Firres, 4 sorts of Grapes for wine, and Raisins, and with the greatest variety of choice fruits, fish, and sowl, stored with all sorts of corn, yeelding 5, 7 and 10 quarters an acre: Silk gras, salt, good Mines and Diers ware, 5 sorts of Deer, Buffes, and huge Elks to plow and work, all bringing 3 young at once. The Uplands covered many moneths with berries, roots, chestnuts, walnuts, Beech and Oak Mast to feed them, Hogges and Turkeys, 500 in a flock, and having meer the Colony of Manteses 400000 acres of plain, mead land, and meer levell, to be flowed and fludded by that river, for corn, rice, rapes, flax and hemp. After 17 years trading and discovery there and triall made, is begun to be planted and stored by the Governour and Company of New Albion, consisting of forty four Lords, Baronets, Knights and Merchants, who for the true informing of themselves, their friends, Adventurers and Partners by Residents and Traders there four severall years out of their Journal Books, namely, by Captaine Browne a Ship-master, and Master Stafford his Mate, and by Captaine Claybourne 14 years there trading, and Constantine his Indian there born and bred, and by Master Robert Evelin 4 years there; yet by eight of their hands subscribed and enrolled doe testifie this to be the true state of the Country, of the Land, and Delaware Bay or Charles River, which is further witnessed by Captaine Smith and other books of Virginia and by New Englands Prospect, new Canaan, Captain Powels Map, and other descriptions of New England and Virginia.
Captain Brown. Richard Buckham.
Captain Clayhorn. Christoph. Thomas.
Good Madam : ". .
Ir Edmund our noble Governour and Lord Earl Palatine, S persisting still in his noble purpose to goe on with his plantation in Delaware or Charles river, just midway between New England and Pirginia, where with my Uncle Young I severall years resided, hath often informed himselfe both of me and Master Stratton, as I perceive by the hands subscribed of Edward Mónmouth, Tenis }. j as Master Buckham, Master Whité, and other Ship-masters, and Saylors, whose hands I know, and it to be true, that there lived and traded with me, and is sufficiently instructed of the state of the country, and people there, and I should very gladly according to his desire have waited on you into Hamshire to have informed your Honour in person, had not I next weeke been passing to Virginia. But neverthelčsse to satisfie you of the truth, I thought good to write unto you my knowledge, and first to describe you from the North side of Delaware unto Hudsons river, in Sir Edmunds Patent, called new Albion, which lieth just between New England and Maryland, and that Ocean sea,
I take it to be about 160 miles. I finde some broken land, Isles and Inlets, and many small Isles at Egbay: But going to Delaware Bay, by Cape May, which is 24 miles at most, and is as I understand very well set out and printed in Captain Powels Map of New England, done as is told mee by a draught I gave to M. Daniel the plot-maker, which Sir Edmund saith you have at home, on that North side about five miles within a port, or rode for any Ships called the Nook, and within lieth the King of Kechemeches, having as I suppose about 50 men, and 12 leagues higher a little above the Bay and Bar is the river of Manteses, which hath 20 miles on Charles river, and 30 miles running up a fair navigable deep river all a flat levell of rich and fat black Marsh mould, which I think to be 300000 acres: In this Sir Edmund intendeth as he saith to settle, and there the King of Manteses hath about 100 Bow-men, next above about 6 leagues higher is a fair deep river 12 miles navigable, where is Freestone, and there over against is the King of Sikonesses, and next is Asomoches river and King with an hundred men, and next is Eriwoneck a King of forty men, where we sate down, and five miles above is the King of Ramcock with a hundred men, and four miles higher the King of Avion with two hundred men, and next to him tenne leagues overland an inland King of Calcefar, with an hundred and fifty men, and then there is in the middle of Charles river two fair woody Isles, very pleasant and fit for Parks, the one of a thousand acres, the other of fourteen hundred, or thereabout. And six leagues higher neer a Creek called Mosilian, the King having two hundred men. And then we come to the Fals made by a rock of lime-stone, as I suppose it is, about sixty and five leagues from the sea, near to which is an Isle fit for a City, all materials there to build; and above, the river fair and navigable, as the Indians inform me, for I went but ten miles higher. I doe account all the Indians to be eight hundred, and are in severall façtions and war against the Sasquehannocks, and are all extream fearfull of a gun, naked and unarmed against our shot, swords, and pikes. I had some bikering with some of them, and they are of so little esteem, as I durst with fifteen men sit down, or trade in despight of them, and since my return eighteene Swedes are settled there, and so sometime sixe Dutch doe in a boat trade without fear of them. I saw there an infinite quantity of Bustards, Swans, Geese and Fowl, covering the shoares as within the like multitude of Pigeons and store of Turkies of which I tried one to weigh forty and sixe pounds. There is much variety and plenty of delicate fresh and sea-fish, and shell-fish, and Whales or Grampuses: Elks, Deere that bring three young at a time, and the woods bestrewed many moneths with Chest-nuts, Wall-nuts, and Mast of severall sorts to feed them and Hogs, that would increase exceedingly. There the barren grounds have four kindes of Grapes and many Mulberries with Ash, Elms, and the tallest and greatest Pines and Pitch-trees that I have seen. There are Cedars, Cypresses and Sassafras, with wilde fruits, pears, wilde cherries, pine-apples, and the dainty Parsemenas. And there is no question, but Almonds, and other fruits of Spain will
prosper, as in Virginia. And (which is a good comfort) in four and twenty houres you may send or goe by sea to New England or Virginia, with a fair winde, you may have cattle, and from the Indians two thousand barrels of corn, at twelve pence a bushel in truck, so as victuals are there cheaper and better then to be transported: Neither doe I conceive any great need of a Fort or Charge where there is no enemy.
If my Lord Palatine will bring with him three hundred men or more, there is no doubt but that he may doe very well and grow rich, for it is a most pure healthfull air, and such pure wholesome springs, rivers, and waters, as are delightfull, of a Desert, as can be seen, with so many varieties of several flowers, trees, and forests for swine. So many fair risings and prospects, all green and verdant: and Maryland a good friend and neighbour, in four and twenty hours, ready to comfort and supply. ..
And truly I beleeve, my Lord of Baltamore wil be glad of my Lord Palatines Plantation and assistance against any enemy or bad neighbour. And if my Lord Palatine employ some men to sow flaxe, hemp and rapes in those rich Marishes or build ships and make pipe-staves, and load some ships with these wares, or fish from the Northward, he may have any money, ware, or company brought him by his own ships, or the ships of Virginia or New England all the year.
And because your Honour is of the noble house of the Pawlets, and as I am informsed, tesire to lead many of your friends and kindred thither, whom as I honour I desire to serve, I shall intreat you to beleeve mee as a Gentleman and Christian, I write you nothing but the truth, and hope there to take opportunity in due season to visit you, and doe all the good offices in Virginia my place or friends can serve you in. And thus tendring my service, I rest -
Your Honours most humble faithfull servant,
- Robert Evelin.