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of golde; as Fish, Pitch, Wood, or such grosse commodities? What Voyages and Discoueries, East and West, North and South, yea about the world, make they : What an Army by Sea and Land, haue they long maintained in despite of one of the greatest Princes of the world? And neuer could the Spaniard with all his Mynes of golde and Siluer, pay his debts, his friends, and army, halfe so truly, as the Hollanders stil haue done by this contemptible trade of fish. , Diuers (I know) may alledge, many other assistances: But this is their Myne; and the Sea the source of those siluered streames of all their vertue; which hath made them now the very miracle of industrie, the pattern of persection for these affaires: and the benefit of fishing is that Primum mobile that turnes all their Spheres to this height of plentie, strength, honour and admiration. Herring, Cod, and Ling, is that triplicitie that makes their wealth and shippings multiplicities, such as it is, and from which (few would thinke it) they yearly draw at least one million and a halfe of pounds starling; yet it is most certaine (if records be true:) and in this faculty they are so W.o. naturalized, and of their vents so certainly acquaint- on." ed, as there is no likelihood they will euer bee paralleld, hauing 2 or 3000 Buffes, Flat bottomes, Sword pinks, Todes, and such like, that breedes them Saylers, Mariners, Souldiers and Marchants, neuer to be wrought out of that trade, and fit for any other. I will not deny but others may gaine as well as they, that will vse it, though not so certainely, nor so much in quantity; for want of experience. And this Herring they take vpon the Coast of Scotland and England; their Cod and Ling, vpon the Coast of Izeland and in the North Seas. Hamborough, and the East Countries, for Sturgion and Cauiare, gets many thousands of pounds from England, and the Straites: Portugale, the Biskaines, and the Spaniards, make 40 or 50 Saile yearely to Cape-blank, to hooke for Porgos, Mullet, and make Puttardo: and New found Land, doth yearely fraught neere 800 sayle of Ships with a sillie leane skinny Poore-Iohn, and Corfish, which at least yearely amounts to 3 or 400000 pound. If from all those parts such paines is taken for this poore gaines of fish, and by them hath neither meate, drinke, nor clothes, wood, iron, nor steele, pitch, tarre, nets, leades, salt, hookes, nor lines, for shipping, fishing, nor proulsion, but at the second, third, fourth, or fifth hand, drawme from so many seuerall parts of the world ere they come together to be vsed in this voyage: If these I say can gaine, and the Saylers liue going for shares, lesse then the third part of their labours, and yet spend as much time in going and comming, as in staying there, so short is the season of fishing; why should wee more doubt, then Holland, Portugale, Spaniard, French, or other, but to doe much better then they, where there is victuall to feede vs, wood of all sorts, to build Boats, Ships, or Barks; the fish at our doores, pitch, tarre, masts, yards, and most of other necessaries onely for making? And here are no hard Landlords. to racke vs with high rents, or extorted fines to consume vs, no tedious pleas in law to consume vs with their many years disputations for Iustice: no multitudes to occasion such impediments to good orders, as in popular States. So freely hath God and his Maiesty bestowed those blessings on them that will attempt to obtaine them, as here euery man may be master and owne labour and land; or the greatest part in a small time. If hee haue nothing but his hands, he may set vp this trade; and by industrie quickly grow rich; spending but halfe that time wel, which in England we abuse in idlenes, worse or as ill. Here is ground also as good as any lyeth in the height of forty one, forty two, forty three, &c. which is as temperate opolo and as fruitfull as any other paralell in the world. altitude coupara- - - - - tiuely. As for example, on this side the line West of it in the South Sea, is Noua Albion, discouered as is said, by Sir Francis Drake. East from it, is the most temperate part of Portugale, the ancient kingdomes of Galazia, Biskey, Nauarre, Arragon, Catalonia, Castilia the olde, and the most moderatest of Castilia the new, and Valentia, which is the greatest part of Spain: which if the Spanish Histories bee true, in the Romanes time abounded no lesse with golde and siluer Mines, then now the West Indies; The Romanes then vsing the Spaniards to work in those Mines, as now the Spaniard doth the Indians. In France, the Prouinces of Gasconie, Langadock, Auignon, Prouince, Dolphine, Pyamont, and Turyne, are in the same paralell: which are the best and richest parts of France. In Italy, the prouinces of Genua, Lumbardy, and Verona, with a great part of the most famous Sate of Venice, the Dukedoms of Bononia, Mantua, Ferrara, Rauenna, Bolognia, Florence, Pisa, Sienna, Vrbine, Ancona, and the ancient Citie and Countrey of Rome, with a great part of the great Kingdome of Naples. In Slauonia, Istrya, and Dalmatia, with the Kingdomes of Albania. In Grecia, that famous Kingdome of Macedonia, Bulgaria, Thessalia, Thracia, or Romania, where is seated the most pleasant and plentifull Citie in Europe, Constantinople. In Asia also, in the same latitude, are the temperatest parts of Natolia, Armenia, Persia, and China, besides diuers other large Countries and Kingdomes in these most milde and temperate Regions of Asia. Southward, in the same height, is the richest of golde Mynes, Chily and Baldiuia, and the mouth of the

great Riuer of Plute, &c: for all the rest of the world in that
height is yet vnknown. Besides these reasons, mine owne eyes
that haue seene a great part of those Cities and their King-
domes, as well as it, can finde no aduantage they haue in nature,
but this, They are beautified by the long labor and dilligence of
industrious people and Art. This is onely as God made it,
when he created the worlde. Therefore I conclude, if the heart
and intralls of those Regions were sought: if their Land were
cultured, planted and manured by men of industrie, iudgement,
and experience; what hope is there, or what neede they doubt,
hauing those aduantages of the Sea, but it might equalize any
of those famous Kingdomes, in all commodities, pleasures, and
conditions? seeing euen the very edges doe naturally afford vs
such plenty, as no ship need returne away empty; and onely
vse but the season of the Sea, fish will returne an honest gaine,
beside all other aduantages; her treasures hauing yet neuer
beene opened, nor her originalls wasted, consumed, nor abused.
And whereas it is said, the Hollanders serue the
Easterlings themselues, and other parts that want ...
with Herring, Ling, and wet Cod; the Easterlings, out was lo
a great part of Europe, with Sturgion and Cauiare; "
Cape-blanke, Spain, Portugale, and the Leuant, with Mullet,
and Puttargo; K. found Land, all Europe, with a thin Poore
lohn ; yet all is so ouerlade with fishers, as the fishing decayeth,
and many are constrained to returne with a small fraught.
Norway, and Polonia, Pitch, Tar, Masts, and Yardes; Sweath-
land, and Russia Iron, and Ropes; France, and Spaine, Canuas,
Wine, Steele, Iron, and Oyle; Italy and Greece, Silks, and
Fruites. I dare boldly say, because I haue seen naturally
growing, or breeding in those parts the same materialls that all
those are made of, they may as well be had here, or the most
part of them, within the distance of 70 leagues for some few
ages, as from all those parts; wsing but the same meanes to haue
them that they doe, and with all those aduantages.
First, the ground is so fertill, that questionless it loo."
is capable of producing any Grain, Fruits, or Seeds to""
you will sow or plant, growing in the Regions afore -
named: But it may be, not euery kinde to that persection
of delicacy; or some tender plants may miscarie, because
the Summer is not so hot, and the winter is more colde in those
parts wee haue yet tryed neere the Sea side, then we finde in
the same height in Europe or Asia ; Yet I made a Garden
vpon the top of a Rockie Ile in 43. 3, 4 leagues from the Main,
in May, that grew so well, as it serued vs for sallets in June and
Iuly. All sorts of cattell may here be bred and fed in the Iles,
or Peninsulacs, securely for nothing. In the Interim till they

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encrease is need be (obseruing the seasons) I durst vndertake to haue corne enough from the Saluages for 300 men, for a few trifles; and if they should bee vntoward (as it is most certaine they are) thirty or forty good men will be sufficient to bring them all in subjection, and make this prouision; if they vnderstand what they doe: 200 whereof may nine monethes in the yeare be imployed in making marchandable fish, till the rest prouide other necessaries, fit to furnish vs with other commodities. A In March, April, May, and halfe Iune, here is loo. Cod in abundance; in May, lune, Iuly, and August shing approou- - ed. Mullet and Sturgion; whose roes doe make Cauiare and Puttargo. Herring, if any desire them, I haue taken many out of the bellies of Cods, some in nets; but the Saluages compare their store in the Sea, to the haires of their heads: and surely there are an incredible abundance vpon this Coast. In the end of August, September, October, and Nouember, you haue Cod againe to make Cor fish, or Poore John; and each hundred is as good as two or three hundred in the Newfound Land. So that halfe the labour in hooking, splitting, and turning, is saued: and you may haue your fish at what Market you will, before they can haue any in New-found Land; where their fishing is chiefly but in Iune and Iuly: whereas it is heere in March, April, May, September, October, and Nouember, as is said. . So that by reason of this plantation, the Marchants may haue fraught both out and home: which yeelds an aduantage worth consideration. o Your Cor-fish you may in like manner transport as you see cause, to serue the Ports in Portugale (as Lisbon, Auera, Porta port, and diuers others, or what market you please) before your #. returne: They being tyed to the season in the open sea; you hauing a double season, and fishing before your doors, may euery night sleep quietly a shore with good cheare and what fires you will, or when you please with your wiues and familie: they onely, their ships in the maine Ocean. The Mullets heere are in that abundance, you may take them with nets, sometimes by hundreds, where at Cape blank they hooke them; yet those but one foot and a halse in length; these two, three, or foure, as oft I haue measured: much Salmon some haue found vp the Riuers, as they haue passed: and heer the ayre is so temperate, as all these at any time may well be preserued. Imployment for Now, young boyes and girles Saluages, or any Ho"... other, be they neuer such idlers, may turne, carry, dren. and return fish, without either shame, or any great paine: hee is very idle that is past twelue yeares of age and cannot doe so much : and she is very olde, that cannot spin a thred to make engines to catch them. For their transportation, the ships that go there the facility of - - the plantation. to fish may transport the first: who for their passage will spare the charge of double manning their ships, which they must doe in the New-found Land, to get their fraught; but one third part of that companie are onely but proper to serue a stage, carry a barrow, and turne Poor Iohn: notwithstanding, they must haue meate, drinke, clothes, and passage, as well as the rest. Now all I desire, is but this; That those that voluntarily will send shipping, should make here the best shoise they can, or aecept such as are presented them, to serue them at that rate: and their ships returning leaue such with me, with the value of that they should receiue comming home, in such prouisions and necessarie tooles, armes, bedding and apparell, salt, hookes, nets, lines, and such like as they spare of the remainings; who till the next returne may keepe their boates and doe them many other profitable offices: prouided I haue men of ability to teach them their functions, and a company fit for Souldiers to be ready vpon an occasion; because of the abuses which haue beene offered the poore Saluages, and the liberty both French or any that will, hath to deale with them as they please: whose disorders will be hard to reforme; and the longer the worse. Now such order with facilitie might be taken, with euery port Towne or Citie, to obserue but this order, With free power to conuert the benefits of their fraughts to what aduantage they please, and increase their numbers as they see occasion; who euer as they are able to subsist of themselues, may beginne the new Townes in New England in memory of their olde: which freedome being confined but to the necessity of the generall good, the euent (with Gods helpe) might produce an honest, a noble, and a profitable emulation. Salt vpon salt may assuredly be made; if not at onto - - - - - ities. the first in ponds, yet till they bee prouided this may be vsed: then the Ships may transport Kine, Horse, Goates, course Cloath, and such commodities as we want; by whose arriuall may be made that prouision of fish to fraught the Ships that they stay not: and then if the sailers goe for wages, it matters not. It is hard if this returne defray not the charge : but care must be had, they arriue in the Spring, or else proulsion be made for them against the Winter. Of certaine red berries called Alkermes which is worth ten shillings a pound, but of these hath been sould for thirty or forty shillings the pound, may yearely be gathered a good quantitie. Of the Musk Rat may bee well raised gaines, well worth their labour, that will endeuor to make tryall of their goodnesse.

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