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fishers: yet all men, whatsoeuer, may in other matters doe as well. For necessity doth in these cases so rule a Commonwealth, and each in their seuerall functions, as their labours in their qualities may be as profitable, because there is a necessary mutuall vse of all. For Gentlemen, what exercise should more de.."" light them, then ranging dayly those vnknowne parts, vsing fowling and fishing, for hunting and hauking and yet you shall see the wilde haukes giue you some pleasure, in seeing them stoope (six or seauen after one another) an houre or two together, at the skuls of fish in the faire harbours, as those a-shore at a foule; and neuer trouble nor torment your selues, with watching, mewing, feeding, and attending them: nor kill horse and man with running and crying, See you not a hauk 7 For hunting also: the woods, lakes, and riuers, affoord not onely chase sufficient, for any that delights in that kinde of toyle, or pleasure; but such beasts to hunt, that besides the delicacy of their bodies for food, their skins are so rich, as may well recompence thy dayly labour, with a Captains pay. For labourers, if those that sowe hemp, rape, lo..." " turnips, parsnips, carrats, cabidge, and such like; giue 20, 30, 40, 50 shillings yearely for an acre of ground, and meat, drinke, and wages to vse it, and yet grow rich; when better, or at least as good ground, may be had and cost nothing but labour; it seemes strange to me, any such should there grow poore. My purpose is not to perswade children from their parents; men from their wiues; nor seruants from their masters: onely, such as with free consent may be spared: But that each parish, or village, in Citie, or Countrey, that will but apparell their fatherlesse children, of thirteene or fourteen years of age, or young maried people, that haue small wealth to liue on ; heere by their labour may liue exceeding well: prouided alwaies that first there bee a sufficient power to command them, houses to receiue them, meanes to defend them, and meet prouisions for them; for, any place may bee ouerlain: and it is most necessarie to haue a fortresse (ere this grow to practice) and sufficient masters (as, Carpenters, Masons, Fishers, Fowlers, Gardiners, Husbandmen, Sawyers, Smiths, Spinsters, Taylors, Weauers, and such like) to take ten, twelue, or twentie, or as their is occasion, for Apprentises. The Masters by this may quicklie growe rich; these may learne their trades themselues, to doe the like; to a generall and an incredible benefit, for King, and Countrey, Master, and Seruant. Example of the It would bee an historie of a large volume, to reSpanyard. cite the aduentures of the Spanyards, and Portugals, their affronts, and defeats, their dangers and miseries; which with such incomparable honour and constant resolution, so farre beyond beleefe, they haue attempted and indured in their discoueries and plantations, as may well condemne vs, of too much imbecillitie, sloth and negligence: yet the Authors of those new inuentions, were held as ridiculous, for a long time, as now are others, that doe but seek to imitate their vnparalleled vertues. And though we see daily their mountaines of wealth (sprong from the plants of their generous indeauours) yet is our sensualitie and vntowardnesse such, and so great, that wee either ignorantly beleeue nothing; or so curiously contest, to preuent wee knowe not what future euents; that wee either so neglect, or oppresse and discourage the present, as wee spoile all in the making, crop all in the blooming; and building vpon faire sand, rather then rough rocks, iudge that wee knowe not, gouerne that wee haue not, feare that which is not; and for feare some should doe too well, force such against their willes to be idle or as ill. And who is he hath iudgement, courage, and any industrie or qualitie with vnderstanding, will leaue his Countrie, his hopes at home, his certaine estate, his friends, pleasures, libertie, and the preferment sweete England doth afford to all degrees, were it not to aduance his fortunes by inioying his deserts? whose prosperitie once appearing, will incourage others: but it must be cherished as a childe, till it be able to goe, and vnderstand it selse; and not corrected, nor oppressed aboue its strength, ere it knowe wherefore. A child can neither performe the office, nor deedes of a man of strength, nor indure that affliction He is able; nor can an Apprentice at the first performe the part of a Maister. And if twentie yeeres bee required to make a child a man, seuen yeares limited an apprentice for his trade: if scarce an age be sufficient to make a wise man a States man; and commonly, a man dies ere he hath learned to be discreet: If perfection be so hard to be obtained, as of necessitie there must bee practice, as well as theorick: Let no man much condemne this paradox opinion, to say, that halfe seauen yeeres is scarce sufficient, for a good capacitie, to learne in these affaires, how to carie himselfe: and who euer shall trie in these remote places the erecting of a Colony, shall finde at the ende of seauen yeares occasion enough to vse all his discretion: and, in the Interim all the content, rewards, gaines, and hopes will be necessarily required, to be giuen to the beginning, till it bee able to creepe, to stand, and goe, yet time enough to keepe it from running, for there is no feare it wil grow too fast, or euer to any thing; except libertie, profit, honor, and prosperitie there found, more binde the planters of those affaires, in deuotion to * effect it; then bondage, violence, tyranny, ingratitude, and such

double dealing, as bindes free men to become slaues, and honest men turne knaues: which hath euer bin the ruine of the most popular common-weales; and is verie vnlikelie euer well to begin in a new. Who seeth not what is the greatest good of the Spamyard, but these new conclusions, in searching those vnknowfie parts of this vnknowne world? By which meanes hee diues euen into the verie secrets of all his Neighbours, and the most part of the world: and when the Portugale and Spanyard had found the East and West Indies; how many did condemn themselues, that did not accept of that honest offer of Noble Columbus 7 who,-vpon our neglect, brought them to it, perswading our selues the world had no such places as they had sound: and yet euer since wee finde, they still (from time to time) haue found new Lands, new Nations, and trades, and still daily dooe finde both in Asia, Africa, Terra incognita, and America; so that there is neither Soldier nor Mechanick, from the Lord to the begger, but those parts afforde them all imploiment; and discharge their Natiue soile, of so many thousands of all sorts, that else, by their sloth, pride and imperfections, would long ere this haue troubled their neighbours, or haue eaten the pride of Spaine it selfe. Now he knowes little, that knowes not England may well spare many more people then Spaine, and is as well able to furnish them with all manner of necessaries. And seeing, for all they haue, they cease not still to search for that they haue not, and know not; It is strange we should be so dull, as not maintaine that which wee haue, and pursue that wee knowe. Surely I am sure many would taste it ill, to bee abridged of the titles and honours of their predecessors: when if but truely they would iudge themselues; looke how inferior they are to their noble vertues, so much they are vnworthy of their honours and liuings: which neuer were ordained for showes and shadowes, to maintaine idlenesse and vice; but to make them more able to abound in honor, by heroycall deeds of action, iudgement, pietie, and vertue. What was it, They would not doe both in purse and person, for the good of the Commonwealth which might moue them presently to set out their spare kindred in these generous designes. Religion, aboue all things, should moue vs $.". the Clergie) if wee were religious, to shewe our aith by our workes; in conuerting those poore saluages, to the knowledge of God, seeing what paines the Spanyards take to bring them to their adulterated faith. Honor might moue the Gentrie, the valiant, and industrious; and the hope and assurance of wealth, all; if wee were that we would seeme, and be accounted. Or be we so far inferior to other nations, or our

The blisse of
Spaine.

spirits so far delected, from our auncient predecessors, or our mindes so vpon spoile, piracie, and such villany, as to serue the Portugall, Spanyard, Dutch, French, or Turke (as to the cost of Europe, too many dooe) rather then our God, our King, our Country, and our selues? excusing our idlenesse, and our base complaints, by want of imploiments; when heere is such choise of all sorts, and for all degrees, in the planting and discouering these North parts of America. . .

Now to make my words more apparent by my My §§§ E. deeds; I was the last yeare, 1615. to haue staied ...” “* in the Countrie, to make a more ample triall of

those conclusions with sixteene men; whose names were

Thomas Dirmir. Hilliam Ingram.
Edward Stalings. Robert Miter.
Daniel Cage. Gent. & Dauid Cooper. Souldiers.
Francis Abbot. Iohn Patridge,
Iohn Gosling. |o two boies. J

Thomas Digbie. , Thomas Watson Daniel Baker. Walter Chissick & Sailers. Adam Smith. Iohn Hall. I confesse, I could haue wished them as many thousands, had all other prouisions bin in like proportion: nor would I haue had so fewe, could I haue had meanes for more: yet (would God haue pleased wee had safely arriued) I neuer had the like authoritie, freedom, and proulsion, to doe so well. The maine assistance next God, I had to this small number, was my acquaintance among the Saluages; especially, with Dohannida, one of their greatest Lords; who had liued long in England. By the meanes of this proud Saluage, I did not doubt but quickly to haue gotte that credit with the rest of his friends, and alliants, to haue had as many of them, as I desired in any designe I intended, and that trade also they had, by such a kind of exchange of their Countrie commodities; which both with ease and securitie. in their seasons may be vsed. With him and diuerse others, I had concluded to inhabit, and defend them against the Terentynes; with a better power then the French did them; whose tyranny did inforce them to imbrace my offer, with no small deuotion. And though many may thinke me more bolde then wise, in regard of their power, dexteritie, treacherie, and inconstancie, hauing so desperately assaulted and betraied many others: I say but this (because with so many, I haue many times done much more in Virginia, then I intended heere, when I wanted that

experience Virginia taught me) that to mee it seemes no daun

ger more then ordinarie. And though I know my selfe the meanest of many thousands, whose apprehensiue inspection can pearce beyond the boundes of my habilities, into the hidden things of Nature, Art, and Reason: yet I intreate such giue me leaue to excuse my selfe of so much imbecillitie, as to say, that in these eight yeares which I haue been comuersant with these affairs, I haue not learned there is a great difference, betwixt the directions and iudgement of experimentall knowledge, and the superficiall coniecture of variable relation: wherein rumor, humor, or misprison haue such power, that of times one is enough to beguile twentie, but twentie, not sufficient to keep one from being deceiued. Therefore I know no reason but to beleeue my own eies, before any mans imagination, that is but wrested from the conceits of my owne projects, and indeauours. But I honor, with all affection, the counsell and instructions of iudiciall directions, or any other honest aduertisement; so farre to obserue, as they tie mee not to the crueltie of vnknowne euents. These are the inducements that thus drew me to neglect all other imployments, and spend my time and best abilities in these aduentures. Wherein, though I haue had many discouragements by the ingratitude of some, the malicious slanders of others, the falsenesse of friendes, the treachery of cowards, and slownesse of aduenturers; but chiefly by one Hunt, who was Master of the ship, with whom oft arguing these projects, for a plantation, however hee seemed well in words to like it, yet he practiced to haue robbed mee of my plots, and obseruations, and so to leaue me alone in a desolate Ile, to the fury of famine, and all other extreamities (lest I should haue acquainted Sir Thomas Smith, my Honourable good friend, and the Councell of Virginia) to the end, he and his associates, might secretly ingrosse it, ere it were knowne to the State: Yet that God that alway hath kept me from the worst of such practices, deliuered me from the worst of his dissimulations. Notwithstanding after my departure, hee abused the Saluages where hee came, and betrayed twenty seauen of these poore innocent soules, which he sould in Spaine for slaues, to mooue their hate against our Nation, as well as to cause my proceedings to be so much the more difficult. Now, returning in the Bark, in the fifth of August, I arriued at Plimouth: where imparting those my purposes to my honourable friende Sir Ferdinando Gorge, and some others; I was so incouraged, and assured to haue the managing their authoritie in those parts, during my life, that I ingaged my selfe to vndertake it for them. Arriuing at London, I found also man promise me such assistance, that I entertained Michaell Cooper the Master, who returned with mee, and others of the company. How hee dealt with others, or others with him I know not: But

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