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Y. C. 1460.-(i, e. 1460, 1,) March 2, st the lords meet and depose Henry VI. and elect
No. 12.-Edward IV. eldest son to Richard, duke of York, for king, cx f hl st aged 18. st
March 4, they proclaim him king, cx f hl st reigns 22 years, 1 month, 5 days, f and
Here Caxton ends his Chronicle. cx
Y. C. 1462.—De Noli, a Genoese sails from Portugal, and first discovers the Cape de Verde Islands. g
Y. Č. 1467.—October 28, Erasmus born at Rotterdam in Holland. c
Y. C. 1470.—October 3, st Edward IV. Alies to Flanders, and Saturday, October 1,
(Henry VI.) delivered out of the tower, and admitted king again. f st
November 26,* a Parliament meets at Westminister, and king Edward proclaimed usurper. s hl
Y. C 1471.-(i. e. 1470, 1.) March 14, hl Edward IV. lands in the north of England. f hl st
(Edward IV.) April 11,t comes to London, takes king Henry again, f hl st and sends him to the tower, st where he is killed, the night after, May 21, st and the next day his corpse exposed in Paul's Church, London. s st
This year, Desaren and Descouar, discover Guinea for the king of Portu
Y. C. 1472.—Seguira discovers Prince's Island near the Equinoctial, and St. Thomas's Island under it, with the western coast of Ethiopia as far as Cape Catharine. He is the first that passes the line. g
Y. C. 1483.–April 9, Edward IV. dies, s pl hl st aged 42, st § 50, pl and his eldest son
No. 13.—Edward V. aged 13, f hl st bears the name of king, 2 months, 11 days. f Wednesday, June 18, some of the chief of the nobility and commons,
set up for king, his father's youngest brother Richard ; who takes the royal style and power in Westminster Hall, on Thursday June 19, f hl st and Friday June 20, is proclaimed king, f ll by the name of
No. 14.-Richard III. and reigns 2 years, 2 months, 1 day, hl st or rather 2 days, s soon after which, Edward V. with his only brother Richard are killed in the tower. f pl hl st
November 10, Luther born at Eysleben in Saxony. slc
Y. C. 1484.-Diego Caon, knight, sails to the river Congo, and discovers the shores of Africa to the Tropick of Capricorn. g
Y. C. 1485.—August 22, king Richard slain in battle by Henry Tudor, earl of Richmond; who thereupon is proclaimed king in the field f hl st li Reigns 23 years, 8 months. st And here the manuscript of Fabian's Chronicle ends.
* Polydore also says, November 26; but wrongly sets it in 1471. † Fabian says, Sberethrusday, which is Maundy Thursday, (Minshew) and this year, April 11, and Polydore says April 11, but wrongly places it in 1472.
# Fabian says on Ascension Eve, May, 22, which is right; Holidshed also says Ascension Eve, but bis margin is wrong, in calling this May 29, and consequently in placing the death of king Henry on May 23.
s Sir T. More, in Holinshed, and Stow, says aged 53; but Stow corrects him, and says it should be 42.
ll Fabian calls Thursday, June 20, and Friday 21, and Stow in the margin, calls Wednesday, June 22, and Thursday 25 ; whence other historians follow their mistakes; when Wednesday this year is June 18, &c. sl Sleidan.
VI. THE WELCH LINE, OR LINE OF 'TUDORS. No. 1.--Henry VII. October 30, crowned at Westminster. hl st
November 7, a Parliament of his calling, meets. hl st Attaints the late king Richard, and settles the crown on king Henry VIII. and his heirs. hl*
Y. C. 1485.—(i. e. 1485, 6.) January 18, he marries Elizabeth the eldest daughter of king Edward IV. 'hl st
Y. C. 1486.- August, Bartholomew Diaz, sails from Portugal, first discovers the famous Cape of Good Hope, the southernmost point of Africa, and returns in December 1487. ps
September 20, gm sp Arthur, eldest son to king Henry born. hl stt Y. C. 1487.-(i. e. 1487, 8.) January 1, Zuinglius born in Switzerland. A Y. C. 1489.—November 29, Margaret, eldest daughter to king Henry, Y. Ć. 1491.—June 22, Henry, second son to king Henry, born, afterwards king Henry VIII. hl st
* His only relation to the crown is by his mother, grand-daughter to John Beaufort, a base-born son of John a Gaunt. ps Purchase. gm Glover and Milles.
sp Speed. A Fuller. f In one place, Holinshed sets his birth in the second year of Henry VII. ; in another place he sets it in the third year, which seems more likely.
TO THE DISCOVERY OF NEW ENGLAND, AND DEATH OF
The united continents of Asia, Africa, and Europe, have been the only stage of history, from the Creation to the year of Christ, 1492. We are now to turn our eyes to the west, and see a New World appearing in the Atlantic ocean to the great surprise and entertainment of the other. Christopher Columbus, or Colonus, a Genoese is the first discoverer. Being a skilful geographer and navigator, and of a very curious mind, he becomes possessed with a strong persuasion, that in order to balance the terraqueous globe, and proportion the seas and lands to each other, there must needs be formed a mighty continent on the other side; which boldness, art, and resolution would soon discover. He first proposes his undertaking to the Genoese, and then 10 John, king of Portugal; but being denied, be applies to Ferdinand and Isabella, king and queen of Spain; who, after five years urging, are at last prevailed upon to furnish him with three ships and vinety men,* for this great enterprise ; which through the growing opposition of his fearful mariners, he at length accomplishes, to bis own iinmortal fame, and the infinite advantage of innumerable others. And as we are now bound for this western world, I shall chiefly fill our final section with the principal and gradual discoveries and plantations there, till we first discover the northeastern part we now call NewEngland; with the most material hints of the rise and progress of that reformed religion, which at length produced its present settlement.
N. B. We still begin with the famous Julian
viz. with January 1, which I think the whole Christian world observes, except the south part of Britain.
* Hercra says ninety men; but Galvanus says one hundred and twenty.
King of ENGLAND, Henry VII. King of Spain, FERDINAND. Y. C. 1492.- Friday, August 3,* Columbus sails from Palos in Spain ; calls at the Canaries; gh Thursday, September 6, sails thence westward ; September 14, first observes the variation of the compass; at ten in the evening, between October 11 and 12, he descries a light; at two next morning, Roderic Triana first discovers land ; h + being Guanabavi, g h one of the islands of the New World, called Lucayoes : h where Columbus goes ashore and calls it St Sal. vador, g h being about 25 deg. north latitude; g Saturday, October 27, discovers Čuba. December 6, arrives at Bohio, which he calls Hispaniola, h where he builds a fort and leaves 38 men, g or 39. h
Y. C. 1493–Wednesday, January 16, he sails from Hispaniola ; Saturday, February 18, arrives at St. Mary's, one of the Azores ; Monday, March 4, at the river of Lisbon; and Friday, March 15, at Palos. h
Bartholomew Diaz sails from Portugal, first passes the Cape of Good Hope, and sails to the ancient Ethiopia. pr.
Wednesday, September, 25,1 Columbus sails from Cadiz in Spain. Lord's Day, November 3, discovers one of the Caribbees, which he calls Dominica ; next day sails northward to another, which he calls Marigalante; next day to another, which he calls Guadaloupe ; November 10, discovers another, which he calls Montserrat ; then another, which he calls Antigua, h and fifty more to the northwestward, at with Boriquen, now called Porto Rico; g h Friday, 22, arrives at Hispaniola. h
Y. C. 1494.–Thursday, April 24, he sails for Cuba ; April 29, descries it, sails along the southern shore, and spies Jamaica ; Monday, May 14, arrives there ; returns to Cuba and Hispaniola. h
Y. C. 1496.–March 10, Columbus sails for Spain; and June 11, arrives at Cadiz. h
This spring, John Cabota, a Venetian, sails with two ships from England, steers westward ; discovers the shore of the New World in 45 deg. north latitude ; sails along the coast northward, to 60, and then southward to 38. Some say to Cape Florida, in 25; and returns to England. g §
Y. C. 1497.—Thursday, February 16, Melancthon born at Bretten, in the Palatinate. c
June 20, Vasquez Gama sails from Lisbon southward, passes the Cape of Good Hope, first sails to the East Indies; and returning by the same Cape, arrives at Lisbon in September 1499. g
Y. C. 1498.-Wednesday, May 30,|| Columbus sails from San Lucar in Spain ; July 31, discovers an island, h which he calls Tripidada, g h in 9 degrees north latitude; g Wednesday, August 1, he first discovers the Continent, h sails along the main coast westward, gh discovers Margarita, h and many other islands, gh for two hundred leagues to Cape Vela ; g crosses over to
* Harris and the Atlas Geographus mistake in saying August 2. g Galvanus. h Herera.
† Galvanus says, they discover land on October 10, and perhaps Herera might mistake, from the seamen's method; who set down at noon October 11, all the events of the twenty-four hours preceding, and give them the date of October 11.
at Atlas Geographus. | Galvanus mistakes in saying October 25.
Ŝ Smith says, that John carries his son Sebastian with him, who afterwards proceeds in these discoveries. Whence Stow, Purchase, Harris, the Atlas, and others, erroneously ascribe them all to Sebastian only. Purchase says, Sebastian in Ramusio, places his first voyage in 1496; though the map under his picture in the privy gallery, with Cambden, in 1497; and so Smith. But Stow in 1498 ; unless the voyage he mentions be another.
|| Galvanus seems to mistake in placing this third voyage of Columbus in
Hispaniola, g h where, being seized and sent home in chains by a new Spanish governor, he arrives at Cadiz, November 25, 1500. h
Y. C. 1499.-May 20, Alonso Ojeda, sails from St. Mary's in Spain, with John Cosa as pilot, and Americus Vespucius a Florentine, as merchant; steers' westward ; in 27 days discovers land two hundred leagues east of Trinidada, (about 5 degrees north latitude,) sails along the coast westward to Cape Vela; thence arrives at Hispaniola September 5; thence sails to Porto Rico; and tbence to Spain. h
November 13, g Vincent Tannez Pinson sails from Palos in Spain for the southern part of the New World; and passes the equinoctial. gh
Y. C. 1500.-February 26, h he discovers Cape Augustin, g h in 8 degrees south latitude; g thence sailing along northwesterly, discovers the river Amazon, and the coast and rivers of Brazil to Trinidada; g h thence at the end of September, h or September 28, g arrives in Spain. g h
Monday, March 9, h Pedro Alvarez Cabral sails from Lisbon, for the East Indies ; g h steers so far westward, as on April 24, h he happens to descry Brazil, and enters a river there which he calls Porto Seguro, g h in 17 degrees south latitude ; whence he crosses over to the Cape of Good Hope and pursues his voyage g.
Gaspar Corterial, by license of the king of Portugal, sails from Tercera, & discovers the northeastern coast of the New World, in 50 degrees north lati. tude, gh from him called Corterialis, and returns home to Lisbon. g
Y. C. 1501. January 6, Roderic Bastidas sails from Cadiz to Cape Vela ; discovers one h or two hundred leagues g westward, all along the coast at St. Martha, Carthagena, the Gulf of Darien, and as far as the Port, afterward called Nombre de Dios , then sails to Hispaniola. h *
Soon after, Alonso Ojeda sets out on his second voyage, and Americus Vespucius with him : sail to the same place after Bastidas, and so to Hispaniola. ht
Lord's Day, November 14, prince Arthur of England, aged 15 st or 16, hl marries at London to Katharine, aged 18, daughter to Ferdinand king of Spain. hl st One great occasion of the reformation in England, as we shall see hereafter.
Y. C. 1502.—March 12, gm April, beginning, st April 2, sp prince Arthur dies. hl st
May 9, h pr Columbus sails from Cadiz to Hispaniola ; thence to the Continent; discovers the Bay of Honduras; Lord's Day, August 14, lands. h Thence sails along the main shore easterly, two hundred leagues, g to Cape Gracias a Dios, Veragua, Porto Bello and the Gulf of Darien. g h
This year, Sebastian Cabot brings to king Henry VII. three men taken in the Newfound Islands. st
Y. C. 1503.—January 6, Columbus enters the river Tebra in Veragua ; where he first begins a settlement, but soon breaks up, and sails to Cuba, Jamaica, and Hispaniola. h
August 8, st Margaret, eldest daughter of Henry VII. marries at Edinburgh, to James IV. king of Scotland. hl st
Y. C. 1504.-September 12, Columbus sails from Hispaniola, arrives at San Lucar, and going to Sevil, finds queen Isabella dead. h She dies November 26, this year. C
Y. C. 1506.—May 20, h at $ Columbus dies g h at Validolid in Spain ; his
* Galvanus places Bastidas's voyage after Ojeda's, and both in 1502.
† Neither Hackluyt, Purchase, Harris nor Perrier mention any voy. ages of Americus. The Atlas Geographus gives us two from Grynæues ; the first in 1497, and the second in 1500. But Herera says, they were proved to be mere impositions of Americus, and he only went twice with Ojeda.
Galvanus says in May 1506 ; and Herera, on Ascension day, May 20, this year; but May 20, this year, is Ascension Day Eve.