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No. Y. C | Emperor.
Sept. 18th. he defeats bim fiually, near Chalcedon,*
becomes sole emperor, restores the Christian liberties, cp v and here Eusebius ends his history. e Licinius, conspiring, is put to death. cp May 20th. the famous first General Council, meet at
Nice, t condemns Arius and his opinions, and as
sert the Deity of Christ. sc p Athanasius made Bishop of Alexandria. cp May 1lth. Constantin dedicates Byzantium, and
makes it the second seat of the empire. cpi Arius dies at Constantinople. cp Constantin falling ill, is baptized; and May 22d.
dies at Nicomedia, aged 65. SC By will dividing the empire among his three sons. CP
* Of Licinius's army of one hundred and thirty thousand in this battle, scarce thirty thousand escaped. c
| It consisted of 318 Bishops, or Pastors of Churches, besides Elders, Deacons, &c. c p and Valesius, from the Alexandrian Chronicle, &c. places their Convention on June 19th this year; but this being Saturday, and May 20th, being Thursday, I rather incline to sc p.
Calling it New Rome; but the name of Constantinople soon prevailed, and still continues, e sc
The Chronology of the eastern Emperors, from the complete division of the
Empire at the death of Constantin the Great, to the revival of the western Empire by Charles the Great of France, and the beginning of the reign of Egbert, the first king of England. Containing about 463 years, seven months.
We are now arrived at the fatal partition of the Roman empire. For though Marc Antony, Octavius and Lepidus, and some time after, Sextus Pompey with them, assigned themselves their several shares thereof, to reduce to order, defend and govern, yet, as Dio observes,* this was the first for five years only, and then renewed for five years more, while the empire remained united in Rome the capital. And thus it likewise held entire, while Dioclesian and Maximian, with their two Cæsars under them, took their several provinces to reduce and vindicate. But when Constantius and Galerius received the empire, they parted it at least for life, if not for property ; and Eusebius tells us, f that this was the first division of the empire. It was a thing, says he, which never fell out before. However, it seemed to continue in some sort entire, while Rome remained the imperial city, without a rival.
But when Constantin the Great, had with extraordinary magnificence rebuilt and adorned Byzantium, and in the solemn dedication given it the name of New Rome; he made it the imperial seat of the eastern provinces and to have no subjection to the other. Here he therefore fixed his residence, and reigned over the whole, supreme, with his three sons under him, till bis decease in the year of Christ 337 ; when the empire came to be parted in the most effectual manner. Constantin the eldest, had Europe on this side of the Alps; Constantius the second, had Thrace, Asia, and Egypt; being nearly the same with the now Turkish empire ; and Constans the youngest, had the rest of Europe and Africa.
* D. Cassius ; Lib. xlvi, xlix.
+ Eccl. History, Lib. viii. Cap. 13.
The part which fell to Constantin was indeed in the third year after, united to the dominion of Constans; and both together, bearing the name of the western empire, was miserably harrassed and rent to pieces by the Picts, Scots, and Saxons in Britain ; and by the Goths, Vandals, Francs, Peruli, and other barbarous nations in the continent ; till it entirely ended with Augustulus, in the year of Christ 476 ; though in a measure revived at the end of the present interval, by Charles the Great of France, in the year 800. But the part which fell to Constantius had the name of the eastern empire, and endured the attacks of the Persians, Saracens, Turks, and others, till 1453 ; when it was forced to yield to the Ottoman arms.
The succession of these eastern emperors, I therefore choose to follow through the present period; and the more for this, that they were not only the greatest princes that were then in the world, but the affairs of learning then subsisted chiefly in their dominions, and the times of their succession are more exactly stated than those of other monarchs. For though the polite and fine way of writing among the Roman and Greek historians declined greatly in the latter part of the foregoing period, and expires in this, yet the notes of time were so well preserved, that disputes among Chronologers grow less and less considerable. They chiefly, I think, refer to the Roman Pontiffs in the western empire ; wherein Onuphrius and Baronius disagree, which seem indeed to be very uncertain and incapable of decision, and with which we are little concerned.
Note. In the present Period, where no historian is cited, the articles are taken from Calvisius.
Eastern No. Y. C. Emperors.
337 Constantius May 22, reigns in the East, twenty four years, five
months, twelve days. cp 340
In March, Constantin invading Constans, is slain near
Aquilea; and Constans takes his part of the em
Eusebius, the historian, dies, cp and Jerom born.* 350
January 16, Magnentius sets up in Gaul for the Wes
tern Empire, and at the Pyrenes kills Constans,
aged 30. sc cp June 3, Nepotianus sets up at Rome. sccpt July 1, Magnentius's army overcomes aod slays Ne
potianus, and seizes Italy c p and Africa. sc 352
Constantius beats Magnentius near Mursa, in Pan
He beats Magnentius twice in Gaul.
Constantius becomes sole monarch of both the
empires. c p v 354
Juliany studies at Athens with Nazianzen and Basil. 355
November 13, Augustin, called Austin, born, c or
Ammianus, the historian, is in the Persian war.
Julian rebels in Gaul, and marches to Thrace.
8C c || and
He is an apostate to heathenism, and persecutes the
Christians, prohibiting their schools, &c. sc c 363
June 26, he is slain in battle with the Persians, aged
31. sc cps and Jovian A Pannoniau, p June 27, chosen by the army, reigns
seven months, twentytwo days. cp 364
February 17, c or 19 p Jovian dies, by the vapor of
charcoal in Galatia, aged 34, sc c and Valentinian A Pannonian, p February 25, chosen by the army,
reigos over the whole, thirty four days, and then in the West only, eleven years, seven inonths, eigh
teen days ; he making his brother Valens April 1, emperor in the East, reigns fourteen years,
four months, nine days. **
Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, dies. c 367 du
c Calvisius. p Petavius. sc Socrates Scholasticus. v Valesius. * So Dupin, though Petavius says that Prosper sets his birth in 330. + He was son to Eutropia, daughter to Constantius Chlorus. pv So Petavius and Valesius, from Idatius ; though Socrates says Aug. 15. sc
He was son to Julius, son to Constantius Chlorus, hr || He left an unborn daughter; afterwards married to the emperor Gratian, bu lest no issue.
[ And in him the imperial line of Constantin the Great, and of Constantius Cilorvis. ends. They were the sons of one Gratian, a roper by trade. hi du Dupin.
Eastern No. Y. C. Emperors. 367
Theodosius, the Roman general, repels the Picts and
Scots, who had invaded Britain. 369
Basil made bishop of Cæsarea in Cappadocia. c du
The Jerusalem Talmud finished by Johanan. 371
Athanasius dies. cp 373
Galsilus, an Arian bishop, translates the Bible into
Ambrose, a civil officer, chosen by the people, bishop
of Milan, and baptised eight days after. c 375 p
Epiphanius, a bishop in Cyprus, writes of heresies. 375
November 17, Valentinian dies, with a sudden fit of
anger, aged 55, and his sons, Gratian and Valen
tinian II. reign in the West. cp 3376
They divide the Western empire.*
January 1, Basil dies. c 379 p
wounded into a cottage in Thrace, is burnt to
death, aged 50, cp and his nephew, Gratian Rules the Eastern empire, till January 16, following:
Nazianzen made bishop of Constantinople, c or in
November, 379. p
January 16, Gratian makes his general
years, 2 days.cpt
In May, the second General Council meets at Con
stantinople, when Nazianzen resigns his bishopric,
and retires to private life. cp
Austin, aged 29, teaches rhetoric at Rome.
Britain into Scandia, where they keep 27 years ;
sets up for emperor, and passes into Gaul. August 25, he kills Gratian, aged 25, and possesses
Britain, Gaul, Spain and Africa, for five years,
two days. CP. 387
Maximus marches to Italy, and Valentinian flies by
sea to Thessalonica.
Austin, aged 32, becomes a Christian. p 388
July 28, Theodosius beats Maximus near the Alps,
August 27, Maximus killed at Aquilea, sc c and
May 9, Nazianzen dies. cp 392
May 15, Valentinian, aged 27, strangled at Vienna,
by the intrigue of Eugenius, who assumes the
Western empire sc c p r 393)
|This was the last Olympiad observed in Greece. * Gratian taking Britain, Germany, Gaul and Spain ; and Valentinian Italy, Illyricum, Sicily and Africa. c.
| He was called Theodosius the Great, and was son to Theodosius the Roman general, in Britain. c
It consisted of but one hundred and fifty bishops, or pastors of churches ; condemns Macedonius and his opinions, and asserts the deity of the Holy
Ş He was of obscure birth, and from a Grammar schoolmaster, became a scribe and treasurer to Valentinian. G