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Egyptian and Roman monarchs, to Antoninus Pius, when Ptolemy flourished ; and numbers the years of their reigns by the number only of the Thoths, or rather Egyptian new year days included in them. To this Canon, therefore, we keep invariably in the present period ; having carefully examined it in Greek and Latin, both in Calvisius and Petavius, in Greek only in Mr. Gregory, and in Latin only in Mr. Cary and Mr. Whiston. I have observed several errors in the four former printed copies, whereas the table in Mr. Whiston seems to be free from any, except in the column he adds of the years
of the Julian Period, which seem to be too many by one down from the beginning of the reign of Darius Hystaspis, (c) and which I have here corrected. But as we must reduce the Egyptian year in this ancient Canon to the present Julian, I shall from this time forward begin the year with the first of January, throughout our following Chronology.
c That is, Darius the son of Hystaspis.
2 444 b
3 446 b
4 450 b
I. BABYLONIAN MONARCHS. 17 Nebuchadnezzar VJI m. his governor Gedaliah
Nebuzaradan carries the rest of
the Jews to Babylon. Pythagoras born, and lives 80
years. (d) 43
Nebuchadnezzar dies, and his
son Evilmerodach succeeds. XII m. 25 d. i. e. April 15, Jeco
nias released from prison. (e) Jan. 111 1 Evilmerodach Reigns two years. (f) 2
He killed by Nericassolasser,
his sister's husband.
He is slain in battle by Cyaxe
res (i. e. Darius the Mede)
and Cyrus. (8) 9 1 Nabonadius i. e. Belshazzar, son to Evilme
rodach, reigns 17 years. 17
Babylou taken, and Belshazzar
1. PERSIAN MONARCHS. 5 1 Cyrus
With his uncle Darius, reign
together 2 years. Dariu dying, Cyrus reigns 7
years more. 3
In this first year, (n) he gives
liberty to the Jews to return
from their 70 years' captivity. 9
He dies. And his son 3 i Cambyses
Reigns 8 years. 8
He kills his brother Smerdis,
and dies ; and the male line
of Cyrus ends. (i) 1 1 Darius
Hystaspis made king by lottery,
and reigns 36 years. Pindar born. (1) XII m. Adar, 3 d. the Il Temple
finished. Kings of Rome expelled, and
5 467 b
475 6 476 b
7 484 b
Consuls first elected. (k)
d Stanley, who critically searches into this matter.
e January 11, this year is Nebuchadnezzar's 43d Egyptian new year day, and in the following summer, the 37th year of Jeconias's captivity ends ; Nebuchadnezzar therefore dies between January 11, and April 15 of this year.
f This is the first Egyptian new year day of Evilmerodach's reign; and so of the rest.
g Nericassolasser's son Laborosoarchod reigns 9 months and then is killed ; bat there being no Egyptian new year day in his reign, the Canon omits him.
h Both the Scripture and Xenophon call this the first year of Cyrus.
i For the reason above, the Canon leaves out Smerdis a counterfeit son of Cyrus, who succeeded Cambyses 7 months, and was then discovered and killed. i Calvisius and Helvicus. k Calvisius, Helvicus, Cary, Strauchius, Newton, &c.
Longimanus, reigns 41 years.
ter, Hypocrates. (n)
to restore the religious state of Judea, sets out from Baby
lon. V m. 1 d. he arrives at Jerusa-'
lem. IX m, Chislieu, Nehemiah in
formed of the wretched state
of Judea and Jerusalem. . I m. Nisan, he is appointed to
rebuild the city, and made governor of Judea for 12
years. (0) Isocrates born, and lives 98 Y. Meton observes the Summer
Solstice to be on June 27 in the morning, and forms the
Lunar Cycle of 19 years. (m) This spring, the Peloponesian
war begins. (m)
| Dr. Prideaux.
m Usher. n Diogenes Laertius. o By comparing the two last articles it seems that Artaxerxes began his reign between Nisan and Chislieu in the year of the world 3540.
p His only lawful son Xerxes succeeded, but was quickly killed and succeeded by his brother Sogdian, and he by his brother Nothus; but as the two former reigned but eight months, and had no Egyptian new year day included, the Canon therefore leaves them both out.
At the battle of Cunaxa, Ctesias
taken captive, and Xenophon
retreats to Greece. (m)
59 years. (k)
years. (k m n)
est son called
whole race of Mnemon cut
great-grandson of Nothus, reigns 4 years. Alexander sails to Asia. (m) May 20, he beats the Persian
army at the Granicus. (m)
whence the Canon begins his
near Arbela, and takes Baby
lon, &c. (m r)
officers, the Persian empire
76 years (m r s) (1)
his bastard brother
Ægus, by Roxana, reigns. (u)
Babylon, and reigns. (v)
9 Though he had three sons by his queen, and 115 sons by concubines. r Strauchius.
$ Alsted. t Strauchius says it began at the Summer Solstice; and Alsted, on June 28.
u The Canon makes it twelve years from the beginning of his reign to the beginning of the reign of Ptolemy Lagus over Egypt.
v Whence the era of the Seleucides begins with the Eastern nations; except
Alexander Ægus killed. (w)
the Great killed, his line ends,
his generals. (c u)
Egypt, Phænicia and Judea.
into Greek. (my)
years. (k m)
begin the Parthian empire.
to the 85 year. (km)
ria, seizes Palestine.
in Africa. L. Scipio beats Antiochus the
Great, and forces him to quit
the Lesser Asia. P Scipio Africanus dies, aged
52. (k) Hannibal drinks poison and
dies, aged 70. (k m)
the Chaldeans who begin it in the following spring, and the first book of Maccabees in the spring before. (Alsted.)
w. The following six years being times of great confusion, through the strife of Alexander's generals for the several parts of the empire, till Ptolemy Lagus comes to be settled king of Egypt; the Canon therefore adds the said six years also to Ægus.
x Cary. y Dr. Prideaux.