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Egyptian and Roman monarchs, to Antoninus Pius, when Ptolemy flourished ; and numbers the years of their reigns by the number only of the Thoths, or rather Egyptian new year days included in them. To this Canon, therefore, we keep invariably in the present period ; having carefully examined it in Greek and Latin, both in Calvisius and Petavius, in Greek only in Mr. Gregory, and in Latin only in Mr. Cary and Mr. Whiston. I have observed several errors in the four former printed copies, whereas the table in Mr. Whiston seems to be free from any, except in the column he adds of the years

of the Julian Period, which seem to be too many by one down from the beginning of the reign of Darius Hystaspis, (c) and which I have here corrected. But as we must reduce the Egyptian year in this ancient Canon to the present Julian, I shall from this time forward begin the year with the first of January, throughout our following Chronology.

c That is, Darius the son of Hystaspis.

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I. BABYLONIAN MONARCHS. 17 Nebuchadnezzar VJI m. his governor Gedaliah

killed. 21

Nebuzaradan carries the rest of

the Jews to Babylon. Pythagoras born, and lives 80

years. (d) 43

Nebuchadnezzar dies, and his

son Evilmerodach succeeds. XII m. 25 d. i. e. April 15, Jeco

nias released from prison. (e) Jan. 111 1 Evilmerodach Reigns two years. (f) 2

He killed by Nericassolasser,

his sister's husband.
10 1 Nericassolasser Reigns four years.

He is slain in battle by Cyaxe

res (i. e. Darius the Mede)

and Cyrus. (8) 9 1 Nabonadius i. e. Belshazzar, son to Evilme

rodach, reigns 17 years. 17

Babylou taken, and Belshazzar



With his uncle Darius, reign

together 2 years. Dariu dying, Cyrus reigns 7

years more. 3

In this first year, (n) he gives

liberty to the Jews to return

from their 70 years' captivity. 9

He dies. And his son 3 i Cambyses

Reigns 8 years. 8

He kills his brother Smerdis,

and dies ; and the male line

of Cyrus ends. (i) 1 1 Darius

Hystaspis made king by lottery,

and reigns 36 years. Pindar born. (1) XII m. Adar, 3 d. the Il Temple

finished. Kings of Rome expelled, and

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475 6 476 b


7 484 b

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Consuls first elected. (k)

d Stanley, who critically searches into this matter.

e January 11, this year is Nebuchadnezzar's 43d Egyptian new year day, and in the following summer, the 37th year of Jeconias's captivity ends ; Nebuchadnezzar therefore dies between January 11, and April 15 of this year.

f This is the first Egyptian new year day of Evilmerodach's reign; and so of the rest.

g Nericassolasser's son Laborosoarchod reigns 9 months and then is killed ; bat there being no Egyptian new year day in his reign, the Canon omits him.

h Both the Scripture and Xenophon call this the first year of Cyrus.

i For the reason above, the Canon leaves out Smerdis a counterfeit son of Cyrus, who succeeded Cambyses 7 months, and was then discovered and killed. i Calvisius and Helvicus. k Calvisius, Helvicus, Cary, Strauchius, Newton, &c.

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Longimanus, reigns 41 years.
Democritus born, and soon af-

ter, Hypocrates. (n)
I m. 1 d. Ezra being appointed

to restore the religious state of Judea, sets out from Baby

lon. V m. 1 d. he arrives at Jerusa-'

lem. IX m, Chislieu, Nehemiah in

formed of the wretched state

of Judea and Jerusalem. . I m. Nisan, he is appointed to

rebuild the city, and made governor of Judea for 12

years. (0) Isocrates born, and lives 98 Y. Meton observes the Summer

Solstice to be on June 27 in the morning, and forms the

Lunar Cycle of 19 years. (m) This spring, the Peloponesian

war begins. (m)
Plato born, and lives 80 years.
Artaxerxes dies. (v) And his

bastard son
Nothus reigns 19 years.
He dies. And his son
Mnemon called Arfaces, reigns

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46 years.

| Dr. Prideaux.

m Usher. n Diogenes Laertius. o By comparing the two last articles it seems that Artaxerxes began his reign between Nisan and Chislieu in the year of the world 3540.

p His only lawful son Xerxes succeeded, but was quickly killed and succeeded by his brother Sogdian, and he by his brother Nothus; but as the two former reigned but eight months, and had no Egyptian new year day included, the Canon therefore leaves them both out.

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At the battle of Cunaxa, Ctesias

taken captive, and Xenophon

retreats to Greece. (m)
Aristotle born, and lives 63

years. (m)
Demosthenes born, and lives

59 years. (k)
Mnemon dies, aged 94. And

his son
Artaxerxes, reigns 21 years.
This summer

Alexander the
Great born. (m)
Epicurus born, and lives

years. (k m n)
Ochus poisoned. And his young-

est son called
Arses, reigns 2 years.
He is also poisoned, and the

whole race of Mnemon cut


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off. (9)

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great-grandson of Nothus, reigns 4 years. Alexander sails to Asia. (m) May 20, he beats the Persian

army at the Granicus. (m)
November, he beats Darius at

Issus. (m)
He founds Alexandria in Egypt

whence the Canon begins his

reign. (m)
The Great, reigns 8 years.
October 1, (r) he beats Darius

near Arbela, and takes Baby

lon, &c. (m r)
June 28, Darius killed by his

officers, the Persian empire
goes to the Grecians, and
Calippus begins his period of

76 years (m r s) (1)
May 22, Alexander dies. And

his bastard brother
Arideus, reigns 7 years
He is killed. And Alexander's


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• son

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Ægus, by Roxana, reigns. (u)
September 6, (8) Seleucus seizes

Babylon, and reigns. (v)

9 Though he had three sons by his queen, and 115 sons by concubines. r Strauchius.

$ Alsted. t Strauchius says it began at the Summer Solstice; and Alsted, on June 28.

u The Canon makes it twelve years from the beginning of his reign to the beginning of the reign of Ptolemy Lagus over Egypt.

v Whence the era of the Seleucides begins with the Eastern nations; except

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Alexander Ægus killed. (w)
The bastard son of Alexander

the Great killed, his line ends,
and his empire divided among

his generals. (c u)
Ptolemy Lagus settled king of

Egypt, Phænicia and Judea.
IV. Egyptian MONARCHS.
Reigns 20 years.
Seleucus seizes Syria.
Archimedes born, and lives 79

years. (r)
Lagus resigns to his younger son
Who reigns 38 years.
Lagus dies.
The Hebrew Bible translated

into Greek. (my)
Berosus, being old, writes.
Hannibal born and lives 70

years. (k m)
The Parthians under Asaces,

begin the Parthian empire.
Philadelphus dies. And his son
Reigns 25 years.
P. Scipio born, and lives 52

years. (k)
Cato the Censor born, and lives

to the 85 year. (km)
Euergetes dies. And his son
Reigns 17 years.
Syracuse taken, and Archime-

des slain.
Polybius born, and lives 82.

years, (k)
Philopator dies. And his son
Reigns 24 years.
Antiochus the Great, king of Sy-

ria, seizes Palestine.
P. Scipio overthrows Hannibal

in Africa. L. Scipio beats Antiochus the

Great, and forces him to quit

the Lesser Asia. P Scipio Africanus dies, aged

52. (k) Hannibal drinks poison and


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dies, aged 70. (k m)

the Chaldeans who begin it in the following spring, and the first book of Maccabees in the spring before. (Alsted.)

w. The following six years being times of great confusion, through the strife of Alexander's generals for the several parts of the empire, till Ptolemy Lagus comes to be settled king of Egypt; the Canon therefore adds the said six years also to Ægus.

x Cary. y Dr. Prideaux.

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