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MEDICAL.-M. Pasteur, in a recent report upon phoric acid in combination with lime and other the operations he had performed on persons bases, which form a valuable Inanure for bitten by rabid animals, stated that out of swedes, turnips, and grass. This hitherto use. 1,009 French cases, three had died; of 182 less product is the exhausted material of the Russians, u, eight of whom had been bitten by converters used in the Thoinas Gilchrist method wolves; Roumanians, 20, one; of 445 of mixed of slephosphorizing iron. nationalities, none whatever. The average of METEOROLOGY.-Meteorology and the prognos. leaths, therefore, in all, was rather less than tication of storms and earth-currents is rapidly i per cent.

becoming an exact science as the law and inDEPOSITION OF GOLD AND SILVER AMALGAX. fuence of storms are becoming more known. --A new method of depositing gold and silver, Mr. Edily, of the American Signal Service ct rather the revival of a lost art, for the secret Bureau, stated that out of thirty-eight predicwas well known and practised by medieval, tions of tornadoes in April amil June, 1885, workers, has been re-discovered by Mr.Pratt and eighteen were verified, but those relating to the perfected by Mr. Matřey, F.l.s., of Johnson, past year were far more exact, as 15 out of 19 Maffey, Co. The process consists of pouring prophecies proved absolutely correct, and the A solution of gold on glass, similar to that of indications in other cases showed that wind mating a negative, when the gilding adheres and hail-storis prevailed. Signor Ferrari, of to the prepared surface; a solution of silver is Italy, as the result of his studying the effects then poured over the gold, and the two metals and cause of six hundrell and tifty storms, form an amalgam impervious to damp, or the concluderl that every thunderstorm is coneffects of oxidation or decay, as is the case when nected with a barometric, hydrogenic, and gikling is done by the old adhesive leaf process, thermic depression. It is behind the two former in which organic matter is employed. The and in front of the last. vold being placed on the underside of the glass LIQUID FUEL-The utilization of petroleum is effectually protected against external injury, as fuel, in view of the enormous number of and is practically as indestructible as the glass recently (liscovered sources in Russia and other itself. The cost is much the same as ordinary parts of Europe, will do something to allay the gilding, and Mr. Maffey hopes to restore the fears that exist as to the exhaustion of our coal gold and silver decorativ business to this supplies. Inventors have turned th attention country, as at present it is almost exclusively in to the liquid fuel, and the latest development the hands of the German workers.

has been the building of a steel vessel proAGRICULTURE.--The decadence of the potato pelled by a continuous series of explosions of in England ever since the disease first made its petroleum, similurly to thut of a gus-engine. appearance in 1845 has been most markerl, and The vessel has no piston or fly-wheel, and the the minds of agriculturists have been exerciseil motive power is obtained by succession of with a view of devising a remedly. The Earl of charges of petroleuin and hented air, under Catheart has so far been the first to have pressure, and the charges fired by electricity. achieved success in conjunction with Messrs. The explosions occur several times in a minute, Sutton & Co. The method adopted is that of the force being expended below the water-level, CTURE-fertilization of the tubers by crossing the and the impinging of this force upon the water best-known varieties of the cultivated hardy propels the boat forward. corts with the pollen of wild plants. The result VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS. -- In writing on the of the experiments has so far been highly terrible volcanic eruptions that occurred lust satisfactory during the past year, and if the year, Mr. Proctor says that they had to confirm success this achieved be continued the potato geologists in their belief that if the earth's will no doubt again come into universal favour. internal fires are diminishing in intensity, the

EPIDEMICS.--In tracing the causation of an diminution takes place so slowly as to be quite outbreak of scarlatina which occurred in Lon. imperceptible at the present, and they cannot don, Mr. W. H. Power of the Local Government point to any period when the earth's internal Bard found that the disease emanated from forces were superior in energy than they are at the milk of certain cows which were affected the present moment. The work achieved by with a skin disease, which showed itself in the subterranean action, destructive as its imregion of the tests and udders. It is well known mediate effects mayat first appear, is absolutely that the woolsorter's disease is caused by the necessary to the welfare and happiness of the same germ that brings on splenitic fever in human race, as it is to the reproductive energy cattle, whilst glanders can be transferred from of the earth's internal forces that we are inhurses to human beings. The direct communi. i dehted to the existence of continents and islands cation of scarlatina to human beings from the in which warm-blooded animals can live. CUw opens a much wider range in the communi. OCEAN BASINS.-A: a meeting of the Paris cation of what could be made a preventible. Academy of Sciences, M. Fuye established his disease, and the Government have engaged Dr. position respecting the more rapid cooling of Klein to make further investigations. As a the earth's crust under the seas than under set-off to these startling facts, Sir Joseph Fayrer continents. This rule he contends is not only stated that in the case of cholera, the theory applicable to Polar seas whose lowest depthis! tbat it was a communicable disease was now may be taken as zero, but also to those which exploded, and that the Indian Government had are more remote from Polar influence. In these discontinued all quarantine restrictions, and re latter the temperature decreases with the lievi solely on sanitary measures such as care in depth, the difference between the ocean and dietary, ventilation, and the avoidance of all the continents at the same depth being about extremes of heat, cold, or excessive exertion. 15 degrees more in the latter.

SMELTING. -- Professor Wrighton and Dr. STEEL.-During the past year steel bas come Munro have succeerlecl in utilizing the hitherto largely into use as a substitute for iron, the waste deposit of basic cinder, as it has been last elevelopment being the use of steel pipes for found to contain from 16 to 19 per cent. of phos- i the conveyance of water under high pressure.

Mr. James Watson, C.E., subjected these pipes in being acid instead of alkuline, and have a to high pressure, and reports favourably on feeble instead of a strong odtur. them, the weight of the cast-iron being about CHEMISTRY.--A new artificial process for four and three-quarters more than thut of steel, manufacturing quinine has been intruluced which was manufucturel by the Steel Company by Dr. Cresswell Hewett, by which means the of Scotland. At the same time the casting of price of that drug can be reduced to threesteel had been successfully carried out by Mr. Pence per ounce. The discovery itself was the Spencer of Newcastle, and Messrs. Fox & Co. result of a fortunate accident; but it is stated of Millwall; whilst for ruilway work steel rails that it will render us independent of the cinhuve practically superserled iron, and is being chona-tree, from the bark of which only 2 per used for sleepers as a substitute for wood. cent. of good quinine can be obtained, ile NITRO-GLICERINE AND DYNAMITE.-- From a

remaining 98 per cent, being valueless. series of carefully tested experiments made at

TELEGRAPHY: The application of telegraphy Ardur, it was found that nitro-glycerine and for every day purposes as a motive, henting. dynamite do not exert such a force on explosion and speaking agent is coming more and more as is generally supposedl. The power developed into use almost duily as fresh discoveries, inby the explosion of a ton of dynamite is equal to ventions, or adaptations are constantly being 45,675 foot tons; of one ton of nitro-glycerine, brought out. Mr. George Westinghouse, of air64,452 foot tons; blasting gelatine exerts a force brake celebrity, has putented a new system of of 71,050 foot tons, These figures, says the re. distributing, which will greatly reduce the cust porter, though large, are not enormous, and need of lighting by electricity, it is stated, to the not excite terror. Seventy-one thousand tons of amount of 95 per cent. By means of teleba. ordinary building-stone, if arranged in the rometere, telethermometers, telemonometers, form of a cube, would measure only go feet on

and telehydrobarometers, which record at disthe side, and if it were possible to concentrate

tant points air, heat, steam, and water pres. the whole of the force of a ton of blaster gela. sure, we have new and sensitive registers; whilst tine, the only effect would be to lift it to the another electrician is stated to have invented # height of one foot. The power exerted by an

process by which gold, silver, and copper can be explosion on surrounding objects is in the smelted by electricity. The utmost average inverse ratio of the cube of the distance from distance at which telephony can be carrier on is the point of explosion. Thus at 100 feet from

said to be 100 miles, though the Wisconsin Comthe exact point of an explosion, the power is pany carry on regular and successful operations only the cube of

1 :ico, or a millionth part over 199 miles' distance. A French technical of what it is at only ı foot distance; that is, if journal gives details of a clever invention for the power at the point of explosion be repre. damascening metals by electrolysis, based on sented at 1,000,000, the force it 100 feet would the well-known fact that when two copperbe represented by 1.

plates are hung in a buth of sulphate of copper, DEEP-LAKE FAUNA.

and connected with the opposing poles of a -- Dr. Plessis, who has madle a series of observations on the fruna of battery, a transfer of metal from one to the the deep Swiss lakes, which range from 75 to

other will take place. By placing an etched 80 feet in depth, notes seme curious anoma- copper-plate, and insulating all parts except lies, inasmuch as while some varieties may be the engraved design, a deposit of nickel or mefound with good eyes at a depth of 100 feet, needle, and the result is stated to be meist sue:

tallic silver fills up the lines left by the etchingothers again at 70 feet, where light penetrates,

cessful. have no sense of sight. Dr. Plessis attributes this

In electric lighting, again, Mr. Apword to a species of enigration that must be going on

has developed a primary battery, the exciting! from an extremely remote period, since he

cause being chlorine gas instead of a liquid, and fonnd among individuels of the same species ing into domestic use on a small scale.

it is said to be capable of bringing electric lightsome wholly blindl, others with their eyes in the way of atrophy, and gain others with sound plant seems to be the most recently discovered

ELECTRICAL PLANT.---The Phytolacca-electraeyes but small, He assumes therefore, with reason, the species with perfect eyes are de

natural storage-battery. It is said that it im. scendants of a luter set of emigrants. Similar parts a shock resembling the sensation produceil anomalies occur also with breathing orgus:

by an induction-coil, and will affect a small the pmimonary sacs are usually filleri with water, compass at the distance of twenty feet, and that bnt they resume the normal method of breathius nobirls or insects are ever seen in the immediate

neighbourhood of the plant. The New York when brought in contact with the air.

Medical Times is said to have instituted these NEW CHEMICAL ELEMENTS:--Professor H. Car. experiments. According to La Nature magnerington Bolton has given a complete list of the sinm and aluminium can now be provluced at a new chemical elements thut have been dis comparatively nominal cost, and a Bremen manucovered since 1877 to the present time. They factory offers prizes for the best form of lamp number forty-two in all. In 1885 Welsbach dis for burning magnesium. covered tw), and Lecoq de Boisbaudran two THE COAL AGE. -An American anthority elements to exist in dielymium. In 1886 Pro- makes the calculation that it would require fessor Crooks discovereil six new elements in

1,000,000 years to form a coal-bed of 100 feet in gadolinite, and two in samarškite.

thickness, as the formation of a layer of coal BACTERIA.-M. Certes has been conducting requires an enormous amount of vegetable a series of experiments on the decomposition of mutter. He calculates that the coal-beds of organic mutter at high pressure, for the pur. America are sufficient at the present rate of pose of ascertaining whether the process takes consumption to supply the whole world for a place in the depths of the sca as in the open period of from 1,500 to 2,000 years. air. He found that bacteria increasel under PHOTOGRAPHY. -Mr. A. A. Cominon, in a leepressure of from three to six hundred atmo- ture before the Royal Institution recently, stated spheres, except that the microbes are different in reference to dry-plate photography, that “ At

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#boand it has gone far beyond anything that This work has not been confined to land was expected of it. I hope soon to see it recogalone, many ships, both of the mercantile nized as the most potent agent of rescurch and marine and the royal navy, having been fitted record that has ever been within the reach of with electric light; while arrangements have the astronomer, so the records will not be the been made for installing it in most, if not all, written impression of deal men's views, bnt the new ships being built for the latter. veritable images of the different objects of the Several atternpts have been inaıle to solve the heavens recorded by theinselves.MM. difficulty of house-lighting by means of primary Henry, of Paris, succeeded in photographing batteries, among which are the employment of the group of stars known as the Pleindes, show. chlorine gas as the active material, and various ing a nebula of a spirul form, which had never inventions, greatly incrensing the ontput of hefore been brought under the ken of the human batteries using acid solutions. One of the eve. BIM, Paul and Prosper Heru'y have suc most noteworthy events of the past year in the ceeded in photographing a portion of the Milky electrical world has been the voyage of the Way. These recent discoveries will open up an “Volta," an electrically propelled bcat, from il himitable field of observations for

Dover to Canis aud Duck. trohomers. The Camera recortis i singular Tlie application of electricity to various pur. phenomenon in connection with photography: poses is being largely extended and improved. An operator had taken the portrait of a child Examples of this, such is the driving of trumwith a clear complexion, and the negative cars, the controlling of railway-signals, the showed the face covered with eruptions, which synchronizing of clocks on a large scale, tho three days after appeared as prickly heat. blasting necessary in mining and other operaAnother case is recorded in which a child's tions, and the management of various arrangeportrait showed spots in its face a fortnight ments in naval operations, are of common before an attack of small-pox developed itself. Occurrence.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING.--This industry, In telegraphy the most important advance is thongh still hampered by the vexations Electric the adoption by the Post Office of the “ Denny" Lighting Act, continues to make great and system, which grentiy fucilitates the transmisi steady progress. A very large amount of private siou of messages, since it enables us many as installation work has been done by various six to be sent at one time over the same line. firms during the past year; as examples of The use of the telephone has largely inwhich we may mention the Great Western Rail. creased both in London and the provinces. way installation at Paddington, the Central Experiments in long-listance telephony bave Station in the neighbourhood of the Grosvenor been made by the Post Office and others; and Gallery, and several public buildings, mansions, a line is now in practical use between London and factories in various parts of the country. and Brighton.

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Burthens on Land. NEW SCALE OF LAW CostS ON THE SALE, PURCHASE, OR MORTGAGE OF REAL PROPERTY,

HOUSES, OR LAND.

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Per £100. Per £100. Per £100. Per £100. Vendor's solicitor for negotiating a sale of property by £ 8. £ 8. d. £ 8. d. £ d. private contract.

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5 0 Do., do., for conducting a sale of property by public auction, including the conditions of sale--

1 When the property is sold..

5

6 When the property is not sold, then on the reserved price f

5 0

6

I 3 Do., do., for deducing title to freehold, copyhold, or

leasehold property, and perusing, and completing conveyance (including preparation of contract, oi conditions of sale, if any).

O 5 0 Purchaser's solicitor for negotiating a purchase of property by private contract

5 Do., do., for investigating title to freehold, copyhold, or

leasehold property, and preparing and completing i conveyance (including perusal and completion of contract, if any)

5 0 Vortgagor's solicitor for deducing title to freehold,

copybold, or leasehold property, perusing mortgage, and completing...

5 Mortgagee's solicitor for negotiating loan..

5

6 Do., do, for investigating title to freehold, copyhold, oi

leasehold property; and preparing and completing mortgage

5 0 Venslor's or mortgngor's solicitor for procuring execu.

tion and acknowledgment of deed by a married woman o extra. |

• Every transaction exceeding £100,000 to be charged for as if it were for £100,000.
+ A minimum charge of £5 to be made whether a sale is effected or not.

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No geographical discovery of great and the Tanganyika continues to be the scene of popular interest can be put down to the creclit the labours of Mr. E. C. Hore. of last year, but work has been steadily pro The countries of the Mikua and Yao, lying gressing in all parts of the world, and our between the Mozambique coast and Lake Nyus-a, knowledge of the earth's surfrce is almost have been the scene of explorations carried ou by daily gaining in precision. Africa Stillen Mr. Last, who arrived at Blantyre on January 13, grosses the greater share of public attention, 1886; and by a Portuguese expedition, cumwhich quite recently has bien directed to Dr. manded by Serpo Pinto, and organized on an Emin-Bey, the governor of the Equatorial Pro- ambitious scale. Having thoroughly explored vince of Egypt, who, na twithstanding the the coast between Mozambique and Ibo, the Mahdi and his followers, has stuck to his post expedition left the latter place with 200 armed and maintained the Khedive's authority over a Zulus and 740 porters. But it soon came to witle area. The last steamer leit Lacoon grief, and whilst Serpo Pinto returned to the April 14, 1883, and the muil it carried arrived at coast, his companion, Lieutenant ('urdoz), Cairo after 45 days. Since then, util quite reached Blantyre in February, 1886, with only recently, no news had been received from the three followers. He thence returned overland Europeans on the upper Nile. Two Relief to Kilimani, at the mouth of the Zambezi. Experlitious sent from Europo, the one under In the region to the South of the Zambezi, Dr. Lenz, the other under Dr. G. A. Fischer, Captain Paiva de Andradla has undertaken the failed in their object. Dr. Lenz, travelling up exploration of reported lead-mines on the Sabia, the Congo, reachel Stanley Falls on February 2, but the hostility of the Zulu chief Umganyana, 1886, but, finding the northern road closed against which culminated in an attack upon the Portu: him, is now marching upon Zanzibar; whilst guese town of Inhambane, appears to have frum. Dr. Fischer, when he reached Lake Baringo, to trated his plans. the north-east of the Victoria Nyanza, had to Of expeilitions which started from the Cape face a famine, and was compelled to turn back, we may mention that of Mr. Farini, who claims He returned to Zanzibar on June 21, 1886. Mean to have proved that the Kalahari is not the in. time, Dr. Junker had left Emin-Bey on Jan. 2, hospitable region it is reputed to be ; and that of 1886, and has since safely reached the coast; Dr. E. Holul), who, according to the latest new and we know from Dr. Emin himself that he counts, was about to cross the middle Zumbezi, and his companion, Captain Casati, were still accompanied by Mr. Westbeach. in good health in June last, and that failing On the West Coast it is naturally the Congo relief they would place themselves at the headl Basin which draws upon it the eyes of the of the men still faithful to them and march civilized world, not so much, perhaps, because down to the coast. (losely connected with the of any gevgraphical discoveries to be male Upper Nile is the Kingdom of Uganda, where there, but on account of the great problem which the friendly, if somewhat capricious, Mtesa the King of the Belgians has undertaken to has been succeeded by his bloodthirsty son, solve - namely, the possible civilization of Africa. Mwanga, who persecutes the native Christians, The most important geographical work was un and expelled the missionaries with the exception doubtedly done by Captain Rouvier and Dr. of Mr. Mackay, whose services as a clever Biryole, the French Cominissioners, who, jointly mechanician he desired to retain. Bishop with their Belgian colleagues, Captain Jassari Hannington, who endeavoured to reach Ugunda and Lieutenant Liebrechts, were ordered to de by marching through the Masai country, was, fine the bountary between the Congo State and by order of this savage, foully murdered with the French possessions. The Rev. Geo. Greufell, forty-six followers, when close to the borilers of in his little steamer the “Peace," continuerl his the kingdom, on October 31, 1885.

exploration of the tributaries of the Congo, and In Abyssinia the Italians still maintain a in April ascended the Kasai. Dr. Wolf, in' station, but apart from some explorations carried January to April, 1886, traced the Sankuru und on by Dr. Traversi, who visited Lake Zuway, its tributary, the Lomami. More remarkable, we are not aware of any work of interest or and attended by incomparably grenter hard. value having been accomplished. Connt Porro, ships, was a journey performed by Lieutenants who left Zeila on March 16, 1886, wils murderer Kund and Tappenbeck, who started from Stan. with eight companions by orders of the Ernir ley Pool, successively crossed the Kuangu and of Harar; a French explorer, M. Barral, met the Sankuru, and then forced their way through with a similar fate at the hands of the Danakil, dense primeval forests until the hostility of the when within a few days' march of Shoa ; and natives compelled them to desist. Embarking M. Solleilet died at Aden on September 10, 1886, on a tributary of the Kusai they reached Star ' when about to return to Shoa, where consider- ley Pool again in the beginning of February, able privileges had been granted him. An 1886. Dr. Lenz's journey has alreadir been re

Italian journalist, Franzoi, proposes to travel ferred to. A Swedish officer, Lieutenant Gleerup, from Zanzibart Kafa a boldi veuture, not likely stationed at Stanley Fulls, left that place on to prove a success.

December 28, 1885, and arrived at Zanzibar on The country at the back of the Sultan of June 25, 1836. On the road he was able to Zanzibar'stlominions has recently been explored render some assistance to M. Révoil, the French in various lirections by agents of the German explorer, whom he found suffering from fever. East African company. The most remarkable Farther south, but still in the ('ongo Basin, the success attended a journey by Count Pfeil and Portuguese have scored a success, bth gen Lieutenant Schlütter, who reached the Nyassa graphically and politically, for ('uptu in H. de by a new route, and travelled thence through an Carvalho has reached the residence of the Junta unexplored region to Kilwa on the coast. On Yamvo, and induced that monarch to place the lake just namel, the Rev. G. H. Swinny of the himself unter Portuguese protection. In the Universities' Mission, and other missionaries are French Congo,” M. J. de Bruzzi, a brother doing occasionally geographical work, whilst of the present (overnor-Gencral, has reacheithe

Jambi country in 2° 20' N., and has then followed Bonvalot, and Pépin, a party of French exthe Sekoli river to its junction with the Congo, plorers. They left Paris on March 27, 1886, which he reached on January 1, 1886.

and desired to explore northern Afghanistan. In Spanish West Africa, Dr. Ossorio has But having been refused admission to that carried on a successful exploration which took country an adventurous byciclist, Stevens, him up the Campo river to the interior water hnd shortly before been turned out they left shed, and back by the Benito to the coast.

Meshed for Surukhs, Merv, Bokhara, and In the Cameroons, now a Gerinan Protectorate, Samarkand, where they arrived in August, no explorations of importance have been carried and propose to go thence to Balkh and Afghan on. Dr. Schwarz only succeeded in getting a few Turkistan. (lays' journey beyond Lieutenant Rogozinski's Much work has been carried on in the terri. ! farthest; whilst our Consul, Mr. H. H. John- tories still separating the Russian from the ston, confined himself to a 'navigation of the British possessions. The Afghan Boundary Cameroon river. Important work is, however, Commission has completed its labours, and we proposed. Mr. Johnston is charged with an are promised a full report from the pen of exploration of the Cameroons mountains; Dr. Major T. H. Holdich. Mr. Ney Elias bas success. Zuntzraff has been sent out by the German fully explored a great part of Afghan and Government to explore the anthropology of the Chinese frurkistan, and looks mpon the Murghah country; and Lieutenant Wester, a Swelle, is as the true heud-stream of the Oxus. Colonel preparing an expedition on a large scale, which Lockhart's mission into Badakshan has likewise is intended to reveal to us the mysteries of the been successfully terminated; ('olonel Woolinland region.

thorpe remained behind after the departure of Dr. Flegel's death, which took place at Akassa his chief, and completed the exploration of the on September 11, 1886, has for the present sus- passes which leal over the Hindukush into peniled German exploratory work on the Niger, Gilgit and Chitral. On the Russian side exFarther west, however, German explorers have plorations were carried on by Grum Grshimailo, been at work. Herr G. A. Krause has visiteul who left Ferghana in April, 1886,for the Tian Shan Salaga, the great emporium on the Upper Volta; and the Pamir; and hy Lieutenant Gronbehevski, and Herr Falkenstein, starting from Lome, has who traversed Chinese Turkistan to Khotan, made his way into the Eweawo country. The and then crossed over into Gilgit, where he made Lpper Niger is now navigated by a steam-launch, a stay of some time. We should also place on in which Captains Davoust ani Delanneau ex record the suecessful journey of Mr. Carey, plorer the river as low down as Jenne.

who started from Leh and traced the river The whole of the western Sahara having been Tarim down to its termination, in Lob Nor, annexed hy Spain, the desire to know something where he arrived in April, 1886. The proposed of this new acquisition is only natural. Señor expedition into Thibet, of which Mr. Slacaulay J. Cervera Baviera and Dr. F. Quiroya, who was to have been the leader, had, however, to visited Adrar in June and July last, do not, be abandoned, owing to objections raised by however, present a report which can be called the Chinese. encouraging. Another effort to explore the The question of the Upper Brahmaputra may Sahara from the north was made by Lieutenant he said to have been solved by a journey to Palat, a young Frenchman of great ability, but Rima, in Thibet, which Mr. Needham, of the it terminated fatally, the traveller having met Assam police, reached on January 4, 1886; Mr. his death at the hand of Tuareg, after he had Needham followed the Brahmaputra all the 1 reached Tidlikelt.

way, and is in a position to affirm that the Sanpo In Tunis and in Egypt French and English is in reality the Upper Dihong. engineers are actively engaged in the prepara Our geographical knowledge of Australia is tion of good maps. In the latter country Dr. G. steadily gaining in precision through the Schweinfurth had paid a visit to the Wadi operations of the Survey and Geological deMoelleh, to the south of the Fayum, which, partments, established in various colonies. One according to a levelling made at the request of of the most interesting explorations of the kind Mr. Cope Whitehouse by Mr. Stadler, in is that which was recently carried on in Jannary last, lies about 40 feet below the level the Australian Alps by Dr. von Lendenfeld, of of the sea, and might thus be flooded with water the Geological Survey of New South Wales, i from the Nile.

when it was found that Mount Townsend, Crossing over from Africa to Asia we first attaining a height of 7,357 feet, was the cul. meet with that veteran geographer, Dr. H. minating point of all Australia. Distinct traces Kiepert, exploring Asia Minor, in search of of glacial action

discovered on this materials for a map of that country upon which occasion. Among recent expeditions into the he has been employed for years. The Caucasus interior, that conducted hy David Lindsay, is more and more attracting the attention of appears to be most worthy of notice. D. Lind. Alpine tourists. In the course of this year it say left the Hergott springs in South Australia, was visited by M. Dechy and by Messrs. C. D. in October, 1885; he fully explored the Fincke Dent an W. F. Donkin of the Alpine Club. river, and in April last arrived in the Northern The former explored the Elbruz and its glaciers; Territory. Another remarkable journey is that whilst the latter examined the glaciers around of the brothers McDonald, who succeeded in the Koshtan Tau, and ascended the Caucasian (riving 1,000 head of cattle from Queensland

Jungfrau,” the Tau Tetnuld, 16,500 feet in to the Fitzroy river, in Western Australia, height,

withont serious losses. TUS remarkable The territories only recently annexed by the "exodus,” occupied 3 years. We may also state Russians to the cast of the Caspian were ex. that an Afghan camel-man claims to have plored by Dr. G. Radde, the botanist, who discovered fresh traces of the unfortunate examined the Kopet range on the Persian Dr. Leichhardt, at Cloncurry, in Western frontier, and visited Merr and Serakhs. Far Queensland. more extensive is the tour of Dr. G. Capus, In New Guinea Mr. H, O, Forbes has faileri

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