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The financial condition of the United States Judicial. The Executive power is vested in a of America exerts a great influence on that of President, who is elected every four years, and is other nations. The extensive trade transacted eligible for re-election. The inode of electing the by the Union with all parts of the world neces. President is as follows:-Each state chooses, hy sarily reacts on the exchanges of the countries popular vote, “Electors” equal in number to the with which business is engaged in. Before the Senators and representatives sent by that Stateto unfortunate internecine struggle that has hap- Congress. The Electors for each State meet at pily become a matter of history, the debt of the their respective State Capitals on a day ap. States as a whole was, comparatively speak: pointerl, and there vote for a President by ballot, i ing, nominal. The following is a statement of The ballots are then sent to Washington, and the debt on the ist of September, 1886:

opened by the President of the Senate in presence Four and half per cent. bonds...... $250,000,000 of Congress, and the candidate who has received a Four per cent. bonds and certiticates 737,769,500 majority of the whole number of electoral votes Three per cent. bonds.


cast is declared President for the ensuing term. Pacific Railway Bonds, at 6 per cent. 64,623,512 If no one has a majority, then from the three Miscellaneous liabilities (incl.intrst.) 29,969,744

highest on the list the House of Representatives Greenbacks and other currency. 531,607,200

elects a President. There is also a Vice-Presi.

dent, who is ex-officio President of the Senate; Total debt

1,748, 392,106 and, as in a late instance, on the death of the Less cash and reserve in Treasury 370,215,526 President succeeds to the office for the re

mainder of the term. In case of the disability Actual indebtedness...

$1,378,176,580 of both President and Vice-President, the Sena. During the fiscal year endling June 30, 1885, and after him, the Speaker of the House of Re

tor who may be president pro tem, of the Sennie, the debt was reduced by $63,494,709. The total decrease in the debt since August 31, Congress orders a new election.

presentatives, succeeds to the Presidency until 1863, when, after deducting the cash in the trea

The Legislative power is vested in two Houses, sury, it amounted to $2.756,431,571, to Sept. 1, 1886, has been $1,378,254.991.

the Senate and the House of Representatives, the

President having a reto power, which may be Balance Sheet for Year ending June 30, 1986. overcome by a two-thirds vote of each House, RECEIPTS.

Two Senators from cach State are elected by the Customs.

$181,471,939 Legislature thereof for the term of six years ; Internal revenue

112,498,726 and Representatives are chosen in each State, ly Land Sales

5,705,986 popular vote, for two years. The number of Miscellaneous sources

24,014,055 Representatives for each State is allotted in pro-,

portion to its population, 1 for 154,325. The

$323,690,706 Senate consists of 76 members, and the House of EXPENDITURE.

Representatives of 325: Civil service and miscellaneous. $87,494,258 The Supreme Judicial Authority is vested in War department

42,670,578 a Chief Justice and eight Justices, who are apNavy department.

16,021,020 pointed for life by the President, by and with Indians...

6,552,495 the consent of the Senate. Pensions

56, 102,267 The following is a list of the 33 States in. Interest on public debt

51,386,256 cluded in the Union :

Alabama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Con.

$260,225,934 necticnt, laware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, The total income for the previous year was

Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, $323,690,706, and the expenditure $250,226,934.

Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, The total imports and exports for the year

Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, ending June 30, 1885, compared with those for Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New 1834, were as follows:

York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oregon, PennsylTotal imports to June 30, 1885 $620,760,650

vania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessce, Total exports to June 30, 1885 784,421,280

Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, i

Wisconsin. These figures include the specie movements, which for 1885 a mounted to, imports, $43,242,323, British Minister, Hon. Sir Lionel Sackville

FEDERAL CAPITAL, Washington. Pop. 147,293. and exports, $12,231,525.

Sackville-West, K.C.M.G.

16,000 Imports from United Kingdom, 1885 £21,977, 344 Sec.of Legation, N. R. O'Conor, C.B., C.M.G.

700 Exports to United Kingdom, 1885. 85,158,221

2nd Secretaries, {
Horace Augustus Helyar

1 The navy of the United States on the ist

Hon. C. Hardinge December 1884, was:-

3rd Secietary, Ernest B. Lehmann

250 Number of war-vessels

Astoria-lice-Consul, Peter L. Cherry Msp.

93 Armament

Baltimore--Conxul, Denis Donohoe

1,250 550 Enlisted men (active list)


Boxton-Conxul, Charles Alan Henderson 1,750 Commissioned officers (active list) 1,655

Vice-Consul, Willoughly H, Stuart Non-commissioned officers (active

Charlestow--Con ul, Frederick J. Cridland 1,200 list)

l'ice-Consul, George H. A, Box . #spais Marine Corps :--Commissioned officers


Chicago-Consul, John Hayes Sadler Privates and non-comm, officers.. 1,939

Denver, Colorado--'ier-Consul, R. Pearce

Gulreston ---Concul, Walter Tschudi Lyall 850 The army at the same date consisted of 2,177 Mobile-Vice-Consul, William Barnevell.. officers and 25,000 enlisted men.

Pensacola-Vice-Consul, Osmond ('. Howe
The Government of the United States is, by the New Orleans-Consul, Albany de Grenier
Constitution, intrusted to three separate anthori. de Fonblanque.
ties--the Executive, the Legislative, and the | Los Anglo8--Vice-Consul, C. W. Mortimer




Veeport Veres--Vice-Consul, Lt.-Col. F. T.

Yer York-Consul-General, William Lane
Booker, c.M.G.


Acting President, Mascün o Tagès, elected, is Consul, William Robert Hoare


November, 1886. Vice-Consul, Gilbert Fraser ..

Minister of Foreign Affairs, Dr. Juan Carlos

400 2nd do..

Blanco. · Philadelphia-Con., Capt. R. C. Clipperton

250 Minister Plen, in London, Col. Don Amaro Carvé. Vice-Consul, George Crump...

900 Sec. of Legation, M. A. Portillo. Portland, Me.-Vice-Consul, Geo, H. Starr

400 Consul General, Don Ricardo Machado Hasse,

250 Portland, Oregon-l'ice-Consul, J. Laidlaw

35, New Broad Street, E.C. Port Tornand - Vice-Consul, Rev. J. B.

upConsul, William Litchfield, 114, Osborne Road, Alexander

Forest Gate.

unp. Rick moud--Vice-Consul, William Marshall

A Republic in South America, on the east coas Sua Francisco--Consul, George E. Stanley 1,200 of the Rio de la Plata, situate in lat. 30°-35° S. 1 Vice-Consul, Charles Mason..

400 and long. 53° 25---57° 42' W., containing an area Sarannah--- l'ice-Conxul, Walter Robertson

250 of 72,112 square miles, and a population oi San Diego, Cal.-- l'ice-Consul, J.Winchester 520,536 in 1883; was formerly a dependency ol St. Paul Minnes-Vice-Con., H. S. Xeherne Spain. United to the Argentine Confederation Wilmiayton-Consul, James Sprunt....

early in the present century, it was afterward: Postal.-The number of Post Omces in the annexed by Portugal, and became later a proUnited States, June 30, 1884, was 51,252.

vince of Brazil; but through the bravery of the Railways.---The number of miles open and in patriotic thirty-three” it succeeded in throwactual use on the zist December, 1884, was 125,379, pendence on the 25th of August, 1825, and re

ing off the Brazilian yoke, declared its inde. of which 6,753 miles were constructed during the joined the Platine States, A war in conse. year,

quence ensuing between Brazil and the Argen. MERCANTILE MARINE.--In June, 1885, it con tine Confederation, both the Powers agreed, I sister of 23,963 vessels, of 4,265.934 tons, in- through the mediation of Great Britain, to elusive of 5,349 steainers, of 1,494,917 tous. recognize Uruguay as a sovereign and inde

pendent State, the Constitution of the Republic COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES. being sworn on the 18th of July, 1830. The

language of the country is Spanish, the inhabi. The following table, prepared at the Bureau of tants being chiefly descendants of the origina? Statistics, Washington, exhibits the steadly in Spanish settlers atnd Italian and other European crease of the trade of the United States during eniigrants. Much attention has lately been the past 25 years. Nearly the whole amount given to elementary education, which is entirely of merchandise exported is of home growth or frec. The country is extremely well watered, manufacture. It is noticeable that for the first and the climate healthy, resembling that of the 15 years, with two exceptions, the imports ex south of France. There are no Indians, but ceeded the exports, but that during the past 10 there is a sprinkling of Negroes, engaged chiefly years the balance of trade has been largely in as servants and in the arıny. Judged propor favour of the country. These figures represent tionately in regard to population, and of goods the specie values of merchandise only.

imported from Great Britain, Uruguay stand: at the head of the list as our best foreigi

customer. The imports from Great Britain are YEAR eading

very numerous, the principal being woollen and EXPORTS. IXTORTS.


cotton goods, hardware, and coals. The chiet exports are wool, hides, horn, hair, tallow, and

during recent years, fresh meat. Wheat, barley. Dollars. Dollars. Dollars.

and maize are cultivated, but the wealth of the 862 190,670,501 189,356,677 380,027,178 country is obtained from its pasturage, which 1863 203,964,447 243,335,815 447,300,262

supports large herds of horned cattle (6,009,791 1864 158,837,988 316,447,283 475,285,271 in 1883), horses, and sheep (14,595,495 in 1883). 1865 166,029,303 238,745,580 494,774.883 the wool of which is of excellent quality. Gold 1866 348,859,522 434,812,066

783,671,588 mines exist at Cnnapirú. The principal river 1867 294,506,141 395,761,096

is the Uruguay, which forms the western boun1868 281,952,899 357,436,440 639,389.339 dary, and its affluents, of which the Rio Negro 1869 286,117,697 417,506,379 703,624,076 is the chief. There is a regular army of 3,100 1370

392,771,768 435,958,408 828,730,176 men with 30 guns, in addition to a militia of 1371 442,820,178 520,223,684 963,043,862

20,000 men. The navy consists of 1872

444.177.586 626,595,077 1,070,772,663 steamers, There are 26: Iniles of railway and 1873 522,479,922 642,136,210 1,164,616,132 660 miles of telegraph. 1974

586,283,040 567,406,342 1,153,689,382 1875


Public revenue, 1884-85..

£2,425,000 1876 540, 384,671 460,741,190 1,001,125,861 Public expenditure, 1884-85

2,400, 102 1877 602,475,220 451,323,126 1,053,798,346

Public debt, Jan. 1, 1886

12,466,000 1873 694,865,766 437,951,532 1,131,917,293

Total imports, 1884

5,114,600 1879 710,439.441 445,777,775 1,156,217,216

Total exports, 1884..

5,158,226 1880 835,638,658 667,954,746


Imports from United Kingdom, 1885 1,406,521 18S1 902,377,346 642,664,628 1,545,041,974


Exports to United Kingdom, 1935 .. 1882

750,542,257 724,639,574 | 1,475,181,831 CAPITAL, Monte Video. Pop. (1984) 104,472. 1883 823,839,402 723,180,914 1,547,020,316 740.513,609 667,697,693 1,408,211,302

Min. Res. f. Cons.-G., William G. Palgrave £1,600 1885

742,189,755 577,527.329 1,319,717,084 Consul,

5 smal



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Paysandu-Vice-Consul, John Chaplin .. unpaid slaves, and about 6,000 natives of India, who Colonia--Vice-Consul, William J. Wilson unpaid are all engaged in commerce, and through Maldonado-Vice-Consul, Hy. W. Burnett unpaid whose hands nearly all the foreign trade passes,

Zanzibar, the chief town, is extensive, with a VENEZUELA, REPUBLIC OF.

population of 80,000; but there are several imPresident, General Guzman Blanco, elected 14th chants reside, and whence caravans are sent

portant towns on the coast where native mer. September, 1886.

into the interior to collect ivory and other Minister of Foreign Affairs, Urbaneja.

ducts. The more important of these towns are Finance, Herera, Minister to England and France, Genl. Guzman and Kilwa. The Sultan's authority, however,

Brava, Melinda, Mombasa, Pangani, Bagamoye, Blanco, Paris,

does not extend along the whole of the coast, Secretary of Legation, Rafael Seijas.

and this has enabled Germany to step in and Attaché, G, F. Valens. Consul in London, Nathaniel G. Burch, 4, Token- establish claims upon a considerable portion of

it. The limits between the Sultan's possessions house Buildings, E.C.

and the German Protectorate were defined, in Consul General in London, Antonio Parra. Vice-Consul, W. White, 4. Tokenhouse Buildings. 1885, by an International Boundary Commis.

The Universities Mission and other The most northerly Confederation of South America, situated between 1° 304-12° 12' N. lat. missionary societies have established them.

selves at various points of the Sultan's and 59° 52'--73° 15' w. long. It consists of 21

dominions. States, comprising an area of 566,159 English French Roman Catholic Mission. The imports

Bagamoyo is the centre of a square miles, and a population, in 1883, of of the Island of Zanzibar consist of cotton girls, 2,121,988. The goldfields on the Orinoco are among the richest in the world, and yielded in beads, arins, bruss wire, &c., and amount to

about £800,000; and the exports, consisting of 1884 £ 543,530. The chief imports are manu.. factured goods, provisions, and wine. The chief gum-copal, cloves, ivory, india-rubber, cocounut exports are coffee, cocoa, hides, cotton, sugar, 1871 the traile has greatly increased; the

oil, seeds, &c., amount to about £1,200,000. Since tobacco, indigo, bark, tallow, dye-woods, timber,

Sultan's revenue amounts io about £245,000, and copper ores. The railways opened and under construction have a length of 370 miles.

The export of slaves has never totally disap

peared. There is a small army of about 1,200 men, Revenue, 1885

£1,172,950 Expenditure, 1885

Britixh Agent and Consul-General, Sir John 1,573,134

Kirk, G.C.M.G. Foreign debt, 1884.

{2,150 2,700,000 Internal debt

Consul, Frederic Holmwood

750 Imports, 1883

Nyaxsd---Consul, A. G. S. Hawes

3,423, 240 Exports, 1883

Vice-Consul (Legal), Walter B. ('racknall

70 3,912,743 Imports from United Kingdom, 1885 336,656

Surgeon, R. Lee Huzzey

l'ice-Consuls in Zanzibar Dominions, Lient. Exports to United Kingdom, 1885 .. 225,744

Charles S. Smith, R.X., Harry Lionel
Capital, Caracas. Population (1883), 70,509. Churchill, E. L. Berkeley, and M. H.

British Minister, Frederick Robt. St. John £2,000
Consul, Henry Lord Boulton

unpaid Puerto Cabello-l'ice-Consul, Robert Conn

Bolivar--l'ice-Connul, James H. Reddan..
La Guayra-Vice-Consul, Wm. A. Cage .. President, L. J. Meyer.

300 Maracaibo-Vice-Consul, Hy.Bremermann, unp.

Secretary of State, Esselm.

When Ketchewayo, the Zulı King, was deZANZIBAR.

feated on July 21st, 1883, hy his rival Csibebu, Sultan, Seyyid Barghash bin Sa'id, G.C.M.G., February 9th, 1884. His son and heir Dinizulu

he fled into the Zulu Reserve, and died there suc. 7 October, 1870.

appealed for help to the Boers, with whose A territory situated on the east coast of Africa, assistance he defeated Usibebu on June roth, extending from about 3°N. to n° 30' 8. Zanzibar 1884, and they claimed and received in acknowwas conquered in 1784 by a Sultan of Omin in ledginent of their services a large slice of his Arabia, and became an independent dominion kingdom, which they proclaimed on August 16th, under a brother of the Sultan in 1856. The 1884 as a "Nieuwe Republiek.” Subsequently islands of Zanzibar and Pemba are by far the the Boers managed to obtain additional concesrichest and most important of the Sultan's sions, until the new State extended down to dominions, distant from the coast about 25 miles. Santa Lucia Bay, which bronght them into Zanzibar has an area of 614 square miles, with a conflict with the British authorities. Accorling i soil of more than ordinary fertility, covered to an agreement concluded on October 22nd. with woods and plantations of perpetunl verdure. 1886, between delegates of the "New Republic" The principal products are cloves, rice, sugar and the Governor of Natal, the Boers have, cane, manioc, millet, cocoannts, and fruits, however, surrendered their claim to the coast. especially oranges, of the finest quality. The and the new State is therefore confined to the population of the island is estimated at 200,000. western part of independent Zululandi, ndjoinThe chief people are Arah landei proprietors, ing Transvaal and the Zulu Reserve. possessing large plantations and numerous is about 1,800 square miles. The “Capital” is slaves; besides these are the free blacks and called Vryheid ("Freedom ").


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TIIE ASTEROIDS AND PLANETS. which is furnished daily to the city of Chicagn. During the your ended on November 1, 1886, In connection with this instrument Professor nine new planet have been discovered, making Hough hus invented a printing chronograph, a present total of 260,

which so records the observations that the time The following are the dates of discovery :

and labour of translating the record into figures 253, Mathillo by Palisa on Nov. 12, 1985

is done away with, and another source of crror 254, Augusta

March 31, 1886

avoided. In the “Proceedings of the American

Academy of Arts and Sciences," Professor Todd 256,


publishes a list of allthe suspected objects which he

encountered in his search for a trans-Neptunian
258, Tyche


planet in 1877-78. This list should prove very 259, Aletheia

useful to any future observer who may take up the Peters June 28, 1886

search. Professor Todd's examination was re260, Palisa Octr.

stricted to that portion of the heavens which his The following have also been named in the theoretical researches pointed out as likely to be past year :-

the place of the planet; and though his search 251, Sophia.

for the planet was unrewarded, he does not con250, Bettina. 252, Clementina. clude that there is no planet to he found.

COMETS.- A faint cornet was discovered at the It will be noticed in the aluve list, that Herr Paris Observatory by M. Fabry on December ist, Palisa discovered four of these minor planets, 1885, having a sensible nucleus. On December 3rd, viz. Augusta and the three following, in less another was found by Mr. Barnard of Nashville, than a week.

U.S, America. This was also a faint one. The In the "American Journal of Sciencefor first computed elements resembled those of the April last, Professor Newton points out the in second comet of 1785. A comet was discovered teresting fact that the mean orbit given hy 251 by Mr. W. Brooks, of the Red House Observatory, asteroids agrees very nearly with that of Phelps, New York, on December 26th, and indoJupiter. The orbit of Jupiter lies nearer to pendently by Barnard of Nashville on the folthis mean orbit than does that of any one lowing night. It was described as being of the single asteroiil, being inclined to it only 30'. average size and brightness of telescopic comets,

Frm observations of the brightness of certain of slight central condensation, without nucleus of the minor planets by means of a Zöllner pho- or tril. Another comet was discovered by tometer, Dr. G. Müller finds two classes of light Brooks on April 27th, in R.A. oh. 15m. and Deci. curves given by his observations, an from them 62° N. This was followed by the discovery of he draws the conclusion that this is one to their another by the same observer on May 22nd, different physical condition, four of them show. situate in R.A. uh. 55m. anal Decl. 89 55' N. ing changes in brightness only when the planet A coinet discovered by Mr. Finlay at the Cape is approaching opposition, others varying in on September 26th, in R.A. 17h. 2m. 234. and brightness with change of phase. In the former Deel. 26° 4'S., was described as circuar, having case he assumes that the physical condition of a diameter of 1', faint, and slightly condensed the asteroids is similar to that of Mars, and in towarıls the centre, but without any tail. the latter case, like that of the Moon or Mercury. А comet was discovered by Barnard

Professor Bakhuysen, of the Leyden Observa. October 4th, and was observed on October 5th tory, has published a Memoir on the rotation at 16h. 2m. Greenwich mean time, in R.A. period of Mars, in which he discusses observa- 10h. 37m, 24*. and Decl. 1° 3' N., bright and tions extending from those of Huyghens in 1661 'round. It is rapidly increasing in brightness, and to those of Schiaparelli in 1879, and thence will be at its brightest early in December, after derluces a period of rotation of 24h. 37m. 22'66*. ; which it as rapidly degrades and goes south. a result almost islentical with that of Kaiser ; Tur: Sin.--The expedition which proceeded Kaiser's period being o'04*. smaller. The Iraw. to Grenada, in the West Indies, to observe the ings of Murs, made at different epochs, point total solar eclipse of Angust 29th, met, on the with tolerable certainty to the conclusion that whole, with a fuir measure of success. The sky considerable changes have taken place on the on the morning of the 29th was very upro. surface of the planet since the times of mising, being generuly overcast and threatening Schroeter and Sir William Herschel. Many of rain, At Carriacou, where Father Perry and the markings described by the earlier observers Mr. Maunder were stationer, the clouds cleared must have been more conspienous than they away just before the critical time, and the sky now are, or they could not have been seen with continued clear to the end of the phenomenon. the appliances at the command of Schroeter at At three other stations the moon was hiiden hy the beginning of this century.

clowls during some portion of the totality, and Professor Hough, in his Report on the work at at Green Island, where Mr. Lockyer was stathe Dearborn Observatory, says that inuch tionell, nothing could be seen at all. attention has been given to Jupiter, the great Professor Tacchini, by a comparison of the real spot being still an object of much interest. 'prominences seen during totality with those This spot has now been under observation for observed in full sunshine, came to the conkeyen years, and in that time has undergone clusion that many very fine prominences seen i hnt slight change. There appears to have been in the foriner case are not visible by the a flight diminution in the length between 1883 Spectroscopic methorl under the latter circum. and 1884, the breadth at the same time being stances. The luminous intensity of the white somewhat greater. The principal equatorial prominences seen during totality is small, and white spot, observer since 1879, was not so con. they are not visible to the naked eye unless spicuous as in former years.

they attain to a height greater than that of The meridian circle of this Observatory has the brightest part of the corona. But when been niser for the determination of standaritime, they attain to a great height, as was the case



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n this eclipse, their summits are visible to the Dr. C. F. W. Peters has obtained elliptic naked eye.

elements of the Double Star 61 Cygni, repreM. Trouvelot, in a Memoir on the structure of senting with considerable accuracy the observahe Solar envelope, propounds a theory which tions from the earliest times down to 1883. Dr. in all essential points agrees with that of Pro. Peters finds the period of revolution to be 783 fessor Young. It amounts to this, that the Sun years. The combined mass of the system is is surrounded by a relatively very shallow shell about half the Sun's mass, and the mean dis. of vertical filaments, due to the condensation of tance between them about seventy times that of metallic vapours, their glowing summits form- the Earth from the Sun. ing the photosphere. The varying effect on Several new Variable Stars have been dis. these filaments of hydrogen and metallic erup- covered, among the most interesting of which tions from the solar' nucleus of different degrees are 10 Sagittæ, discovered by Gore, and D.M. 27° of violence is made to account for all the phe- 1 -3890 by Sawyer (U.S.A.); the former is a shortnomena of spots, faculæ, and prominences. period variable, ranging from 5-6 to 64 magni

STARS AND NEBULX.--At the end of the year tude in a period of about 8'38 days. The latter ! 1885, the American Committee on Standards of is also a remarkable variable of short period, near Stellar magnitudes issued their third Report. 32 Vulpeculæ, ranging in magnitude from 5'5 to The maps of those regions from which the 67 in a period of about 4 437 days. standards are selected were made, in the first A new Variable Star was discovered at Mel. instance, with the great refractor of the Har: bourne while observing Barnard's Comet on May vard College Observatory, and have since been 31st, on which day it was estimated at the 4th revised with the larger telescopes of the Wash. magnitude. On June 4th it appeared brighter burn and Princeton Observatories. From the than B Leporis, and on June 5th it was found to maps, stars to be used as standards will be l be of the 5-8 magnitude. chosen, their magnitudes being determined by The “Repert of the Observatory of Yale the meridian or wedge photometer. The report College contains an account of the survey of also contains a table of the magnitudes of the Pleiadles, by Dr. Elkin, with the heliometer twenty-one close circumpolar stars.

under his care. The observations have been A ner star of the 6th magnitude was dis completed. Sixteen thousand measures of dis. covered by Mr. T. E. Gore on the evening of tance and seven hundred of position angle have December 13th, 1885, about 20' following x Orionis. been obtainerl. The discussion of this mass of The Nora, as it is called, does not appear in observations is in a forwart state. Besides the Harding, Lalande, Heis, or Birminghan. It alove work, Dr. Elkin is also engaged in a was observed at Dun Echt on the 16th, and scheme for determining the parallax of firstnoted as being of 6', magnitude, of an orange magnitude stars. Professor Hough, in his Rered colour, and exhibiting a fine handed spec. port on the Dearborn Observatory, states that trum of the zrul type. Mr. T. E. Gore says: “It 39 new Double Stors were discovered. slowly diminished in brightness, and in Sep On November 16th, 1885, the MM. Paul and tember, 1886, was below the gth magnitude. It Prosper Henry found on one of their photois of a very reddish colour, and its spectrum graphic plates of the Pleiades a nebula, hitherto was a most interesting example of Secchi's unknown, which at that time they could not 3rd type. This was the second were star dis. detect hy direct telescopic observation, The covered within twelve months, an occurrence photograph shows the nebula as 3' in extent, unique in the annuls of astronomy.” Its and presenting a well-markeri spiral form. It position in 1885 was R.A. 5h. 48m. 598. and Decl. is in R.A.3.3919. and Dec). 24° 1'. The nebula 20° 9' N. It will be remembered that the first has since been seen at Pulkova with the great of the ner sturx, to which Mr. Gore alludes, was refractor, though it would probably for a long liscovererl by Dr. Hartwig on August 31st, 1885, time have escaper discovery had not its exact close to the nucleus of the great nebula in position been made known by the photograph. Andromeda.

The “First Part" of the Observations of the Regarding the relation between the Nora Southern Nebulæ, made with the great Mel. Andromeda and the nebula, M. Trouvelot holds boume reflector, has been published, contain: the opinion that the nebula itself has undergone ing the results for the revision of the southern no change during the appearance of the Noru, nebulæ observed by Sir John Herschel at the He is led to adopt this opinion by the result of Cape between 1834 and 1838. The great reflector a comparison of the present aspect of the has been dedicated to this work since 1869. The nebula with a chart of the same region made performance of the mirror on average fine nights in 1874, in which two stars are shown occu is said to he somewhat disappointing, but very pying the central district, one of which is the fine ou really good nights. The number of present Nora. As none of the stars visible nights fit for using the telescope is put at 40 per

pun the vebula show diffused or ill-riefined cont., and the best nights at only 17 per cent. borders, they are probably neither in nor be. The observations of the nebulæ afforil some re. hind the nebula, but before it, and form a part markable instances of apparent changes having of the Milky Way.

taken place in a few years. Orbits have recently been computed of the Professor Pickering has undertaken a series following double stars, and periods assigned of photographs of the spectra of the moderately them by Mr. Gore :

briglat star's visible in the latitude of the y Corona Australis, having a period of 81978 yrs. ' Harvard Observatory, as a memorial to the late Delphini

30'01 Professor Henry Draper. One of ihese photoŚ Sagittarii

18-69 graphs, in the region of Cygnus, kuown to 6 Struve 234


contain four spectra showing bright lines, conr Cygni

tains four other spectra of the same character, 85 Peyasi


one of which exhibits bright lines apparently Struve 1757


due to hydrogen. Among the Stars shown by 4o Eridani

139'co the photograph to have bright lines is D.M.+ 37%


53 87

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