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THE strong feeling of interest and come into general use, that the ex

curiosity which this subject is pense of transporting commodities now exciting in the public mind ; the will be about two-thirds less than on variety of companies which are dai- the best roads. ly forming, to connect, by means of

With respect to the advantages of rail-ways, the most important mer

a rail-way over a canal, which is the cantile and manufacturing stations in question here principally at issue, we the kingdom ; the secret opposition

may observe, in the first place, that which is now vigorously exerting if a horse power effect three times as itself the


of interested bodies, much on a canal as on a rail-way, with any object in view but the pub- the original cost and subsequent relic good; seem to point out the pro- pairs of a canal are about three times priety of setting before the public a

as great ; consequently, a canal will general view of the advantages which require about the same rates or dues rail-ways are likely to furnish, and to to repay the proprietors as a raildirect their attention to the quarters way. * st must next be observed, that whence opposition may be expected. this comparison relates entirely to

On a well made road a horse will the transporting of goods at two miles draw one ton, in a cart weighing an hour. Now it is easy to show, about 7cwt., or about 3000lb., at a that so long as horse power is emrate of two miles an hour.

ployed on canals, and they are not rail-way of the best construction he sufficiently deep and broad to admit will draw, at the same rate of trave the application of steam, this rate of elling, about 15 tons ; let us call this transporting goods cannot be increas30,000lb. for the convenience of hav, ed without an increase of freight, ing round numbers; and on a canal which would entirely destroy their he will draw about 30 tons in a boat

superiority over roads. We have weighing 15 tons, or about 90,000lb.

seen that a horse will draw about Hence, on a rail-way, the draught of 90,000lb. at the rate of two miles an a liorse is ten times, and on a canal hour. If we increase the velocity of thirty times, as great as on a well the boat, the resistance will also be made road. Now a rail-way costs increased, and with amazing rapidity. about three times, and a canal about The resistance of a fluid increases as nine times, as much as a good road ; the square of the velocity.

Since and it is probable that the expense 90,000lb., therefore, is drawn at the of keeping them in repair, is in pro- rate of two miles an hour by one portion to the original outlay. It is horse ; obvious, therefore, if railways should

1 ATHENEUM, V0W. 3. 2d scries.

On a

At 4 miles an hour it would require 4 increasing the velocity on a rail-way, 6


the resistance is not at all increased ; 8

16 12


it is, if any thing, rather diminished. Or,

Abstracting from consideration the At 4 miles an hour, the draught of 1 horse resistance of the air, the very force will be about

22,0001b. which impels a body at two miles an 6

10,000 hour, may, by very simple contriv8


ances, be made to impel it at ten or 12


twelve miles an hour. If we apply to In this computation it is assumed the body to be moved on a rail-way, that the draught of a horse is the a force just equal to the resistance same at two, four, six, and eight miles due to the friction, it will not move; an hour. In fact, however, its draught it will be exactly in a state of equidiminishes very rapidly as its veloci- librium. But the smallest increase ty increases, a great portion of its of force will put it in motion. If this strength being exhausted in support- small increase of force be a constanting its velocity. If 100lb. measure ly acting force, like that due to the force of traction of a horse, when steam, its motion will be continually travelling at the rate of two miles an accelerated, and would, ultimately, hour, then will this power be reduced become greater than any assignable to 641b. when he travels at the rate limit. Here we see the advantage of four miles an hour ; and for high- of steam power ;

power could er rates of travelling it diminishes never be so applied as to produce still more rapidly. Here the draught this effect; because, as the velocity of a horse on a canal, at the rate of of the vehicle increases, the draught four miles an hour, is little more than of animal power is diminished, be12,000lb. It is needless to push this coming small indeed when it reachinquiry any farther ; it is quite cleares the velocity of ten or twelve that goods can never be transported miles an hour. When the vehicle on a canal at a rate exceeding two has attained any proposed velocity, or two and a half miles an hour.- whether that velocity be generated Let us see now what will be the ef- in the first instance by the continued fect of an increased rate of travelling action of the impelling force, or by on a rail-way. And here we shall any other means, it is merely necesarrive at a series of conclusions dia- sary, in order that it should retain metrically opposite to those we have that velocity, that there should be an deduced for canals: The resistance impelling force just sufficient to overto communication of motion on a come the friction and the resistance rail-way arises from the friction and to the air. Hence, on a rail-way, the resistance of the air. For any the expenditure of force due to a verate of travelling which is likely to locity of ten or twelve miles an hour, be adopted, 8, 10, or 12 miles an is very little more than that due to a hour, the resistance arising from the velocity of t:vo miles an hour. This atmosphere is very trifling compared is the grand mechanical advantage with that due to the friction. We which a rail-road possesses over a shall, therefore, altogether neglect its canal. But it is on the application consideration. The resistance due to of steam, and on a consequent capathe friction is proportional only to city of maintaining a constant action, the pressure. It is entirely indepen- however great the velocity of the vedent of the velocity. This is the hicle, that this advantage depends. grand circumstance which distinguish- Without steam a railway would be of os a rail-way from a canal, and which no use ; it would possess no superigives the former such an immense ority over a canal. Animal power advantage over the latter. On a ca- could not have been applied with nal, by incrcasing the velocity of the any advantageous effect, because its boat, we increase the rosástance to draught diminishes so rapidly with its motion at a very rapid: rate ; by an increase of velocity.


We can

Another point in which a rail-road expense four or five times what it is very superior to a canal consists would be on a rail-way; and, after in this—that being subject to none all, at a considerably slower pace? of the difficulties which occur in the A canal can be employed only in construction of canals, it can always conveying goods ; a rail-way is equalbe made in a direct line, and will ly applicable to the conveyance of commonly be the shortest distance passengers and goods. Their estabbetween two given stations. Be lishment will enable us to travel at tween Liverpool and Manchester, for least one-third more rapidly than we instance, the distance by the three can by any existing conveyance, and lines of water conveyance is upwards at one half the expense. of 50 miles; by a rail-road it will on- travel now for instance, from Lonly be 33 miles : thus one-third of the don to York, a distance of 200 miles, entire distance is saved, a circum- in about four and five and twenty stance which will be found to be hours, at an expense of five guineas; nearly true of all the principal lines the establishment of a rail-road from of road and canal in the kingdom.- London to Edinburgh, which would The conveyance on canals too is fre- pass not very far from York, would quently obstructed in summer from enable us to accomplish the same an imperfect supply of water, and in distance in 15 or 16 hours, at an exwinter from being frozen up. Again, pense of little more than two guineas. goods transported on a rail-way are Great, however, and manifest as free from all the risks and damages are the advantages presented by this incident to water conveyance. This mode of conveyance, it is not to be is no imaginary evil. On the canals expected that rail-ways will meet no between Liverpool and Manchester, opposition. There always are a set goods are exposed to the most vio- of people whose interest it is that lent storms and adverse winds, dur- things should remain as they a passage of 18 miles in the tide- Canal and coach proprietors ara evway of the Mersey. For days to- idently among this class in the pregether, when the wind blows strong sent instance; and we shall doubtfrom the north and south, these ves- less hear from these quarters a great sels cannot move against it. Pack- deal about vested rights. These parages of goods intended for exporta- ties will infallibly join and exert tion are frequently very materially whatever influence they possess to damaged, but they are polished up stop this growing evil. "Improveprevious to shipment, and pass in- ments must always injure some class spection. On being opened in a for- or other of individuals, and it is in hueign market, the secret is discover- man nature that they should deprecate ed, and an average is the conse- and oppose the progress of such imquence; and the underwriters are provements. The introduction of called upon to pay a loss against the art of printing threw a vast numwhich they never insured, for which ber of manuscript copiers out of emthey received no premium.

ployment, and we can pardon that It is asserted by some that a few state of irritation and prejudice which hours gained in speed is of no im- represented this noble discovery as a portance. The establishment of vans fragment of the black art, an engine on all the principal roads in the of Satan. But we need not pass to kingdom withiu a very short period so remote a period, or seek illustraof time is a practical answer to this, tions from arts so little analagous as better than a thousand arguments.- that of which we have been speakIs it not equally certain that for no ing; the inhabitants in the vicinity of other reason than dispatch and cer- London at one time petitioned Partainty of delivery, spinners and deal- liament to prevent the extension of ers are constantly in the habit of turnpike roads; they wanted to recarting both raw and manufactured tain the monopoly for the supply of produce to a very great extent, at an that city with their own produce.--About the year 1745, when canals can be applied to the propelling and were projected, multitudes of pam- dragging of goods on a rail-road, at phlets were published to show their a far cheaper and more expeditious impolicy. Turnpike-trustees, and the rate than can be accomplished by owners of pack-horses, saw danger any other means. And its employto their interests, and they persuad- ment for this purpose cannot long be ed the land owners that canals would delayed. The struggles of a set of supersede the use of horses, and di- canal proprietors and other interestminish the consumption of hay and ed bodies may obstruct its introducoats. These parties joined, and, by tion for a time, but they cannot finaltheir representation, that the inter- ly prevent it. The interests of a val navigation would destroy the great body of people, enlightened coasting trade, and thereby injure and enterprising as the population of our nursery for seamen, succeeded Great Britain, cannot long be thwartfor a time in preventing several im- ed by any private cabals. In a counportant undertakings, and, among try where every species of intelliothers, the Trent and Mersey navi- gence is diffused with such univergation. Yet what has been the ef- sality and rapidity, the march of imfect of canals ? They have increas- provement cannot be permanently ed our trade, commerce, and manu- arrested. If it could, or if it were, factures ; horses have gone on in- we should in vain hope long to maincreasing in numbers and quality, and tain our boasted superiority in comconsequently the consumption of merce and manufactures. Were we hay and pats ; the coasting trade has to trample upon the discoveries of increased, and our nursery for sea- our mechanics and engineers, other men enlarged. Canals have done countries would not suffer them to well for the country ; but we have lie dormant and uncultivated. Railnow got something that will do bet- roads have already excited the strongter. Cheaper and more expeditious est feelings of interest in America, modes of conveyance are now pre- that theatre where every faculty of senting themselves in the advancing human nature and every discovery march of science and art. The pow. in art and science is developed with ers of steam have beeu developed to such miraculous energy. They are an extent that cur ancestors would undergoing discussion at the seat of have wisely deemed visionary. In

government, and letters from Washits application to our manufactures, ington are full of inquiries concernit has multiplied our resources and ing them. The Emperor of Russia our productive industry incalculably, has obtained a model of the loco

- it has been applied to navigation, motive engine, and at the present and steam-boats have superseded all moment has a professional agent emthe coasting packets in the kingdom. ployed in investigating the rail-roads It has now been ascertained that it of the north.


COFFIN-a Yankee : writes under phosphorus :-and is useful in many the title of “ the 6 Boston BARD.”- ways, as in lighting segars, &c. &c. Phæbus, as Lord Byron says-Phæ- Still, however-we do confess, (rathbus, what a name !-We have seen er reluctantly,) that we have seen so much of his poetry, of late years, some poetry of his, which was beauin the American papers, that we are tiful and sincere.—We don't happen half afraid, now, to open one, unless to recollect any, now; and, if we our fingers are fire-proof :-and, did, would not quote it, believing whenever we find a piece with his that some of our own, though not name to it, we always cut it out-at counted off, will read better, here. arm's length and put it by. It saves So-pass him over to immortality.

COLEMAN_Ep. New-York Eve- to his father---nothing is) appears NING Post: a lawyer: a pretty clev- whenever he is not expected--it is a er fellow in his way : a good law re- pretty rule in the drama—bad in a porter—but, in the belles lettres busi- novel : and swallows, among other ness, about which he is eternally gos- matters, a protection, given to save siping to the annoyance of every bo- his life—just when the time arrives dy, but his own family—in that ’are for which it was given; and where matter, as a Yankee would say, he nothing else can save him :~the discuts thick on the skull, I guess.- guises ; the pathos ; the love-parts ; Some twenty-five years ago, he was the heroics are all contemptible. delivered of half a pair of twins— In other matters, it is a capital novand is doing well, yet; although ihe el. PIONEERS-(observe the order other half has never appeared.—Mr in which these works have appeared Jefferson, himself, was ihe father

--it looks well, for a young author, and the midwife.' The half that was who grows bold with success)--a born, is a very respectable affair ; heavy piece of repetition in all the and is christened Lex MERCATORIA best characters : some poble scenes : AMERICANA– Vol. II.-We should and a pretty considerable share of hardly mention Dr C., were he not lead. LEATHER-STOCKING is trueconsidered by the people of New- we have known such a fellow. PiYork-rather high authority-in po- LOT--have never read it properly : lite literature. Nothing can be more style greatly improved--some pasunfortunate, either for Dr C., the sages quite beyond Cooper-beyond people of New York, or polite liter- our hopes of liim, we mean. Nir C. ature ;—for, to speak plainly—afier is a man of sober talent--nothing the manner of men-(the men of old more. There are no fine individuKentuck)—his notions, about that alities about him. Nobody would are sort 'o' truck, are a little of the know a work of his, by the work itdamn'dest.

self. Talk as you please about manCOMEDIES–See DRAMA. No such nerism. Estraordinary power canthing in America. One Mr White not conceal itself. The stature of a has written two or three ; but we giant cannot be hidden. have never seen or read them. They DANA-a Yankee-a lawyer, of are spoken well of-in America. course ; Editor of the North AMER

COOPER,- Novelist : formerly a ICAN; ruined himself--and well nigh midshipman in the United States na- damned the work, by a beautiful arvy: wrote PRECAUTION; The Spy; ticle on Hazlitt's POETS, (1819) THE PIONEERS ; and The Pilot.- EVERETT followed liim, in the ofStyle without peculiarity, brilliancy, fice--a bad one-little pay, and hard or force-very much improved of work ;-one gets more kicks than late : considerable dramatic power; coppers, in it. Dana is pure, and very fine talents in filling up a pic. sound_uncommon genius-very lature; imitates the great Scotch Nov- zy-very-hangs fire-is timid; and, elist—not so much, in any one thing when he has a chance for a dead --as altogether; has done his best. shot, shuts the wrong eye : wrote the PRECAUTION is mere newspaper stuff. IDLE MAN; a sleepy, strong, quiet, There is hardly a fine passage in it indolent paper. lle has written, al-with which our memory is afflict- together, in many years, about as ed, The Spy—the most popular much as he should have written, with novel ever produced in that country, his ability, in one month. Like Bryby a native, is very good—as a Ant, he will carve heads upon whole : but rather too full of stage- cherry tones” — simpletons

who tricks and clap-traps. Thus, the SPY cares for the otto of prose ? himself (who is a failure, by the way -a dead hum_any thing might have We now hasten to work ourselves becu made of him, after the allusion clear of a labyrinth, into which we


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