Markets for Technology: The Economics of Innovation and Corporate Strategy

Front Cover
The past two decades have seen a gradual but noticeable change in the economic organization of innovative activity. Most firms used to integrate research and development with activities such as production, marketing, and distribution. Today firms are forming joint ventures, research and development alliances, licensing deals, and a variety of other outsourcing arrangements with universities, technology-based start-ups, and other established firms. In many industries, a division of innovative labor is emerging, with a substantial increase in the licensing of existing and prospective technologies. In short, technology and knowledge are becoming definable and tradable commodities.

Although researchers have made significant advances in understanding the determinants and consequences of innovation, until recently they have paid little attention to how innovation functions as an economic process. This book examines the nature and workings of markets for intermediate technological inputs. It looks first at how industry structure, the nature of knowledge, and intellectual property rights facilitate the development of technology markets. It then examines the impacts of these markets on firm boundaries, the division of labor within the economy, industry structure, and economic growth. Finally, it examines the implications of this framework for public policy and corporate strategy. Combining theoretical perspectives from economics and management with empirical analysis, the book also draws on historical evidence and case studies to flesh out its research results.

 

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Contents

Markets for Technology Why Do We See Them Why We Dont See More of Them and Why We Should Care
1
Markets for Technology Extent and Development
15
Preliminary Evidence
17
The Division of Innovative Labor in HighTech Industries
45
Limitations and Determinants
91
Context Dependence Sticky Information and the Limits of the Market for Technology
93
Intellectual Property Rights and the Licensing of KnowHow
115
Markets for Technology and the Size of the Market Adam Smith and the Division of Innovative Labor Revisited
143
Global Technology Suppliers and the International Division of Innovative Labor
197
Implications for Public Policy and Corporate Strategy
221
Implications for Corporate Strategies
223
The Institutional Context Problems and Policies
253
Conclusions
281
Notes
289
References
309
Figures and Tables
327

Functioning and Economic Implications
169
Licensing the Market for Technology
171

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About the author (2004)

Ashish Arora is Associate Professor in the Heinz School of Public Policy and Management at Carnegie Mellon University.

Andrea Fosfuri is Assistant Professor of Business at the Universidad Carlos III in Madrid.

Alfonso Gambardella is Professor at the Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies in Pisa.

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