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first taught me to take an interest, I am but giving back, in so far as my book bears any marks o painstaking accuracy, that which I originally derived from you: the many blemishes, which your practised eye will detect, will, I am sure, find in you an indulgent censor: nor need I fear lest others should charge my shortcomings upon the place of my early education.
Believe me to be,
My dear DR. Kennedy,
Your grateful and affectionate Pupil,
J. E. B. MAYOR.
May 28, 1853.
MORE than twenty years ago Professor Madvig called public attention' to the scant measure of justice which scholars had dealt out to Juvenal,—but few in all having expounded his Satires, and those few not only wanting in exact grammatical knowledge, but also misled by a perverse determination to detect recondite allusions in the simplest words. Happily, this reproach is no longer applicable to the same extent; for, although no complete edition has yet appeared, rivalling those which we possess of most other authors of equal importance, still the criticisms and comments of Heinrich,
1 In his first Disputatio de Locis aliquot Juvenalis interpretandis, published in 1830, since inserted in his Opusc. Acad. i. pp. 29-63: a second Essay followed in the second volume, pp. 167-205. These Opuscula and his edition of Cic. De Fin. deserve to be better known among us. His Greek Syntax, translated by Mr. Arnold, is announced for publication. Latin Grammar is now in general use. (I have referred in my notes to the first German edition, in which the paragraphs are sometimes numbered differently from those of the English translation.)
2 As Heinrich's Commentary has been unduly praised by Mr. Long (Class. Mus. i. 369 sq.) and Mr. Ramsay (Dict. Biogr.), and in Germany by Schneidewin and others, it may be well to refer to the juster criticisms of W. E. Weber (Jahn's Jahrb. 1841, pt. ii. pp. 115 sq.) and Madvig (Omnino vix dici potest, quantum commentarii Heinrichiani infra famam et exspectationem reperti sint, quamque pravo acumine sæpe sana perverterit, aperta et perspicua inanibus suspicionibus et opinionibus obscuraverit, Opusc. ii. p. 176 n.). It may be a consolation to some readers to learn that this great critic has been guilty of a false quantity (Sat. xi. 90, where he conjectures adhuc for autem).
Roth,' Orelli,' Düntzer,3 C. Fr. Hermann, W. E. Weber,”
Ritter (Sat. iii. 117 n.), the antiquarian researches of Becker, Rein, Teuffel, &c., above all, the explanatory and critical essays of Madvig, and the corrected text of Otto Jahn, have removed many of the most formidable obstacles from the student's path. But though the materials thus exist for the more adequate elucidation of our author, no attempt has yet been made to bring them within the reach of English schoolboys. To meet this want an English commentary is plainly required: indeed, such a work was some time since promised by Prof. Ramsay, whose competence for the task is so indisputable, that I had resolved to indulge in some other field my taste for the writers of the Silver Age, placing at his disposal the notes which I had amassed on Juvenal. When, however, it became doubtful whether Prof. Ramsay would be able to redeem
1 D. Junii Juvenalis Satiræ tres, tertia, quarta, quinta. Edidit Car. Lud. Roth. Norimbergæ, 1841. The notes are generally sound and sensible (in Sat. v. 155, however, he makes ab hirsuta capella ab humero pilis vestito).
2 Ecloga Poetarum Latinorum. Turici, 1833. (2d Ed. Contains Sat. iv. viii. xv.)
3 Die Römischen Satiriker. Braunschweig, 1846. Chiefly for popular use. Most of the satires were printed before this reached me.
4 I have endeavoured in vain to procure his Spicilegium Annotationum, ad Juv. Sat. iii. Marburga, 1839, and De Juv. Sat. vii. Temporibus Disput. Gottinga, 1843, which last I only know from Teuffel's Review of the Literature on Juv. since 1840, in Jahn's Jahrb. 1845, pt. i. p. 97 sq. His Essays in the Rhein. Mus. (vol. iv. p. 314 sq., vi. p. 454 sq. of the New Series) are of no great value.
5 Germ. transl. and notes. Halle, 1838; review of Heinr. From both of these I have gathered something; more than from his namesake E. W. Weber (D. Jun. Juv. Sat. xvi. Recens. et Ann. instr. Ern. Guil. Weber. Wimariæ, 1825. See Madv. Opusc. i. 32 n.).
• From Schmidt's Satirarum Delectus. Bielefeldæ, 1835, Döllen's Beiträge zur Kritik u. Erklärung u. s. w. Kiew, 1846, and Häckermann's edition of Sat. i.-v. with Germ. notes, Greifswald, 1847, I have learnt nothing new.
his promise, I at last, in compliance with a suggestion of the Publishers, resumed the work which had been laid aside, or rather commenced a new one; for, in place of a complete edition for the use of scholars, I now undertook a school edition, which instead of engrossing eight or ten years of study might, I thought, be despatched in half as many months. But even a cursory survey sufficed to show that many difficulties had been overlooked both by others and by myself, and led me to examine anew, as far as my store of books would allow, every point, whether of history, or antiquities, or grammar, which seemed to demand explanation. This necessary labour, interrupted for some months by weak health, has occasioned, and may perhaps excuse, the delay which has taken place in the publication.
In whatever respects this book may be found deficient, it can at least boast a purer text than any existing School Juvenal: for this advantage it is indebted to Otto Jahn,1 the learned editor of Persius, who has been followed throughout, except in orthography and punctuation: in a few passages, however, I have been unwilling to desert the received reading for one which I could not understand; and in one I have adopted a later emendation. Three Satires, which are generally, and justly, passed over by younger readers, have been altogether omitted. But the distinctive merits or demerits of the book, whatever they may be, are to be sought for in the illustrative notes, of which, therefore, a more particular account may be expected.
1 D. Junii Juvenalis Saturarum Libri v. Cum scholiis veteribus recensuit et emendavit Otto Jahn. Berolini, 1851.
The reader, it will be seen, is everywhere presented rather with facts and authorities than with mere opinions. and results: those who require help, but are unwilling to help themselves, must seek for satisfaction elsewhere. Especial attention has been paid to the peculiar usage of words: Juvenal and his contemporaries employ civilis, numerosus, imputo, olim, &c., in a sense very different from that which they bear in Cicero. Such niceties beginners will certainly disregard, unless they are forced upon their notice; and this can only be done by adducing a number of pertinent examples. Still more important is this in the case of words (such as recitatio, dominus, delator, parasitus, orbus,) a full understanding of which involves to no inconsiderable extent a knowledge of the state of manners and of society in general: many details, indeed, which throw the greatest light upon history, but yet cannot find a place in professed historic narratives, are very rarely learnt at all, unless from such commentaries as I have here attempted.
In the collection of illustrative passages I have been much assisted by works now little used, the Lexicon of Pitiscus and Dempster's supplements to Rosini Antiquitates, but far more by the varied learning of Torrentius, Casaubon, J. Fr. Gronovius, Burmann, and above all of Lipsius, whose works indeed cannot be dispensed with by the student of the later Roman literature: obligations to more recent scholars have been often confessed in the course of the work. A necessary, and not the least wearisome, part
'The reasons for this are obvious, and are stated in the preface to Bp. Butler's Sermons.
2 Even Forcellini is very defective in regard to later authors.