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your labors, from the consciousness that you have begun reaping your harvest in the fields of industry. To the beginner, then, we would say again, creep
walk-walk before you run ; but when you have begun the race, remember the hare! Slumber not on your path of rectitude and duty, and remember that “the crown is reserved for those who endure even unto the end."
The clerk, then, being thus indoctrinated with the first duties of his office, and continually remembering that Punctuality, Correctness, and Neatness must be bis motto, must now turn his attention undeviatingly to those matters which may come under his control in the daily routine of his position. And, first, we would say, especially to those who are in banks or public companies, that civility to all with whom you may come in contact, can never lose you a friend. You are not bound to waste your own or your employer's time in continued discussion; but you may save even much of that, as well as eventually of temper on both sides, by condescending to enlighten the ignorant, and being clear and explicit in those replies you may be called on to give to demands or inquiries for information. An author has said, “Words were given to us to conceal our ideas." This we deem but a bad specimen of Macchiavelli.ism, and the advice contained therein to be both untrue and impolitic. We would say, a civil question demands a civil answer, and if you feel yourself not at liberty to state facts, say so at once, and refer your querist to those from whom he may require them; tell him that the answer does not belong to your department, and let him repeat his inquiries in the proper direction.
If you are at any time ordered to give an unpalatable answer to an applicant, do not needlessly add to the irritation by appearing to have a personal part in the proceeding. Let the disappointed one not have cause to turn his enmity on you, and think that he has the right to number you amongst his “unfriends;" but let him rather suppose that, but for your official position, he might reckon on your sympathy.
You must also remember that no private correspondence should intrude on your official and business time. You are employed then by others, and your hours and minutes are not your own.
Rare, indeed, must be the exception to this rule, and great the cause which shall tempt you to break it. No petty reason should induce you to call your mind away from the duties of your office, and the necessary attention to the business confided to your care. No call should be then allowed that possibly could be attended to at another time; and nothing but sickness or death should be allowed to cause your absence from the appointed post of duty. And whilst we are on this point of advice, allow us to add, that the unshaven, untidy clerk of to-day, cannot expect to meet the benevolent and sympathizing eye of the employer on the morrow. No man of sense can expect that a night of dissipation can properly fit him for the day of labor and of thought; that the hand which was lifting the bowl of intemperance to his lips on the previous evening, will be steady to rule off the balance on the coming morning; that the haunts of vice and of licentiousness will tend to sober bis intellect and to brace up his nervous system for the battle of life and duty; for truth cannot come out of falsehood, or life out of death. If, thon, the young clerk should be asked by any of his fellows to stray out of the paths of sense and sobriety, let him look on the tempter with distrust; let him remember that the first false step has occasioned the temporal and eternal ruin of thousands, and that the paths of vice can be better avoided than they can be retraced. Circe destroyed not Ulysses, because he would not listen to her wiles; and destruction and disgrace are the sure attendants of those who once deviate from the · ways of virtue and rectitude.
Let not extravagance in diet or in dress creep on you; reflect on your ways and means at all times, and that an eagle is made up of quarters and dimes. When you have a holiday assigned to you, remember that it is not to be wasted; and therefore devote it alike to the benefit of your bodily and mental health. Make the most of your time, and devote the interval assigned to their proper recreation, that when the period has ex: pired you may return with fresh energies and renewed zest to those duties which Providence has surroundod you with, so that you may enjoy at once the esteem of your employers and the respect and applause of your circle of friends and acquaintances.
I think the suminary of these remarks may thus be noted : 1. Remember that nights of intemperance and dissipation must unfit you
for the daily duties of your position. 2. Do your own duty, and not leave others to do it for you. 3. Take lessons from the experience of the past, and improve thereon to
the best of your ability. 4. Never be above asking for proper advice when needed. 5. Keep your own counsel. 6. Endeavor to preserve the true equilibrium of your bodily and mental
health, 7. Never unnecessarily cause irritation in those with whom you may
officially be brought into contact. 8. And, in all things act consistently, conscientiously, and circumspectly.
If you act up to these suggestions, I think that you will find the profit to be derived therefrom eventually come up to every fair expectation you may have made. But, should you not prove it so, at any event you will have the satisfaction of an easy conscience, and the knowledge that you have done your best to deserve success. On the contrary, should you be reckless, inattentive, wilful, and debauched, when the end shall come, you can only reflect on yourself, and allow that the public is quite correct when it says, “ Served him right.”
RUSSSIA—POPULATION OF MOSCOW, FINANCES, ETC. We gave a great amount of interesting information respecting Russia, n our issue of last month. Since then, we have received the statistical return recently published by the official police journal of Moscow, according to which, the population of that city on the 1st of January last was composed of 210,757 males and 134,799 females, divided as follows:-Nobility, 20,991; clergy, 4,929; burgess class, 92,403 ; peasants, 189,927 ; military, 22,342 ; foreigners, 4,658; individuals not classified, 10,306. At the same period, the city of Moscow contained 878 manufactories, occupying 42,456 work-people, and the produce of which were estimated at 30,000,000 of silver roubles (4f. each). There were in the city 34 ordinary and 78 lithographic printing offices, and 128 charitable establishments, giving an asylum to 4,197 men and 5,097 women. The receipts of the city for 1862 amounted to 1,522,116 roubles, and the expenses to 1,811,410 roubles. The deficit was made up from a reserve fund. During the year the police received declarations of 946 robberies commited in the streets and in private houses, and 20,079 persons were arrested. The number of fires during
year was 113, causing damages to the amount of 705,779 roubles, of which 445,300 were covered by insurance.
The state of the Russian finances bas lately given serious cause for anxiety.
According to the monthly report of the Imperial Bapk for August last, six hundred and thirty-six and a half millions of billets de credit had been issued, against twenty-four and a half millions of roubles in hand ; that is, there is a security of one rouble cash against twelve roubles of paper money issued. The colossal extent of country open to the circulation of the notes keeps up a better demand than would otherwise be the case, yet the proceedings of the Imperial Bank have not escaped the usual consequences of over issue. Within the twenty months between the 1st January, 1859, and 1st December, 1860, 197,000,000 were withdrawn above the amount of fresh deposits; and a Berlin correspondent of the London Telegraph says that the sum would have been greater if one half of the remainder, consisting of 328,000,000 of roubles, had not been the property of corporations and charities, who had no belp for it but to invest their funds according to government orders. It has been also proved by the events of the last few months that the amount of billets exchanged necessitated a suspension of cash payment, the end of which it is impossible to foresee. Under these circumstances, it will be of considerable interest to compare the different items of the following table :
Billets de Credit,
Roubles. January 1, 1858...... 735,297,006 119,140,921 22,319,859 January 1, 1859.
644,648,719 99,338,743 11,473,740 January 1, 1860..
779,877,853 86,870,014 9,371,604 January 1, 1861.
714,580,226 84,335,007 8.549,424 January 1, 1862.
713,596,178 84,405,612 16,390,000 January 1, 1863.
691,104,562 80,899,159 12,000,000 February 1, 1863.
687,168,350 70,029,171 12,000,000 March 1, 1863..
681,973,614 75,596,787 12,000,000 April 1, 1863..
637,357,137 72,447,175 12,000,000 May 1, 1863..
661,686,004 62,081,289 12,000,000 June 1, 1863..
630,895,368 57,067,910 12,000,000 July 1, 1883..
648,580,005 61,034,974 12,000,000 August 1, 1863...
641,625,397 57,908,467 12,000,000 August 12, 1863... 636,607,279 54,709,302 14,400,000
As is to be gathered from these figures, the proportion between cash in hand and billets issued was hardly ever so unfavorable as it is now. On the 1st of Jaruary, 1858, when the circulation of billets had reached the figure of 735,250,000 roubles, six roubles were covered by one, the proportiop now being eleven and seven-tenths to one.
THE SUEZ CANAL.
WHAT HAS BEEN DONE AND WHAT REMAINS TO BE DONE.
Especial interest is felt at the present time in the Suez Canal project. This undertaking was projected by NAPOLEON. In 1852, M. DE LESSEPS attempted to form a joint-stock company, and two years afterwards obtained a firman from the Pasha of Egypt confering upon him the exclusive privilege of carrying out the enterprise. In 1855, a commission of engineers from various countries examined the proposed route, and stated in their report that there were no extraordinary difficulties in the way. The company was formed in January, 1859, with a capital of $40,000,000, and the work was shortly afterwards commenced, and over $6,000,000 have already been expended.
In speaking of this work, the London Times says that the undertaking of the company is two-fold. The first and principal scheme is, of course, the Ship Canal itself, to be cut directly across the Dessert, northward from Suez to Port Said, on the Mediterranean. Port Said is nearly at the eastern point of the great Delta of the Nile, that includes the whole of the fertile region of Egypt, the better known port of Alexandria being at the extreme western extremity. The seacoast of the Mediterranean is the base of the great triangle, of which Cairo inay be taken as the apex.
Port Said itself is situated on the long Darrow spit of land that shuts in Lake Menzaleh from the Mediterranean. Through the shallow water of this lake the canal has been formed by dredging. This process has been so far completed that, for nearly one-third of the whole line proposed, a channel has been deepened through water “covering the earth.” It is only at the southern point of Lake Ballah that the work of cutting through the dry and sandy soil of the Desert commenced. From this southern point of Lake Ballah an excavation, ten miles in length, has, Mr. HAWKENSHAW states, opened a channel navigable "for flat-bottomed boats of small draught of water” from the Mediterranean into Lake Timsah. On summing up, therefore, what has actually been accomplished, we find that such boats, adapted for very shallow water, can penetrate the isthmus from north to south for a distance of 50 miles from the sea, and of this distance 30 miles have been obtained by the process of dredging.
The second scheme undertaken by the company is independent of the first, and though called a "fresh water canal," is, more strictly speaking, only an aqueduct. It is not intended to be navigable as the term generally implies. It is better described as a large trench or cutting, for the purpose of conveying the water of the Nile from Cairo northward, curving to the east, through a tract of land purchased by the company, to Lake Timsah, before mentioned, and then southward to Suez. At present all the fresh water to be obtained at Suez is brought from Cairo by the railway. Large trains, conveying iron tanks filled from the river, are constantly passing along the line that conveys the passengers by the over. land route, from sea to sea. The whole line of the proposed Ship Canal, tfrom Sueż to Port Said, runs either through the two salt water lakes on he Isthmus, the wide expanse of Menzaleh on the seacoast, or the soil of the Desert, “a barren land, where no water is.” Labor is impossible without a certain and abundant supply of this element, for the want of which travelers in similar arid regions have often perished. This aqueduct is, therefore, a work of necessity, if the larger undertaking is to be carried on. It will also be employed to irrigate such portions of the soil through which it passes as may be worth cultivating; and of this secondary purpose a beginning seems to have been made.
The portion of the Ship Canal still to be excavated is the whole of the line from Timsah, southward, through another large sheet of salt water called the “Bitter Lakes," and the Dessert that lies between them and the northern point of the Red Sea.
This last section of the line will run parallel with the ancient canal, and a little to the eastward of it. The course of the old work can be traced, but no part of it has been taken into the modern scheme. The works of the new harbor will carry the canal through the water of the Red sea, past Suez and terminato near a point on the eastern or Arabian shore marked as the “ Fountain of Moses."
It is scarcely necessary to say that the portion of the line described as completed and “navigable" is very far from the accomplishment of the object in view. What has to be done exceeds what has been finished in about the proportion a large heavily-freighted merchant ship bears to a “small flat-bottomed boat of small draught of water.” In fact, the Suez Canal at present is a narrow and shallow cutting, marking out what is to be the course of an artificial channel that must be navigable for large ships of heavy burden, or be useless.
The seas on both sides of the Isthmus have nearly the same level, and as the soil along the whole line across it is strewed with shells common to the Red Sea and the Mediterranean, it is evident that at no distant period, geographically speaking, those seas spread over the desert track through which it is proposed to unite their waters again. But by far the greatest portion of the work has yet to be done. Without reference to the plans and sections by which the report is illustrated it is difficult to convey a clear idea of the proportions of what has to be excavated to what has been marked out by the cutting on land and the dredging through shallow water; but if the reader will suppose that the furrow drawn by a subsoil plow marks the course of what is to be enlarged into a ditch he will have a rough notion of the approximation of what exists compared with what is proposed. Nothing has yet been done between Suez and the northern end of Lake Timsah ; and from that point northwards to the Mediterranean nearly five times the amount of work completed has yet to be executed. The earth work done is estimated at 7,848,000 cubic yards; the amount still to be performed is 84,000,000 yards.
The sudden favor and renewed interest with which this undertaking is now being received arise from the fact that two obstacles which stood in the way of its accomplishment have just been removed. That is to say, the Viceroy of Egypt has ratified all the engagements entered into by his predecessor with the company, and regulated his account current with it; and, also, in consideration of the company abandoning to him its concession of lands on each side of the fresh water canal from Cairo to Abbasich, he has undertaken the execution of the said canal, and thereby saved the company 10,000,000f.
A few weeks ago it was announced that the works had come to a stand.