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Editorial and Oficial Notices, &c. lowing additional municipalities have ordered copies of the Journal
for its offices, or for each school within its boundaries, viz. County wimmmmmmmm
of Norfolk and County of Middlesex ; Townships of Waterloo, The OFFICIAL CIRCULARS TO CLERKS of Counties, Cities, Towns, - Puslinch, Loughborough, Amherst Island, Wolfe Island, Lanark and incorporated villages, accompanying the certified apportionment
and Darling ; City of Hamilton and Town of Perth Intimation
has been received that other Municipal Councils are about proceedof the Legislative School Grant for 1851'will be found on pages
ing in the same liberal and enlightened spirit of coöperation. Toe 75–77.
plan of ordering a copy for each municipal officer in the various
townships has been adopted by some of the county councils. The French and German TEACHERS.—The following section lias
plan is an excellent one, It furnishes official and other informabeen added by the Council of Public Instruction to the “ Programme tion periodically in a convenient form, and without incurring heavy of the Examination and classification of Teachers of Common postage and other expenses. It iş satisfactory to know, that the Schools in Upper Canada," numbered I, and published in the
number of subscribers obtained thus far for the IVth Volume of the
Journal of Education, for, 1851, more than doubles the entire Journal of Education for October, 1850, page 150 :
number obtained during the whole of 1850. 8. In regard to the teachers of French or (terman, a knowledge The Clerk of one of the Municipalities in transmitting the order of French or German grammar be substituted for a knowledge of 1 of the Council, remarks : s
i sse English grammar; and that the certificates to the teacher be ex
“Having at the last meeting of the Municipal Council been pressly limited accordingly.
authorized to perform the pleasing task of ordering, and remitting The foregoing is designed to apply to teachers. of Common the price for several additional copies of the Journal of Education, Schools in the French or German languages in the parts of the
and of the School Register, enclosed you will find the amount Province only where those languages prevail.'. '
for them in full..
· * Our Council is desirous to encourage the Journal of Education; The RECENT NORMAL School EXAMINATION.- From the the members, however, think it prudent to begin by subscribing for British Colonist of the 30th instant.—The sixth session of this a copy for each school located in the Township,-thus you may be admirable institution closed yesterday, after a fóng and thorough certain of the same number being annually subscribed for ; and so examination of the students, in the various branches of education soon as the people will know of its utility, a steady and regularly which have occupied their attention during the last nine months. increasing support may be relied on. The examination extended over five days, four of which were devoted You 'will be glad to learn that our schools are rapidly improving to the preparation of written answers to printed questions, which, under our excellent school law. Considerably more than one-half we learn, will be deposited in the Edycation Office, for future of the youth under tuition in this Township are receiving a free reference, if necessary. The fifth day, Thursday, .coinprehended, I education. . I am confident that by prudent management, the other a public examination of the whole class in the principles of Arith schools of the township will be free in a year or two'; so that our metic, Algebra, Geometry, &c., together with Grammar and organi jastly esteemed Superintendent of Education will (much sooner than zation of Schools, in the forenoon. In the afternoon, the class was he anticipated) have his wishes gratified.": . examined before a highly respectable audience, in NaturalPhilosophy, Agricultural Chemistry, History and Geography. The answers of
· REMITTANCES ---Postage STAMPS.--Parties remitting small the students were given in far better style than at any former occa
amounts to the Education Office for School Registers, books, &c. sion, and exhibited, in an admirable manner, the attention and care
can do so more conveniently and at less expense, by enclosing all of their instructors, Messrs. Robertson and Hind. In consequence
sums under a dollar in postage stamps... of the unavoidable absence of His Excellency the Governor General, the prizes awarded by. His Excellency for the greatest proficiency in Agricultural Science, were distributed by the Rev. J. Jennings, OBJECT AND TABLET LESSONS can now be obtained at who addressed the audience at some length on the present condition
U the Education Office. Coloured Object Lessons, 3s. 9d. per dozen ;
Plain, 40 for a dollar: Reading Tablet Lessons, 1s. 4d.; Arithmetic ditto, and future prospects of the Normal School, as well as on the changes
25. 4d. The maps, &c., are expected shortly. . about to be introduced by the Council of Public Instruction, in relation to the length of the session and the attendance of students.
REQUEST.--At a Meeting of the Freeholders and Householders After a few obversations from Mr. Robertson, the students sang
Il of School Section, No. 10, it was moved by James Findlay, seconded God Save the Queen. The exercises of the day closing with a bene by Thomas Brown, and passed unanimously, that it is the earnest wish of diction from the Rev. J. Jennings. The names of the successful
this Meeting that all clergymen of the Protestant faith residing, or officiating
as such, in the township of Scarboro, would give at least one Lecture upon competitors for His Excellency the Governor General's prizes are, Education in this School House during the year 1651. Also,' that they First Prize, Royal W. Hermon. Second Prize William Crewson. would notify at the School, or to the Trustees of the Section, the day and
hour of Lecture.
GEORGE AUBURN, Chairman. The next SESSION OF THE NORMAL Scuoot, will commence on
Scarboro, May, 1851. Tuesday the 19th of August next, and continue for a period of from four to five months. The revised terms upon which candidates W ANTED a School by a Teacher who has been trained in will be admitted to the Institution, will be published in this Journal
the Normal School. Satisfactory references can be given.' Salary,
about £60. Address (post paid) to W. M, No. 105, King Street West, as soon as they shall have been decided upon by the Council of
May 12, 1851. Public Instruction for Upper Canada. The present session of nine months closed upon the 31st instant.
W ANTED, a Teacher for the Common School in Section No.
W 1, Township of Waterloo, County of Waterloo. One who has a Tue Cube SUPERINTENDENT of Schools, having accomplished Certificate from Normal School would be preferred. Apply 10 S. B.
Bowman, Amos M. Cleming, Robert Ferrie, Trustees. the objects of his mission to Europe, expected to leave ' England by the Cunard steamer Asia, on'the 24th instant :'or, at the latest,
W ANTED,'a Teacher for Section No. 2, Seymour East. by the Collins steamer, Pacific, on the 28th. The Corner Stone
Salary £50 per annum, without Board. Apply, post paid, to Wm. of the new Normal and Model Schools and Education Offices will Leak. Irusie be laid with appropriate ceremonies, as soon after his return as possible.
TORONTO : Printed and Published by THOMAS Hoon RENTLEY.
7 for the 8: not less than 12 copies, 4s. 2d. each, or $10 for the 12 ; 20 copies and unMUNICIPAL ORDERS FOR THE JOURNAL OF EDUCATION.-In addi
1. wards, 3s, 9d. each. Back Vols. neatly stitched supplied on the same terms. An tion to the cordial coöperation in the publication of the Journal of subscriptions to commence with the Jamiary number, and payınent in advance must in
all cases accompany the order. Single numbers, 7.d. each. Education which we have already received, and referred to in our
All communications to be addressed to Mr. J. George Hongins, February number, we are happy to be enabled to state that the fol- li
Education Office, Toronto.
PERSPECTIVE OF A VILLAGE Oui ,1.1 . ALLENDALE, NORTH PROVIDENCE, RHODE ISLAND.
(For plan of interior arrangement see page 84.)
CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER.
Such was the celebrated pledge of this memorable man ; and nobly PAGE,
| did he, by his untiring energy and industry, redeem his solemn vow I. Modera Systens of Education and their Founders-No, 3. Dinter, ...
to promote popular education among his fellow countrymen. JI. A Visit to Girard College, Philadelphia,--Coinmunicated by T. H., .... Ill. The Ancient Rowan Systern of Education, ......
Gustavus Fredrick Dinter, or, as he was at a later date more IV. SCHOOL ARCHITECTURE-Three illustrations, ........
generally styled, School-Councillor Dinter, was born in Borna, near V. MISCELLANEOUS. 1. The Beauty of Life. 2. Tellurian (illustrated.) 3.
Leipsic, in Saxony, in 1760. A cotemporary memoir states, that The Voyage of the Dead. 4. Education of Mechanics. 5. Colonial
he first distinguished himself as principal of a Teacher's semEmpire of Great Britain. 6. Curiosities of Art. 7. Empire of China. 7. Impressions in Youth. 8 Philosophical Sentiment. 9. Derivation of
inary in Saxony, whence he was invited by the Prussian governYankee. 10. Frugality. 11. Haroun al Raschid. 12. Moral froin ment to the station of School-Counsellor for Eastern-Prussia. “He Longfellow. 13. Taxes like Vapours. 14. The Heart's Arguments. 15. resides at Kænigsberg, and spend about ninety days in the year Study of the Classics, and three other short articles, .............. 85
in visiting the schools of his province, and is incessantly employed VI. EDITORIAL. 1. Offieial Circular to Local Superintendents on the Distribution
nearly thirteen hours a day for the rest of his time, in the active of the School Fund for 1851. 2. Text Books-Municipal Councils. 3. Governor General's Prizes in the Normal School. 4. Hints to Teachers, .. 88
duties of his offico : and that he may devote himself the more VU. EDUCATIONAL INTELLIGENCE: 1. Canada. 2. Prince Edward's Island. 3. exclusively to his work, he lives unmarried. He complains that his
Jamaica. 4. British and Foreign. 5. Sweden. 6. India. 7. Uniied States. 91 laborious occupation prevents his writing as much as he wishes for VIII. LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE.
the public, yet, in addition to his official duties, he lectures several IX. Editorial and Official Notices-Advertisements.
times a week, during term-time in the University at Konigsberg,
and always has in his house a number of indigent boys, whose eduMODERN SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION AND THEIR cation he superintends, and, though poor himself, gives them board FOUNDERS.
and clothing. He has made it a rule to spend every Wednesday
alternoon, and, if possible, one whole day in the week besides, in GustavUS FREDRICK DINTER,—Born 1760, Died 1831,
writing for the press ; and thus, by making the bost use of every ETAS, 71 Years.
moment of time, though he was nearly forty years old before his No in.
career as an author commenced, he has contrived to publish more “ Ich versprach Gott : Ich will jedes preussische Bauerkind für than sixty original works, some of them extending to several yoein Wesen ansehen, das mich bei Gott verklagen kann, wenn ich lumes, and all of them popular. Of one book, a school catechism, ihm nicht die beste Menschen-und Christen-Bildung schaffe, die | fifty thousand copies, were sold previous to 1830 ; &nd of his large ich ihm zu schaffen vermag."
work, the School-Teacher's Bible, in 9 volumes 8vo., thirty thousand “I promised God, that I would look upon every Prussian peasant copies were sold in less than ten years. child as a being who could complain of me before God, if I did not “He is often interrupted by persons who are attracted by his fame, provide for him the best education as a man and a Christian, which | or desire his advico ; and while conversing with his visitors, that it was possible for me to provide."
no time may be lost, he employs himself in knitting ; and thus not Dinter's Letter to Baron Von Allenstein. I only supplies himself with stockings and mittens, suited to that cold
climate, but always has some to give away to indigent students and ing the whole term of my office to grant mo any reasonable request other poor people. His disinterestedness is quite equal to his activity, for the helping forward of the school-system. God bless him. I and of the income of his publications he devotes annually nearly am with all my heart a Prussian. And now, my friends, when ye five hundred dollars to benevolent purposes. Unweariedly industri hear that old Dinter is dead, say, “May he rest in peaco ; he was ous, and rigidly economical as he is, he lays up nothing for himself. a labourious, good hearted, religious man; he was a christian.'” He says, “I am one of those happy ones, who, when the question Dinter's personal history may be thus summed up: He was first a is put to them, “Lack ye any thing ? (Luke xxii. 35,) can an pastor at Kitzscher, near Borna ; afterwards, in 1797, director of the swer with joy, 'Lord, nothing. To have more than one can use is su Normal Seminary of Fredrichstadt, near Dresden. In 1807 ho perfluity, and I do not see how this can make any one happy. People exercised the functions of Minister at Gæritz; and in 1816 was often laugh at me, because I will not incur the expenso of drinking named doctor in theology, member of the Council of Public Instrucwine, and because I do not wear richer clothing, and live in a more tion at Koenigsberg and School-Councillor. He wrote extensively costly style. Laugh away, good people; the poor boys also, whose upon the subject of primary instruction. These writings are very education I pay for, and for whom, besides, I can sparo a few dol popular in Germany. He died in 1831, highly respected and lalars for Christmas gifts and New-year's presents, they have their mented by the Prussian nation. laugh too."
Dinter, in his autobiography, gives some surprising specimens of gross incapacity in teachers, even subsequent to 1819. The follow
A VISIT TO GIRARD COLLEGE, PHILADELPHIA. ing anecdotes are from that interesting work, Dinter's Leben von To the Editor of the Journal of Education for Upper Canada. ihm selbst beschrieben
SIR, -Among the many objects of interest prosented to a stranger In the examination of a school in East Prussia, which was taught
visiting the city of Philadelphia, none has so much attraction for by a subaltern officer dismissed from the army, the teacher gave
the educationist as that noble monument of philant!:ropy-the Dinter a specimen of his skill in the illustration of scripture narra
Girard College for Orphans-an Institution erected and endowed tive. The passage was Luke vii., the miracle of raising the widow's
through the munificence of a private citizen of that city, for the sun at Nain. “See, children, (says the teacher,) Nain was a great
maintenance and education of “poor male white orphans.” Availcity, a beautiful city ; but even in such a great, beautiful city, there
ing myself of the opportunity which a short stay in Philadelphia lived people who must die. They brought the dead youth out.
afforded, I visited the Institution for the purpose of obtaining such Şee, children, it was the same then as it is now-dead people
information, in regard to its management, &c., as would be intecouldn't go alone-they had to be carried. He that was dead
resting and useful ; and, having obtained the usual order for adbegan to speak. This was a sure sign that he was alive again, for mission, I waited upon the President, Mr. ALLEN, who, after a if he had continued dead he couldn't have spoken a word.
few remarks in reference to our system of education in Upper In a letter to the King, a dismissed school-master complained that
Canada, very kindly offered to conduct myself and friends through the district was indebted to him 200705 dollars. Dinter supposed
the College, and afford us whatever information we desired. With the man must be insane, and wrote to the physician of the place
much pleasure we accepted his kind offer, and accompanied him to enquire. The physician replied that the poor man was not insane,
through the several buildings which are set apart for thę lecturebut only ignorant of the numeration-table, writing 200705 instead
rooms of the College of 275. Dinter subjoins, “ By the help of God, the King and good
There are five separate buildings connected with the Institution, all men, very much has now been done to make things better."
built of marble, and situated upon a nice plat of ground, about half-anIn examining candidates for tho school teacher's office, Dinter asked | hour's walk from the centre of the city. The main building, which one where the Kingdom of Prussia was situated. He replied that he is built in imitation of a Grecian temple, is surrounded by thirtybelieved that it was in the southern part of India. He asked another four marble columns, each surmounted with exquisitely sculptured the cause of the ignis fatuus commonly called Jack-with-the-lantern. Corinthian capitals, and resting upon a platform sixteen feet high, He said they were spectres made by the devil. Another being asked which makes a fine promenade of about 15 feet wide, and is accessiwhy he wished to become a school teacher, replied, that he must ble by steps on all sides of the building. The other buildings are get a living somehow-a very common reply, even in Canada. without ornament, and are used as residences for the President, Pro
A military man of great influence once urged Dintor to recom fessors, and matrons, and also contain the dormitories for the pupils, mend a disabled soldier, in whom he was interested, as a school and dining-rooms, lavatory, wardrobe, &c. Upon entering the spacious teacher. “I will do so," says Dinter, “if he sustains the requisite hall of the college, the first object which meets the eye is a marble examination.” “O," says the Colonel, “ ho doesn't know much statue of its founder, STEPHEN GIRARD, representing a low-sized, about school teaching, but he is a good moral steady man, and I benevolent, yet eccentric-looking old gentleman, in plain citizen's hope you will recommend him to oblige me.” D.- yes, Colonel, dress, with his hands crossed before him. A smile plays upon his to oblige you, if you in your turn will do me a favour. Col.-What
countenance, as if he were pleased at the wonder and admiration is that? D.-Get me appointed drum-major in your regiment. which the product of his wealth creates in the mind of the visitor ; True, I can neither beat a drum nor play a fife ; but I am a good, or as if he were in the act of welcoming the poor destitute orphan moral, steady man as ever lived. Of course neither appointments to a noble home where, (to use the words of his will, "the purest were made.
principles of morality are instilled into the youthful minds of its A rich landholder once said to him, “ Why do you wish the pea inmates, so that upon their entrance into active life, they may, from sant children to be educated ? it will only make them unruly and inclination and habit, evince benevolence towards their fellowdisobedient." Dinter replied, "If the masters are wise, and the creatures, and a love of truth, sobriety, and industry." laws good, the more intelligent the people the better they will obey." On either side of the statue, doors lead to the chapel on the left,
Dinter complained that the military system of Prussia was a great and the directors' room on the right ;-two spacious apartments. hinderance to the schools. A nobleman replied that the young men The chapel is plainly furnished. Across one end is a raised platenjoyed the protoction of the government, and were thereby bound form, set apart for the directors and officers of the institution, in to defend it by arms. Dintor asked if overy stick of timber in a the centre of which stands the President's reading desk. Bibles house ought first to be used in a fire-engine, because the house aud hymn-books are placed on the boys' seats throughout the was protected by the engine ? ur whether it would be good policy chape! for their use while attending prayers every morning and to cut down all the trees of an orchard to build a fenco with to keop evening. The directors' room is much about the same size as the hogs from eating the fruit ?
the chapel, and contains, besides the furniture usually required for Towards the close of his autobiography, he says respecting the
a board-room, portions of the household furniture of Mr. GIRARD. King of Prussia, “I live happily under Frederick William ; he has In this room is preserved a valuable and interesting document, just given me one hundred and thirty thousand dollars to build -a copy of a vote of thanks passed at a public meeting of the churches with in dostitute places ; he has established a new teach citizens of Philadelphia, expressive of their appreciation of Mr. er's seminary for my poor Polanders, and he has so fulfilled my | Girard's services during a plague which visited that city about 30 every wish for the good of posterity, that I can myself hope to live years since. The President, in alluding to it, informed us that while to see the time when there shall be no schoolmaster in Prussia more, almost every one else was a ppalled and terrified at the visitation, poorly paid than a common labourer. He has never hesitated, dur. | Mr. GIRARD exerted himself both in person and by his wealth, to re lieve the distresses of the unfortunate ; and, on one occasion, was the President asked the Divine blessing upon the food provided : seen carrying on his back to the burying-ground, the corpse of one but as soon as he had concluded, a second scarcely elapsed before of the victims of the plague-there being few or none to undertake the work of demolition commenced, and proceeded with the vigour the office. Beyond the chapel and board-room are lecture-rooms, usually evinced by school-boys on such occasions. having galleries capable of accommodating about five hundred From a remark of the President, while the boys were at dinner, persons in each.
I was induced to observe their countenances, and although not a The President next conducted us to the lecture-rooms on the professed physiognomist, was much surprised to find that, of about second floor, which are about the same size as the rooms underneath. three-fifths of them, I could distinguish characteristics of the nation In each of them we found the pupils under the charge, either of a to which their parents or forefathers had belonged. The soft, quiet professor, or a female teacher, and all intent upon their exercises. expression of countenance and the light hair of the Saxon, were easily
The scene in one of these rooins reminded me very much of the distinguished, from the lively, animated, and humorous countenance exhibitions I have witnessed at the Model School in Toronto. A of the Celt, although all in the Institution are native Americans. class of boys were engaged at a sum in arithmetic, at the blackboard, Some of the pupils are descended from the early settlers ; but the under the tuition of one of the female teachers, and, at every majority are the children of English, Irish, and Scotch parents. question, hands were raised in token of their anxiety to be permitted The number at present in the college is 304. to answer it; but only one being allowed to speak at a time, some The Institution is managed somewhat like our Normal School. had to be disappointed, while the one selected, proud of exhibiting The chief controlling power is a Board of Directors, who appoint his knowledge, shouted it in a manner that showed his appreciation the officers and admit the pupils. This Board is subdivided into of the selection. The stairs leading to the upper lecture-rooms, as committecs: thus there is a Committee for the several departments well as the lobbies,—which are supported from the hall by beautiful of “ Household", “ Accounts," “ Admission and Discharge," and marble colunins-are also of marble. The reverberations in the "Library." For any article of books, stationery, &c., required in the hall and lobbies are like the echoes in a large cave ; and, when after several schools, the President sends a requisition to the Commitee on speaking or calling in a loud tone, can be heard for several seconds Instruction which decides whether so much of the article is required, echoing on from one part of the building to another. It was found, I or not. After it has been approved by them, the list is sent to the shortly after the college commenced, that the reverberation of sound, store from which such articles are obtained, and a bill and the produced by the vaulted ceilings of the lecture-rooms, rendered it articles sent to the college. At the end of each quarter, when the impossible for the teachers to proceed in the discharge of their accounts are sent in, the Committee by which the order was approved, duties. This had to be remedied by introducing artificial ceilings is the first to audit them; then the Committee on accounts, and of canvass, by which means the reverberation is destroyed, and the | lastly the Board of Directors; after which, the Board sends a rearches left undisturbed. The vaulting of these rooms was rendered quisition to the Commissioners of the Girard Estate for the amount imperative by the will of Mr. GIRARD, in order-as I suppose-as which is payable at the Treasurer's office by warrant from the well to dispense with the use of wood in the building as to have Mayor of the city. a sufficient support for the marble floors of the rooms above.
There is one extraordinary restriction connected with this bequest On the third floor, are the library, and museum, &c., which are to which I would merely refer before closing my remarks : namely, lighted from the roof; but not being able to procure the key, we the exclusion of clergymen of all religious denominations from could not obtain admittance. We then ascended a narrow stairs, and visiting or holding any office in the college. On every order for passing through passages between the arches which support the roof, admission to visit the institution, the extract from Mr. Girard's will, emerged into the open air and slood for the first time upon the excluding them from all connection and intercourse with the College, most remarkable roof I had ever seen, which is, I think, one of is printed, so that no clergyman, knowing the restriction, can conthe greatest curiosities connected with the building--a roof of scientiously enter an institution from which all his order are of inarble ! Six thousand tons of marble are here spread out upon expressly excluded by the will of its founder. The reasons assigned the roof of a building 218 feet long, and 160 feet wide, at a cost for this extraordinary provision in Mr. Girard's will are, that the disof some thousands of dollars, and is supported by arches springing cussion of questions involved in a difference of religious creeds narfrom the columns which surround the building on the outside. On rows the mind and has the effect of making the disputants denomia clear day, a fine view of the city and surrounding country can be national bigots; and that the proper tine for persons to join themobtained from the roof of the college ; but as the rain poured down selves to a religious denomination is when they have arrived at in torrents, accompanied with violent gusts of wind, shrouding maturity and are capable of judging between right and wrong. At everything in mist, we were unable to oblain a glimpse of the same time he has not attempted to interfere with the religious faith any object save part of the college grounds and the cloudy vapour the pupils may have adopted before their entrance into the college, which enveloped the city, so that we were glad to rush from the nor with the religious instruction. Afforded them by their mothers scene and take shelter under the marble, since we could not endure or friends during their stay in it; but has expressly desired that the peltings of the storm on it.
upon each pupil's entering life, he should attach himself to some After visiting the dormitories and lavatory,--which strongly re
body of Christians. That the late Mr. Girard was right in excluding minded me of my school-boy days, and with them the reminiscences
ministers of religion from his college in the manner he has, is an which early rising and cold water on frosty mornings always excite
opinion in which few in this country I think will be found to coinin my mind—we were informed by the President, that as the dinner
cide,-much less to advocate and defend either the necessity or hour had arrived, we would have an opportunity of witnessing how
justness of such policy in reference to any educational institution. the pupils are taught the lesson of patience--a piece of instruction | Toronto, May, 1851,
T. H. they receive every day. Entering the dining-room with the boys, we could observe the regularity and order with which each proceeded to
THE ANCIENT ROMAN SYSTEM OF EDUCATION. the seat allotted to him at the table,--at each of which one of the A virtuous but rigid severity of manners was the characteristic matrons presided to serve the dinner. The countenances of the of the Romans under their kings, and in the first ages of the, boys showed, that although they were to submit to the inculcation republic. The private life of the citizens, frugal, temperate, and of that virtue which so few possess, and which is so difficult to laborious, had its influence on their public character. The (patria acquire, they knew that the exercise which followed was associated potestas) paternal authority gave to every head of a family a with the most agreeable sensations. When all were sented, one of sovereign authority over all the members that composed it ; and the boys at each table, whose duty it was to act as waiter, rose up this power, felt as a right of nature, was never resisted, Plutarch and carried the plates of his fellows to the head of the lable to be has remarked, as a defect in the Roman laws, that they did not supplied ; after which he attended to himself, and took his seat. prescribe, as those of Lacedæmon, a system and rules for the educaDuring the lime he was thus occupied (about four or five minutes) tion of youth. But the truth is, the manners of the people supplied the boys who had been supplied first, waited patiently with their this want. The utmost attention was bestowed in the early fordipner before them and their napkins arranged, ready for the attack, mation of the mind and character. The excellent author of the but not daring to commence. The tinkle of the President's bell told dialogue De Oratoribus (concerning orators presents a valuable them that all were supplied, and that grace was about to be said. picture of tho Roman education in the early ages of the commonIn a moment they were as still as possible, and remained so while wealth, contrasted with the less virtu vus practice of the more refined ages. The Roman matrons did not abandon their infants to below, to the centre of the opposite end of 1he room, where, afte mercenary purses. They regarded the careful nurture of their passing through the ceiling, it enters the ventilating flue, which, offspring, the rudinents of their education, and the necessary occu commencing at the floor, is carried up through the attic and out palions of their household, as the highest points of female merit. | above the roof, as shown in figures 2 and 3. The heat of the smokeNext to the care bestowed in the insulmont of virtuous morals, a pipe produces a lively upward current of the air in the upper portion remarkable degree of attention seems to have been given to the of the ventilating flue, sufficient to draw off the lower stratum of air language of children, and to the attainment of a correctness and near the floor, and at the same time draw down, and diffuse equally purity of expression. Cicero informs us that the Gracchi, the sons through the room, the fresh air which is introduced and warmed by of Cornelia, were educated, non tam in græmio quum in sermone the stove at the opposite end. mulris: in the speech more than in the bosom of their mother. That
Fio. 2. urbanity which characterized the Roman citizens showed itself particularly in their speech and gesture.
The attention to the language of the youth had another source. It was by eloquence, more than by any other talent, that the young Roman could rise to the highest offices ard dignities of the state. The studia forensia (forensic studies) were, therefore, a principal object of the Roman education. Plutarch informs us, that among the sports of the children at Rome, one was pleading causes before a mock tribunal, and accusing and defending a criminal in the usual forms of judicial procedure.
The exercises of the body were likewise particularly attended to ; whatever might harden the temperament, and confer strength and agility. These exercises were daily practised by the youth, under the eye of their elders, in the Campus Martius,
At seventeen the youth assumed the manly robe. He was consigned to the care of a master of rhetoric, whom he attended constantly to the forum, or to the courts of justice ; for, to be an accomplished gentlemen, it was necessary for a Roman to be an accomplished vrator. The pains bestowed on the attainment of this character, and the best instructions for its acquisition), we learn from the writings of Cicero, Quintilian, and the younger Pliny.
The engraving on page 81 presents a view of the village schoolhouse erected by Z. Allen, Esq., at Allendale, North Providence, after designs by T. A. Teft, of Providence. It is situated in a beautiful grove, on a little knoll which admits of a basement room in the rear, originally designed for a library and reading-room A-Front entrance.
F-Seats for classes at recitation. for the village, but now occupied by a primary school. It is built
B-Girls' entrance and lobby. d-Teacher's desk. of stone in a style very common in structures of this kind in England.
C-Boys' do. do. e-Library of reference in front The main room, which is intended for a school-room, although for D—Teachers' platform.
of teacher's desk. the present used for lectures, and religious exercises, is very appro- E_Seat and desk for the pupils. C-Closets for school library and priately finished--the walls being made to represent stone work of S— Ventilating school stove. I apparatus. a very subdued neutral tint, and the ceiling, supported by wooden | V-Flue for ventilation. |_ Fence dividing back yard. tracery, is finished partially in the roof, leaving the necessary open
F1o. 3. space above to protect the room from the effects of excessive heat and cold. The ceiling, wainscoting, seats, desks, and doors, are grained in imitation of oak. It is thoroughly ventilated, and warmed by air heated in a chamber below.
In this very pleasing specimen of the Elizabethan style, and other varieties not commonly introduced into structures of this kind, Mr. Teft has broken, in Rhode Island at least, the dull monotony of the wretched perversions of architecture which characterize the village and country school-houses of New England. We have already in the second Volume of this Journal presented a few specimens of the Elizabethan style, in front and side elevations, for large and small schools, which can be easily modified to suit the wants of particular localities,
In many neighbourhoods it is a matter of economy to build of stone, and where this is the case, the style of architecture shouid be adapted to the material.
The style and arrangement of the seats and desks is indicated in figures 2 and 3. The end pieces are of cast iron, and so shaped, as to facilitate the sweeping of the room, and the pupils getting in and out of their seats, and at the same time are firmly attached to the floor by screws. This building is 30 feet by 20 feet.
The room is heated by a ventilating school stove, designated both for wood and hard coal. Fresh air is introduced from outside of the building by a flue beneath the floor, and is warmed by passing along the heated surfaces of the stovo as indicated in the following section,
The smoke-pipe is carried in the usual way, high enough to prevent any injurious radiation of heat upon the heads of the pupils