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And never say, O Teacher ! that the untoward influences of so nine in the morning, a line of carriages which reached from the ciety are so many, and the unfaithfulness of parents so great, and Exhibition to the eastern end of Long Acre, a good couple of miles, your pupils are so short a time under your care, that you can do and the same thing existed west, north and south. Finding this nothing. You can do much ; if you were a thousand times less to be the case, I alighted and walked into Hyde Park, entering the potent than you are, you could do wonders. A little unseen rill commissioners', gate without the slightest inconvenience. The creeping along through the grass will make a green strip of velvet scene upon entering was beautiful in the extreme. Already every wherever it goes. The far off stars, whose light has to travel long seat was occupied ; but a menıber of Parliament, who was an exthousands of years and across a multitude of adverse currents to hibitor, contrived to make a little coterie in the Tunisian departreach us, every evening help to light the labourer from his field of ment, to which I was admitted and saw the whole inauguration toil to his couch of repose. These emblems teach us how much we scene under the happiest point of view. The company kept can do for learning, for virtue, for religion, if we exert a correct pouring in until the last moment ; and, at half-past eleven o'clock, and steady influence, and seek to shine like lights in the world. I gazed upon the wonders of the grand transept, and heard the We desire not better praise than that of the Hebrew woman of old: I mighty organs from the west end, the tones wafting their sounds “She hath done what she could." Are you doing what you can in through the maze of British manufactures and productions ; long behalf of a correct moral training of the thousands of pupils in lines of beautiful women, with officers and gentlemen, filling up our schools?
the background, and in every way the eye was turned some surAnd do not say either that the laws prohibit doctrinal instruction, prising natural or artificial object was to be seen : the tout ensemble and any collision of the sects on this ground, and therefore excuse was altogether most beautiful. yourself from doing anything. The laws never prohibit your ma Punctually at twelve o'clock the Queen arrived, her entree being king good Christians of all your pupils. If you lived under a face marked by long and animated cheering. She seated herself on a of tyrants, they would never object to your making good sisters and chair raised on a platform, surmounted by a spacious elegant blue brothers and parents and citizens of every scholar in the common canopy adorned with feathers, with Prince Albert on her left. They wealth. And if they did, we would not heed it; we would still were accompanied by the Prince of Wales and the Princess Royal. seek to fit all our flock for seats in the kingdom of heaven, and then The court circle was now completely formed, making a tableau never adjourn the little meeting to the general assembly of apostles and to be forgotten. The Queen looked remarkably well. She wore prophets and martyrs on high, though it be through threats and the order of the garter, a pink brocade dress, shot with gold, and faggots and blood ! But so far from prohibiting influence of this the Prince looked calmly and proudly happy. The Duke of Welkind, there is no district but would esteem more highly the teacher lington, who this day completed his eighty-second year, had been who should be meekly faithful in this matter. Go tell your pupils, there nearly two hours before, and the commissioners and all the then, of their ruin by the fall, of their need of a Saviour, and of the officials and ladies of the household surrounding the throne presented necessity of making preparation now for the scenes of the future, a scene of extraordinary splendor. The National Anthem was and we have no fear of a war of the sects, or a collision with the performed, and the music produced a most delightful effect in the laws in consequence, for these are common articles of faith ; the glass building. Prince Albert, with the commissioners, presented most liberal interpreter of the Sacred Word admits them, all but
himself before the Queen, and read the report as described in the the infidel hold to them.
official programme. I could not hear the tones of the Queen when We dictate not to what creed, or sect, or church you may belong: she read her reply, from the spot where I was placed, but the fact but we dare say that he that cares not for the soul as well as the is, any mortal voice is lost in the vast edifice. The Archbishop of intellect of his pupil, is not fit in the highest sense for this work. Canterbury then delivered the prayer of inauguration, which was Could you coin the very diamonds of the earth for your currency, followed by the Hallelujah Chorus of Handel, under the direction of and barter in thrones and sceptres and crowns, and write down the Sir Henry R. Bishop. The effect of this was most striking, and everlasting stars in the inventory of your estate, you would not the voices of the choristers were here in the fullest perfection. A converse with such solemn and imposing relations as now encom procession was then formed of a most interesting character. Tbe pass your every day's toils and trials and success. Eternal intele State heralds, preceding Messrs. Paxton, Fox, and Henderson, lects are stronger for bliss or woe at the close of every hour of led the way. Then came all the officials engaged in constructing faithful toil."
the building ; afterwards the foreign acting commissioners; and Linked then with such relations, encompassed with such solemn most singular was it to see all the various costumes worn by the responsibilities, shall we forget the high tenor of our commission, foreign looking men from every quarter of the world. Then foland do all for earth and nothing for heaven? all for time and no lowed the Royal Commissioners, amongst whom I noticed Mr. thing for eternity ? all for discipline and nothing for virtue ? Oh Cobden, dressed in a plain black coat. Then followed the venerable no! Traitors we must be to our calling, or we shall often remem Duke of Wellington, walking side by side with the Marquis of ber that our pupils have not only intellects that need to be discipli Anglesa ; both were loudly cheered. The foreign ambassadors, ned, but hearts that must be washed in atoning blood, and sanctified followed, and Her Majesty's Ministers, headed by Lord John Rusby grace divine, or they can never walk in Paradise, and bathe in its sell. These were loudly applauded ; and lastly the Queen and “ Seas of heavenly rest."
Prince Albert, the one leading the Prince of Wales and the other [Massachusetls Teacher. the Princess Royal, closing the procession, with the Royal Prussian
guests at the palace, and the ladies of the household. The proces
sion first marched along the British or western nave, and then, re. THE OPENING OF THE GREAT INDUSTRIAL
crossing the transept, passed on to the eastern extremity. At EXHIBITION.
every step new acclamations arose ; the music from the various On Thursday, the first of May, 1851, the Great Industrial Exhi. organs saluted the procession as it passed, and thus every person in bition was opened in the Crystal Palace, Hyde Park, London, by the building was enabled to see every individual in the corlege. HER MAJESTY THE QUBEN. We abridge the following highly The Queen then declared “the Exhibition opened ;" and the truminteresting account of the ceremony from the London correspon pets and artillery announced the fact to the countless multitudes dence of the Liverpool European Times.
outside. The whole auditory arose to give a parting cheer, or a After several days' excitement, during which the public curiosity series of deafening acclamations of joy, and the ceremony terminated had been wound up to the highest pitch, the morning of Thursday, by the retirement of the Queen, who went back to Buckingham the day fixed for the opening of the Great Exhibition of Industry of Palace in the state in which she had come. The multitudes in the all Nations, opened most auspiciously.
park were countless. I looked through the glass window and a sca On the preceding day we had rain and hail, with very cold of human beings surrounded me on all sides. Everybody was in good weather, but the glorious 1st of May was uninterrupted by scarcely humor, and all the superstitious presentiments of mischief, which a cloud; and at mid-day, when the Queen ascended the throne, had been formed in the imagination of some minde, were wholly the effulgence of the sun left no other wish ungratified. As far as falsified. Never was so great a spectacle inaugurated with so much the mortal arrangements depended upon man, they were perfect; good order and tranquility, in the presence of perhaps half a million and I rejoice to say that the day passed off without a single acci- of human beings. dent that I have heard of. I found upon reaching Piccadilly, at ! The first object which strikes the visitor upon entrance, eitber
at the north or south ender the transept, are two magnificent gates shout of defiance from the multitudinous army, as it rings through s!retching across, which, having passed, he finds himself in the those lurid halls. Or, rising oppressed with the splendour and woe centre of the building, amidst státuary, fountains, palm trees, of the infernal regions, you pass, with the gentle poet, into the and rare tropical shrubs, the equestrian statues of the Queen and, fragrance of Paradise, bathe your eyes in celestial dews, wander Prince Albert forming the most prominent feature, amidst an infi- with heavenly guests through the melodious groves and "amarannite multitude of objects, each of which is displayed to the best ad
thine bowers" of Eden, quoffing immortal draughts from cool founvantage. Along the wave, both towards the east and the west tains, soothed by the song of early birds, and finding rest unutterthere is a succession of gigantic statuary, in marble, iron, bronze,
able beneath the shadow of the tree of life, or, it may be, holding and zinc, the latter of a very remarkable character. Almost the converse high, on some “serener mount," with angelic forms, or first object which arrests your attention is the Koh-i-noor diamond, with that noblest pair, whose innocence and beauty are fresh as the secured in a strong cage of iron, richly gilded, and by a contrivance, young dews which glisten upon the flowers of Eden. You catch this precious jewel, which is placed on a small pedestal, sinks at the spirit of that high Christian seer, gaze through the long vista night down into the strong iron chest upon which the cage rests, so of time, behold the wonders of Calvary, man redeemed, and the that it is safe and secure night and day. Crowds flocked round this gates of glory thronged with rejoicing myriads.- Rev. R. Turnjewel to admire its size and brilliancy. Along the whole length | bull in Christian Review. . of the building, in the centre of the nave, is placed a succession of most striking objects, relieved by the statuary. There are models
THE NORTH WEST PASSAGE. ,'.,.; of bridges and towns, all of elaborate execution, and amongst them
As the great interest which attaches to the inysterious fate of the model of Liverpool holds the foremnost rank. There are, besides enormous telescopes, exquisite models of machinery, small
the gallant Sir John FRANKLIN and his intrepid companions, has chapels to exhibit specimens of stained glass, the Acis and Galatra
directed public attention to the subject of Arctic voyaging, we fountains, the American statues of the wounded Indian and the insert the following table of statistics relating to the various expeGreek Slave, the statue of Shakespeare, and the crystal fountain in ditions which have engaged in the hazardous enterprize of endeavthe centre of the transcript, presenting a very graceful and striking
ouring to find a north-west passage from Europe and America to appearance. Perhaps the whole world has never furnish d such a remarkable series of attractive objects as are contained in the nave
the Pacific Ocean, the East Indies, and China. : N/",: alone.
The attempt to discover a north-west passage was made by a Crossing the transept, you enter the British East Indies, which Portuguese named Corterçal, about A. D. 1500. It was attempted! presents a very beautiful scene. On the sonth you then arrive at | by the English in 1553, and the project was greatly encouraged by a square devoted to Canada, the West Indies, and the Australian | Queen Elizabeth, in 1585, in which year a company was associated colonies. The articles from these interesting 'spots in the British
in London, and was called the “ Fellowship for the Discovery of Empire are all admirably illustrative of their rich productions. The the North-West Passage." "The following voyages with this? minerals, the raw materials, afford abundant scope for study both to the
design, were undertaken, under British navigators, in the years merchant and the philosopher. A beautiful little square of mediæval | respectively stated : treasures next attracts vast crowds, who pass on to the sculpture
Sir Hugh Willoughby's expedition to Captain Rose arrived at Hull, on his find a north-west passage to China,
return from his Arctie expedition, room. You are now on both sides the nave, fairly in the British sailed from the Thames, *.May 20, 13 after an absence of four years, and domestic latitudes. , Whilst agricultural implements occupy the
Sir Martin Frobisher's atteinpt to
when all hope of his return had !
find a north-west passage to China, 1576 been nearly abandoned, ..Oct. 18, 1833 whole remaining length of the extreme south, paper and printing, Captain Davis's expedition to find a
Captain Back and his companions north-west passage, ...........
1565 arrived at Liverpool from their perand machinery in motion, fill up the extreme north ; the front of Barentz's expedition. ........ 1594 ilous Arctio land expedition, after the south side being devoted to Birmingham (goods, furniture,
Weyinouth and Knight's, ....... 1602 having Visited the Great Fish River,
and examined its course to the Sheffield goods, woolen and mixed fabrics, flax from Ireland, and taken by this noble navigator,..
Polar seas, ........... Sept. , 1835 printed fabrics of Manchester, London, and Glasgow.
...... ........ April 17, 1610 Captain Back sailed from Chatham The front Sir Thomas Button's, ...........
..... 1612 in command of his Majesty's ship of the north corresponding side presents a succession of departments
Baffin's expedition and discovery,.. 1616 . Terror, on an exploring adventure
Foxe's expedition, ........... 1631 to Wager River. (Captain Back, with carriages, some of them of the most exquisite construction, JA mumber of enterprises undertaken
in the month of Dec., 1835, was mineral manufactures, marine engines, flanked on the front with
by various countries followed.)
awarded, by the Geographical SoMiddleton's expedition, ........
1742 ciety, the King's annual premium paper goods, furniture, furs, leather, and cotton. On the outside Mooro's and Sinith's,..... . 1946 for his Polar discoveries and enter
Hearne's land expedition, ....... 1760 prise. ..... ..... June 21, 1836 of the building are statues, columns, specimen of coal, obelisks, and
Captain Phipps, afterwards Lord
Dease and Simpson traverse the ina vast variety of architectural and building processes, with a de
Mulgrave, his expedition, .... 1773 tervening space between the dis-''. Captain Cook in the Resolution and
coveries of Ross and Parry, and lached building, whence the steam motive power is derived.
Discovery..............July, 1776 establish that there is a north-west Mackenzie's expedition, ....... 178 passage, ..... ....October, 1830
Captain Duncan's voyage, ...... 1790 Sir John Franklin and Captain CroMILTON.
The Discovery, Captain Vancouver,
zier in the Erebus and Terror Film returned from a voyage of survey
leave England, ... -... May 24, His principal characteristic is majesty. In Milton's character and and dicovery on the north-west Captain Russ returned from an unwork is consummated the union of human learning and divine love.
coast of America, .....Sept. 21, 1795 successful expedition in search of
Lieut. Kotzebue's expedition, Oct., 1815 Franklin, ....
Captain Buchan's and Lieutenant Another expedition (one sent out by
Lady Franklin) in search of Sir and resounding hellelujahs, blends the most perfect devotion with thea and, Trent, ............ 1818 Jobu Franklin, consisting of two
Captain Ross and Lieutenant Parry,
vessels, sailed from England, ... the most perfect art. All is grand, and beautiful, and holy. In
in the Isabella and Alerander, .. 1818
............... April-May, 1850 the “ Paradise Lost,” you come into contact with thoughts which 'Lieutenants Parry and Siddon, in the
Another, consisting of two vessels
Hecla and Griper, ....May 4, 1819 the Aduance and Rescue, liberally sweep the whole compass of letters, and the fresh fields of nature They return to Leith, ..... Nov. 3,
purchased for the purpose by Henry mnade lustrous by the fine frenzy of the poet ; here also, and more
Captains Parry and Lyon in the Fury
Grinnell, a New-York merchant,
and Hecla, ..........May 8, 1821 and manned at Government cost especially, you come into contact with "thoughts which wander Captain Parry's third expidition with
froin the United States Navy, under
the Hecla, ... ......... May 8, 1824 command of Lieut. E. J. D. Haven, through eternity." You trace his daring flight, not simply through Captains Franklin and Lyon, after
sailed from New-York, May 25, 16 the realms of primeval glory, but of chaos and elder night. You having attempted a land expedi
The Prince Albert is about being tion, again sail from Liverpool, ..
again despatched from England by follow the track of his burning wing through the hollow abyss,
...:::...........Feb. 16, 1825 the heroic Lady Franklin, who Captain Parry, again in the Hecla,
nobly surrenders her entire income * whose soil is fiery marl," whose roof is one vast floor of Jurid
sails from Deptford,... March 25, 1827 in vainly seeking for her gallant light, and whose oceans are “floods of sweltering flame." You Returns,...............Oct. 6, 1827 husband, ... mingle, shuddering with infernal hosts, or listen with rapture to the
# The gallant Sir Hugh Willoughby took his departure from Radcliffe, on his fatal far-off choiring of cherubim and seraphim, the glorious mingling voyage for discovering the north-west passage to China. He was unfortunately
entangled in the ice, and frozen to death, on the coast of Lapland. of sweet sounds “fron, harp, Jute, and dulcimer." You stand on
In 1810, Hudson venturing to pass the winter in the Northern Occan, being in the dismal verge of Pandemopium, with its dusky swarms of fallen scarch of a north-west passage, he was with his son and three others, by a mutinous
crew, forced irto a boat and left to perish. spirits, glimmering through the shadows, “thick as the leaves in
. The above ships were commanded, officered, and manned as follows: Vallambrosa," see borne upon its burning marl or sailing through
TIE TERROR. the gloomy atmosphere, that form of angel ruined, vast shadowy, Sir John Franklin, Captain.
Richard Crozier, Captain.
Ed. Little, and terrible, which when it 'moves causes the abyss to shudder.
Graham Gore, --
Geo. H. Hodgson, Lieutenants. . You gaze, with astonishment and awe upon the starry domes, which IIen. T. D. Le Vesconte, Lieutenants. John Irving,
Jns. Wm. Fairholme,
Total, 68 Officers and Crew, rise, “like an exhalation,” from the fiery depths, and tremble at the Total, 70 Officers and Crew.
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION.
Districts and towns in which the free school system has not been in operation during the year 1848. , ' School Population. Pupile. Home District,
28,589 13,784 TORONTO, MAY, 1851.
City of Toronto, ......
5,500 1,678 .
Colborne District, ................ 7,700 2.995 OBJECTIONS TO THE FREE SCHOOL SYSTEM IN . Huron District, .................. 5,482 2,459 ENGLAND.
City of Kingston, ................... 3,461 524 LONDON, LITTLE TOWER STREET, APRIL 5th, 1851.
In contrasting (in the same number of the Journal, page 96,) the To the Editor of the Journal of Education for Upper Canada.
effects of free schools upon the school attendance in the city of
Toronto and the town of Niagara, in 1848, we remarked :SIR : Some of the opponents of the movement now making in
It will be curious and interesting to note the difference in the England, in favour of the establishment by law of a national system of instruction in free schools, assert very positively that giving free
effect of the operation of the partial and universal systems of popuinstruction to the people has no tendency to increase the number of
lar education on the school attendance of the pupils. Last year, children under instruction. I observe with great pleasure the rapid
(1848,) out of a school population of 5,500, but 1,678 are reported extension of your system in Canada, and I am much mistaken if
as having attended the common schools and those only during you are not in possession of information which will enable you to
six months of the year! While in the town of Niagara, under the give the most direct contradiction to such an assertion. May I beg
free school system, with a school population of 668, 716—including
pupils above the age of 16 years, &c.-are reported as having the favour of you, to say in your next number what is your expe
attended the common schools during the entire year. The contrast rience as to the effect of making schools free, in increasing the
is striking ; but it is the result of the operation of the same school number of scholars. You would be doing good service if you could
law in the two ex-capitals of Upper Canada during the same year. give some statistics extending over a considerable space of time and tract of country. With best wishes for the continued success
It is gratifying to add, that the present year witnesses the full and of your operations,
completo adoption, recently, of the free school, system, in the present I am very respectfully, Your obedient Servant,
capital of United Canada, as well as in the ancient town of Niagara. SAMUEL LUCAS.
In both places the effect is highly satisfactory REMARKS.-We regret our inability, owing to the very recent
As it regards the effects of the operation of a system of free introduction into Upper Canada of the free school system,
schools, supported by a goneral assessment upon property upon to furnish, as requested by our correspondent, statistics illus
school attendance in Upper Canada during the years 1849–50, we trative of the effect of the adoption of the free school principle upon
need only refer our correspondent to the extracts from the remarks the attendance of pupils, in Canada, “extending over any considera accompanying various local superintendents' statistical school reports ble space of time or tract of country. The period of our free for last year, published in the March, April, and present number of school operations is of quite too recent a date to permit of any
this Journal. The extracts confirm in an emphatic and gratifying
manner our decided opinion of the "school filling" character of the extended observations or statistical information as to effects or
system of free schools at present in operation in Upper Canada. results. So far, however, they are entirely satisfactory.
They moreover evince, the determination of the inhabitants of Previous to the year 1848, the free school system was but partially several school sections, to sustain their schools entirely, in future, known in Upper Canada ; up to that time, therefore, no statistics on
upon this more popular and less expensive plan. the subject exist of any practical value. During the year 1849, we
PROGRESS OF POPULAR EDUCATION IN THE PROhad occasion, in reviewing our educational progress in 1848, to re
VINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA. mark upon the effect of the system of free schools upon the school at
In the Feb. No. of the 3rd Vol. of this Journal, we had great pleaattendance in those localities in which it had been adopted in 1848,
sure in referring to the proceedings of the Nova Scotia Legislature in with a view to stimulate other parts of the country to try its effect
making provision for the establishment of a system of Common upon their sehool attendance. Our remarks and accompanying statistics, taken from the Journal of Education for June, 1849,
Schools, and for the appointment of a Superintendent for that page 88, are as follows:
Province. From the first annual Report of this officer, lately laid If the adoption, in very numerous instances of the free school
before the legislature, and containing 128 pages, we make the folsystem in various parts of the Province, be a proof of the spread of
1 lowing extracts, illustrative of the zeal and ability of tho Superinsounder principles than has heretofore prevailed in regard to a more generous system of universal education, then we have cause for
intendent ; and exhibiting the actual state and prospects of educarejoicing for the future prosperity of Upper Canada.
tion in our sister Province : of his report, Mr. Dawson remarks: In various parts of the Niagara, Prince Edward, Talbot, Brock, " It includes a narrative of my proceedings in discharge of the and other Districts, this patriotic and popular mode of raising the duties of the office of Superintendent of Education, remarks on teacher's salary has been adopted, and the fruits are seen in the the state of education and suggestions for improvement, and statismuch larger attendance of pupils, the tranquillity of the school tical tables containing abstracts of the Reports of the Boards of sections, the absence of all causes of local differences between trus
Commissioners. The details embraced in these subjects, I have tees and their neighbours, and the teacher on school matters, and
arranged undcr the following heads :-(A.) Narrative of proceedthe general prosperity of the schools themselves. We give some
ings. 1. Tour in the United States. 2. Preparation and Distribution of the statistics of a few districts for the last year, showing the of Forms of Reports, &c. 3. Public Meetings and Lectures. 4. effects of even the partial adoption of the free school system in a Inspection of Schools. 5. Supply of Books and Apparatus. 6. 'Assodistrict upon the school attendance of such district, as compared
ciations and Institutes. 7. Supply of Toachers to destitute Districts. with other districts and towns in which no movement has been (B.) State of Education and Suggestions for Improvement. 8. made in this direction. The contrast it will be perceived is very Boards of Commissioners. 9. School Trustees. 10. Toachers. 11. striking:
Support of Schools and Assessment. 12. Attendancc. 13.' School Districts and towns in which the free school system has been in Houses and Furniture. 14. School Districts. 15. Common Schools, partial operation during the year 1848 :
their Studies and Discipline. 16. Grammar Schools and Academies.
Scliool Population. Pupils. 17. Establishment of a Normal School. 18. Notices of the CommisNiagara District, ....vos........ 11,848 9,348
sioners' Districts, Meetings, &c. (C.) Statistical Report." Niagara Town, (adopted fully) ...... 668 716*
After furnishing minute information relating to the state of schools Prince Edward District, ......
5.634 4,212 Talbot District, ......
in various places visited, during his tour in the United States, Mr. Broek District,
Dawson thus concludes :
“Had longer time been at my disposal, I might, in the States * Including pupils from beyond the corporation limits of the town.
which I have visited, as well as in other parts of the United States
and in Canada, have obtained a very large additional amount of Province, may be rudely classed under the following heads : 1, Miduseful facts. I may remark, however, that an additional value is dle-aged or old teachers, experienced, and of fair or high qualificagiven to such imperfect observations as those which I have been tions, 34 ; 2, Young teachers, with fair or good education, and imenabled to record, by the circumstance that the American schools proving in their profession, 74.; 3, Young teachers, with moderato present an eclectic system, whose materials have been gathered | or poor education, and small qualifications for the work, 62; 4, from the best schools of Great Britain and the Continent; and hav Middle-aged or old teachers, scarcely or not at all competent, 52; ing been found adapted to the circumstances of the New World, total 222. Of 165 teachers who have answered my questions_80 have been built upon the wide foundation which was laid by the wero educated in this Province,'56 were educated in Great Britain old colonists of New England. This gives to the American schools or Ireland, 10 were educated in other Colonies and the United States, a variety and completeness, which render them much more worthy 19 gavo no answer to this question, 33 have tauglit in Britain or other of study than they might otherwise have been. I must express my countries, 67 are willing to attend a Normal School, 66 are willing obligations to the educational officers and teachers of the places to attend Institutes, 48 are paid in money, 26 half in money, 39 use which I visited, for the readiness with which they placed within my the blackboard in teaching, 43 board from house to house, 14 are reach all the facilities that I could desire, for obtaining information under 20 years of age, the youngest 17, 50 are under 30, 42 are respecting their educational institutions. I found every where, that under 50 ; 25 are 50 years of age or over, the oldest being 70 ; to mention the object of my mission was at once to obtain their 34 do not mention their ages ; 66 are married, and 6 are widows hearty aid and sympathy. I must also thank the educational officers or widowers ; 102 use corporeal punishment,-most of them rarely. of Upper Canada and New Brunswick for their kindness in furnish Of about 1000 teachers in the Province, 700 are males and 300 ing me with the reports relating to the schools in those Provinces. females. Their average salary from the people is £24 15s. 3d., " Public Meetings and Lectures.—To carry out the provision of
and from the Provincial grant £11 'lls. 10jd. The greater numthe law in relation to public meetings, I determined, before the close
ber of the teachers who have informed me that they were educated of the year, to hold one meeting in each District in the Province.
in the Province, have attended the country schools and academies. An experiment so novel as that of assembling the people together to
Comparatively few have received education at the collegos or in consider a subject, in the opinion of many so common-place and un-,
the metropolis. Of those educated in Great Britain, 27 are from important, must of necessity meet with many difficulties. In some
Scotland--14 from England'; 15 have been eduated in Ireland. distriots, accordingly, with all the exertions that I could use, the
Of those educated in other colonies, the greater part are from New attendanco and appearance of interest were very small. In other
Brunswick, some having been trained in the Normal School of that cases, the results were very encouraging and satisfactory,
Province. The limited use of the blackboard, and the statements “'Inspection of Schools.—To this department of the work of su
made in the answers respecting exercises, books, &c., indicate & perintendence I attach great importance, as the means of checking
great deficiency of professional knowledge. On the other hand, inaccurate returns, arranging disputes, and stimulating teachers,
the large number of those who express desire to attend a Normal parents and pupils.
School shows much anxiety to improve. “Supply of Books and Apparatus.-In expending the sum of - Support of Schools.—The methods of support now in use are £600 appropriated to this object, I have endeavourod to supply the
very defective. The only effectual remedy for the present difficulgreat destitution of books existing in the poorer schools, and among
ties in the support of schools, is the introduction of general and the poorer scholars in most schools ; to prepare thọ way for unifor
compulsory assessment. It is well known that several of our ablest mity of school books, and to introduce new and improved books and
politcians and literary men havė, at various times, publicly and improved apparatus in room of those that are less serviceable, or in earnestly advocated the support of schools by assessment; and tho case of apparatus, where none was previously in use. In any
though their views have produced little immediate action, they have one of these directions there is room for the expendituro of a much
now penetrated the minds of nearly all the active friends of educalarger sum.
tion in the Province, and are being rapidly diffused among the masses “ Associations and Institutes.--Teachers' Associations are soci of the people. The principal opponents of asssessment are the eties of teachers residing near to each other, meeting at stated
wealthy, who have educated their children, or have no families, or times for discussion of edụcational subjects, and mutual consultation
| who fear that their portion of the burden would be heavy; and the and encouragement, and for the visitation of each other s schools,
the less informed of the poor, who dread taxation, and liability to be and subsequen: discussion of their management. In my tour through called on for money payments. Both classes of objectors labour the Province, I found but one such association in existence.
under misapprehensions of the true nature and working of the sys“ Teachers' Institutes are collections of teachers from greater dis tem. No persons profit more extensively by that general diffusion tances than in the case of Associations, for the purpose of holding a of good education, which results from a system of assessment, than meeting of the duration of a week or more. They are, in short, men of wealth. The resulting intelligence, order and prosperity— temporary Normal Schools.' In many parts of the United States diminution of vice and pauperism, and growth and permanence of thev are held annnally, and are nided by legislative grants. The good laws and institutions—all 'tend to enhance the security and objects are discussion, illustration of methods, instructions and lec- value of proporty. On the other hand, no mode of supporting edu- . tures in school branches and the art of teaching.
cation falls so lightly on the poor man, or gives him so great facilis “ School Trustees.—Deficiency in the performance of the duties of ties for raising his children to respectable positions in society. these officers is one of the principal defects in the working of our _ _________,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,///// //— /—————— present system. I have every where endeavoured to direct public our country schools, no teacher can have an orderly or systematic attention to this subject, and I hope with some degree of success. school, properly organized classes, or steady progress. The best The adoption of the system of compulsory assessment would at once teacher must ultimately succumb, and the brightest pupils' be give new importance to the office of trustee, and remove the causes
tetarded, by such a difficulty. On looking over a school register, which now render it inefficient.
I have often seen many such lines as the following ; . “ Teachers. The real efficiency of any system of public educa l '111* *11*** 1111** 1 ***11111 ** tion, and with this the prosperity of all those great interests which opposite the names of pupils. In such a case it is quite evident .. can rest safely only on the intelligence and good moral habits of that the child can have learned little, except to think himsell a the people, must depend mainly on the teachers. In this Province, dunce, and to dislike going to school. Much of this irregularity however, the teacher's office is altogether underrated, both in public arises from the real or supposed necessity of keeping children at estimation and public support. If it be desired to elevate tho pro home, to aid their parents at the busy seasons of the year. I have fession of the teacher to its true position, it must be made a com no doubt, however, from the inquiries which I have made, .. fortable livelihood for competent men who engage in it, and means that much of this might be avoided by proper management. provided for training young persons to enter on the work with a Where it can be avoided, parents may rest assured, that it is one full knowledge of its duties, and for giving additional skill to those of those cases of withholding more than is meet, that “tend only already employed. The following statistics, taken from the results | to poverty." The man who wilfully and unnecessarily keeps his of my inspection, answers to questions, and the returns, give some children at home, defrauding them of the time which God has given idea of the present condition of the profession of teaching. The them for the growth of the mind as well as of the body, and who teachers of 222 schools, visited by me in the various parts of the makes little slaves of them for the pitiful guin of their fecble labor,
was mildly treated by the old legislators of Massachusetts, when of the poorer districts. In addition to this, these wealthier and they only fined himn and bound out his children to persons who would more populous places are seldom disposed to support schools in progive them education. Free schools, supported by assessment, are portion to their means, and consequently, the experience of many the only sure remedies for this evil. These would, I have no doubt, of the County Academies has shown that a large son of public at once nearly double the ordinary attendance of pupils. In the money, even in a wealthy and populous place, does not always enmean time, the proper use of school registers, with the co-operation
sure the establishment of a good school. It rarely happens that of teachers and parents in using such means as are in their power, the people can provide an assistant teacher, and in consequence the may tend to diminish its prevalence
introduction of the higher branches and the elevation of the school “School Houses and Furniture.-In travelling through the to the rank of a grammar school, withdraws the attention of the Province, I have directed much attention to the proper construction teacher from the younger scholars, and the parents complain that, of school-houses ; believing that material improvements in this for the majority of the children, it is less serviceable than a comrespect are absolutely necessary to the proper working of the schools, mon school. I have exhibited improved plans at the public meetings and lec : " Agricultural Chemistry has been, for the first time, introduced tures, and in every case where I have found buildings in process of into the schools in the past aulumn, and it is therefore loo soon, as erection or repair, have suggested such improvements of plan as yet, to speak of its results. In some districts, however, it is alseemed to be requisite. The law makes it one of my duties to ready in successful operation, and I have no doubt that it will in give information respecting the embellishment of grounds on which the present year be introduced into the majority of the grammar school-houses stand. Unfortunately too many of the schools have schools and many of the superior common schools, no ground whatever attached to thein, being built by permission on t." Establishment of a Normal School. The example of Great private property, or on the highway. Of 165 teachers who have Britain, Ireland, France, Germany, the United States, Canada, in answered the questions addressed to them, only 33 report that their , short, of every country having an efficient education system, the school-houses have any ground attached to them, the remainder resolutions passed by several public meetings in the past summer, being on private property or on the highway., Ooly 5 of the 165 the facts and views given in the earlier portion of the Report, and schools have any means of ventilation other than the door and the manifest benefits which must result from the introduction of windows ; 16 have more than one apartment; 24 have door mats thoroughly trained teachers into the schools, should, I think, preand scrapers, and hat pins ; 20 have wood-houses or other out vent much difference of opinion as to the utility of a Normal semihouses : 26 have seats with backs, or the desks arranged so as to
vary in this Province. One Normal School will be sufficient for form backs.
Nova Scotia. The State of New York and the Province of Up. “ Common Schools—their Study and Discipline.-Our Common per Canada require but one ; and one really good and well-support Schools are very diversified in character, studies and efficiency,
ed institution of this kind is, on every account, preferable to Some are mere primary schools of a very low grade, teaching only scveral of an inferior description. It should be in a central part reading, writing, and a little arithmetic ; others, in addition to all. of the Province, and in a rural district, where board could be obthe branches required by law in common schools, teach the classics, tained cheaply and temptations to vice are few ; and where a plot mathematics, or modern languages, and rise nearly, if not altogether, of ground for agricultural experiments, or for a model farm, could to the level of many of the so-called grammar schools.
be obtained if desired. The facts already stated in reference to " Moral and Religious Training in Common Schools.-In every the Normal Seminaries of Massachusetts and New York, may school there must be more or less of the formation of moral or im give some idea of the probable expense of the institution, The Normoral habits ; and it is of the utmost imporiance that bigh moral mal school of Upper Canada has two teachers, and is supported at influences should here be brought to bear on the mind of the young, an annual expense of £1,500. Its buildings cost £1,500. Tbe This is, however, rather a matter of discipline and training, than Legislature of New Brunswick has paid for school premises at of direct instruction ; since moral teaching apart from example
Frederickton £786 168. 9d., and for furniture, library, &c. at Fredand the formation of habit, is nearly useless. The good teacher erickton and St. John, £485. It pays annually to two teachers at should be in his own person a pattern of good morality. He should Frederickion and St. John, £300, and to aid candidates attending the watch every deviation from rectitude on the part of the children, school about £500. The Normal School of Bridgewater, with a and kindly endeavour to impress them with the evil of every bad principal and two male assistants, costs about £575 per annum. practice. He should endeavour, in the discipline of the school, to Itk building, which includes accommodation for a model school, cultivate and strengthen the higher moral sentiments, and avoid cost £1,300.” every thing of a degrading character. He should aim to regulate
EXTRACTS FROM LOCAL SUPERINTENDENTS REPORTS, 18509-51. his school, rather by the consciences and benevolent feelings of the pupils than by fear. Under our law, the religious instruction to Rev. Gilbert Miller, Alhol : “ Every school section in Athol has be communicated becomes a matter of mutual arrangement between
a good school, except No. 4; and education is advancing. The the parents and teacher. Thus those parents who have confidence
present school Act works well, and gives much satisfaction to the in the teachers as a religious instructor for their children, can have
people." the benefit of such instruction ; and those who have not such con
· Thos. McCall, Esq., Dunwich : “In perusing your remarks on fidence, are under no necessity of having views which they do not the free school system, I coincide with your opinion ; but it is not relish obtruded upon their children. In this way, there is practi-, likely that system will be universally adopted, unless by a legislative cally a large amount of religious instruction communicated in the
enactment. schools ; and many of the teachers are persons of true piety, who · Rev. John Porteous, Beverly, County of Hallon : “ Education has give such instruction, when desired, with earnestness and zeal. never engaged the attention of parents and guardians so much as it Even when parents belong to different denominations, it is not abso has done lately. Free schoolism has fallen upon their slumbers like lutely necessary to forego the benefits of religious instruction, since, a bomb-school section No. 4 and 5 has adopted the system. In despite all the differences that subsist, the great truths of Christian fact, the work of conversion to free schools, goes gaily on; and next morality, and many of the cardinal doctrines of the Gospel,' are
year, self defence will prompt sections, either to adopt nominal ratecommon to all denominations of Christians. The following extracts
bills, or fling them away entirely. I find mostly all the trustees in from the Instructions of the Council of Public Instruction for Up
favour of free schools, and some who oppose them, do so on the per Canada, well express the views above slated. (See Journal of ground, that, in the meantime, the school houses would not contain Education for July, 1850, page 112.]
the children that would present themselves for instruction ! Shame “ Grammar Schools and Academies.—In the past summer, the
on such small spirits, who not only admit the efficiency of free Grammar schools were on the whole, in a very efficient condition. I schools, but oppose by a subterfuge their coming into operation." Great difficulties attend the establishment of really useful Grammar
Robert Whitly, Esq., Marysburgh: “It will be seen by my and High Schools in this Province at present. Respectable schools
report, that not one-half of the children between the ages of 5 and of this kind cannot, in the present lack of desire for higher instruc-| 16 years, attend the schools ; but it is to be hoped that a great tion, be established in many of the places where the law allows
change for the better will take placo under the operation of the new them; and on the other hand, the establishment of costly schools
school dot; indeed it has already taken place, and I am happy to in the wealthier settlements or county towns excites the jealousy say, that in this township the people are becoming alive to the
oncluded from page 59.