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16. The propriety of laying periodical statement of the University accounts before convocation.
Her Majesty's Commissioners also request to be furnished with statements under the subjoined heads, and with any further information, or any suge gestion, which may occur to the parties addressed:
1. The nature of endowment, and its present annual value, and whether any other sources of income are attached to it.
2. Whether any special qualifications are required by statute in the per. sons ap, ointed.
3. Whether any residence, lecture-room, library, apparatus, collections, &c., are provided for you; if so, if there are any funds for keeping them up.
4. Whether there are any statutes requiring the performance of specific duties; and whether those duties are such as could not profitably be now enforced.
5. The mode of appointment to your office, whether it is held for life or for a term of years, and whether the person holding it is removable.
6. The nature and number of lectures usually delivered in each year, the average number of pupils attending, and the fees paid by each pupil.
7. The general condition in the University of the branch of study to which your professorship relates, and the means of promoting its advancetnent.
(In our next No. we hope to give a synopsis of a plan of collegiate reform which has originated in the University of Oxford--stimulated, probably, by the issue of the Royal Commission of Inquiry.- Ed. J. of Ed. I
Westminster Abbey, or Collegiate Church of St. Peter.-A brief account of this ancient building may not prove uninteresting at this moment. This interesting edifice derives its name from its situation in the westera part of the city, and its original destination as the church of a monastery. It was founded by Sibert, King of the East Saxons, but being afterwards destroyed by the Danes, it was rebuilt by King Edgar in 958. Edward the Confessor again rebuild the church in 1065; and Pope Nicholas II. constituted it a place of inauguration of the kings of England. The monastery was surrendered by the abbots and monks to Henry VIII., who at first converted the establishment into a college of secular canons under the governmeat of a dean, and afterwards into a cathedral, of which the county of Middlesex (with the exception of the parish of Fulham, belonging to the Bishop of London) was the diocese. Edward VI. dissolved the see, and restored the college, which was converted by Mary into its original estab. lishment of an abbey. Elizabeth dissolved that institution in 1560, and founded the present establishment, which is a college, consisting of a dean, twelve secular canons, and thirty petty canons, to which is attached a school of forty buys, denominated the queen's or king's scholars, with a master, usher, and also twelve almsmen, and an organist and choristers. The present church was built by Henry III. and his successor, with the exception of the two towers at the western entrance, which are the work of Sir Christopher Wren. The length of the church is 360 feet, the breadth of the pave 72, and the length of the cross aisle 195 feet.
Primary Instruction in France is in the hands of Government. It was organized by a law, which M. Guizot presented to the Chambers in 1833, and which contained, amongst others, the following articles :
"Primary instruction is of two kinds, elementary or superior. Primary elementary instruction comprehends religious and moral instruction, reading, writing, the elements of grammar and arithmetic, with the legal system of weights and measures. Primary superior instruction comprehends besides, the elements of geometry and land surveying, notions of natural philosophy and history, singing, and the elements of history and geography especially of France. As to religious instruction, the desire of the parents is to be attended to. Any individual, aged 18, possessing a certificate of capacity conferred, after examination, by the University, and a certificate of morals delivered by the municipal authorities of his place of residence for the last three years, may become a schoolmaster. Every commune is required to have a superior primary school, if its population exceed 6,000 souls; if not, an elementary one at least. The salary of teachers is to be raised by legacies, private donations, taxes, or a grant of the Council of Public Instruction, and cannot be less than 200 francs (or £8) a year, be. sides the children's pence, and a house. Children whose parents are too poor to pay, are to receive instruction gratuiously. Besides these public schools, free schools may be opened by regular schoolmasters."
Such has been the impulse given by this law, that nearly 13,000 boyg, schools have been opened during the last twenty years, and 4,000 girls' schools during the last ten years, besides 3,000 evening schools for adults, The number of :cholars has incrcased by one million, being now above 3,750,000. The influence of these schools on che masses is shown by the following fact, that in 1827, out of 1000 conscrits, or recruits for the mililary service, only 421 could read, while in 1844, there were 610.
Items.— At two recent festivals in the State of New York: following toasts were given :- The Common School—The tree of knowledge originally plant-d in New England-iis seeds are wafted over the continent.-- Education - The soul of the pre:8, by whose benign influence it shall govern the world. — The Senior Class of Dartmouth College have lately presented to Prof. Charles B. Haddock a premium silver pitcher, as a testimony of their high regard and great esteem.-- The literary societies of the University of New York have elected Rev. Dr. Bethune orator, and John G, Saxe Esq., poet, for the next anniversary.--Chief Justice Taney of the U. S. Supreme Court has been elected Chancellor of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, vice Mr. Fillmore recently called to the Presidency.--The body of Stephen Girard has been removed from the grave-yard attached to the Church of the Holy Trinity to the grounds of the Girard College for Orphans, Philadelphia. A monument will be erected over the remains.---The Superintendent of Public Schools in the first Municipality of New Orleans has absconded with $20,000 of the city School Funds.--The students of Harvard University have objected to the presence of two coloured youths who are studying medicine there prior to their departure 1o Liberia.--The Massachusetts Legislature has chartered a Board of Trustees for establishing a college in Liberia, and the effort meets with much favour. The Alexandria High School at Monrovia, Liberia, has gone into full operation. ---At the annual reorganization of the City Government of Boston last week, Mayor Bigelow, after taking the oath of office, read an address to the two branches of ihe city government. Among other things he speaks of the Public Schools, which are at once the ornament and glory of the City. He remarked that the whole number of schools of all grades is two hundred, having an aggregate attendance of 21,000. Expenditures for instruction during the past year, $182,000 ; for repairs, fuel, &c., $56,500 ; tor new school buildings, $56,000 ; making the handsome sum of $294,500. The schools maintain the high character they have acquired, and the best teachers are employed. --The Board of National Popular Education Ohio, held its annual meeting at Cleveland recently, when Governor Slade reported the receipts for the past year to be $5,020 50, disbursements $4,859 45. There was a balance on hand of $1,119 58, the whole of which is to be consumed in sending seven teachers to Oregon in March next. The society, since it was organized, has sent out 199 teachers.--The New Jersey School fund amounts to $397,314 14, and its income will justify an appropriation of $40,000 toward the support of common schools, without disturbing the capital. The passage of a law is recommended to submit to the people the question of the establishment of Free Schools.---The Methodist Episcopal Church in the U. S. has forty-six universities, colleges, and seminaries, under her control in the different States, as follows; Ohio eight; Pennsyl. vania five ; New York six ; Vermont four; Massachuseris one : Long Island two; Rhode Island one ; New Jersey three ; Maine one ; Delaware one ; Virginia two ; New Hampshire one; Indiana two; Illinois four ; Michigan one : lowa one : Wisconsin one ; Connecticut two.—The Methodists in Illinois are about to establish a Universiis at Chicago, to be called the North Western University. It is designed for Wisconsin and Iowa, as well as Illinois. --The Rev. Benjamin Wofford, of Spartansburg, South Carolina, has left $100,000 to build and support a Methodist College at that place.
Literary and Scientific Entelligence,
Items.—At an interesting Lecture recently delivered by Professor Croft at the Mechanics' Institute, Toronto, on Entomology, the lecturer stated that the number of insects known to the entomologist exceeds 1501,000; but as in tropical regions, only the large kinds have been enumer, ated, it may safely be asserted that the number of varieties actually in existence in the world does not fall far short of 400,000. In temperate climates, however, the number is considerable: in England alone it is not less than 12,000.-Harper's Magazine for this month contains a very admirable statistical paper, entitled, a “General View of the States of Europe.” From the preliminary paragraph we select the following items : Europe contains an area of 3,816,936 square miles ; population. 262,000,000, i e. 133,000,000 Catholics ; 58,000,000 Protestants ; 59,000,000 Greek Church : 7,500,00) Mohammedans; and 2,500,000 Jews. There are 55 independent states : 33 German ; 7 Italian, &c. Of these states, 47 have an essentially Monarchical form of government, and 8 are Republics. Of the Monarchical governments, 3 are technically called Empires, 15 King. doms, 7 Grand-Duchies, 9 Duchies, 10 Principalities, i Electorate, 1 Landgraviate, and I Ecclesiastical State. - Mr Powell, an American, has recently painted “The Burial of Fernando de Soto in the Mississippi.” The committing of the body of the grand old enthusiast to the turbid current of the Father of Waters, of which he was the discoverer, is a splendid
subject and is treated by the artist with deep poetic feeling.-Mr. Paine's Prayer is about to undergo revision by non-ecclesiastical hands. Besides “water gus" discovery, has, after much ridicule, been proved to be a bona the Premier, another name is mentioned in coonexion with the project. fide contribution to scientific knowledge. He can produce hydrogen from ---A striking panorama of Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress is now being exwater wiih great facility, and in any quantity. The hydrogen acquires a bibited in New York.---A model of the celebrated Remington bridge has high illuminating power by passing through spirits of turpentine. - A been exhibiting in Toronto, lis construction is simple and elegant, and copying telegraph has been invented by Mr. Bakewell. The message is combines lightness and strength in a remarkable degree. A Remington written with varnish on tin foil, which is rolled round a cylinder. A point bridge has lo tely been destroyed on an American lipe of rail way. The of steel presses upon this cylinder. The electrical current is interrupted pressure to which it was subjected being too heavy for the fragile structure. when the point comes in contact with the vargish. At the other end of the --A despatch has been received from Earl Grey, authorizing the admislige another point presses upon paper saturated with muriatic acid and sion of American re-priots of English copy-right works on payment, in prussiate of potash, and traces ihe message verbatim as received. The terms of the recent Provincial statute, of 20 per ceni. duty.--The Quebec cylinder at both ends of the line revolve at the same rate, and go by clock Chronicle gives a very interesting description of the appearance of the work. There are in London 491 charitable institutions exclusive of local Aurora on the evening of the 16th ult. It was first of a pea-green colour, and parochial crusts. Of these 97 are medical and surgical; 103 for the
and of a zig-zag shape ; then a snake form, and next-hanging over Beauport aged ; 31 for orphans, &c.; 40 school, book, and visitation societies : 35
as it were-it assumed prismatic colours, viz. :-purple, yellow, and peaBible and Missionary societies. These associations disburse about £1,765, green-The livle upright streaks bundling up afterwards, into one another, 000, of which £1,000,000, are raised by voluntary effort.- The French
and two of the colours, the red and the yellow disappearing and re-appear. revolution of February, 1848, stiinulated the sale of newspapers in Paris to
ing every now and then, until in about a quarter of an hour the colour was an extraordinary extent. M. Boule sold for months together 200,000 and
of the same light green hue, as when the aurora was first observed, when 300,000 copies daily of the different journals of which he was printer. He
assuming various linear and serpentine forms, it receded northward, and had 11 presses at work night and day. The 3rd volume of Humboldt's
by eight o'clock was lost to view.--The Hamilton Mercantile Library Cosmos is announced for publication. - A tunnel under the Neva, similar
and Mechanics' Institute contains 1,000 vols, of books, and is in a flourishto that under the Thames has been projected by the Emperor Nicholas.
ing condition. --The Toronto Public Reading Rooms and Libraries apThe Russian government has prohibited the translation of French novels;
appear, also, from recent reports, to be highly prosperous.--The the English, however, are permitted. The Neapolitan government has
Halifax (Nova Scotia,) Library contains 5,347 volumes.--Upwards of prohibited the circulation of Humboldt's Cosmos, Shakspeare, Goldsmith,
£6,000 have been subscribed in Manchester for the establishment of Ovid, Sophocles, Victor Hugo, Lamartine, Goethe, Schiller, Thiers, all
a free library and museum. The Mayor, J. Potler, Esquire, has obthe German Philosophers, &c., &. Oersted, the celebrated chemist,
tained by his own personal and unaided efforts about £4,000.--Sir discoverer of electro-magaetisin, on the completion of the 50th year of bis
Roderick Murchison and M. Liebig have been elected members of the professorship in the University of Copenhagen, was presented by the King
Royal Danish Academy of Science. It is stated in the French journals with the Grand Cross of the Order of Dannebrog, and by the University with
that in consequence of the confusion existing between the maritime calculaa new insignia of his doctorate, iocluding a gold ring, bearing the head of
tions of different powers, and the unfortunate occurrences to which it some. Minerva in cameo. The citizens have also presented him with a beautiful
times leads, the naval powers of the north-Russia, Sweden, Denmark, villa—the late residence of the lamented Ochlenschlager. Dersted is 80
and Holland-have entered into an agreement to open conferences on the years of age. - A statue in honour of the celebrated astronomer, Dr.
oid question of a common meridian for all nations. France, Spain, and Olbers, has just been erected at Bremen. He discovered some asteroids,
Portugal, it is said, have given in their adhesion to the scheme ; and & and a method of calculating the orbits of comets, &c. He was greatly
hope is held out that England will come into the arrangement. The honoured by his countrymen.-Dr. Tappan, of New York, has just pub.
'most advanced opinion on the Continent seems to be in favour of the lished a very valuable work upon “University Education.” He regards
selection of an entirely neutral point of intersection,-say Cape Horn,the present American collegiate system as a failure, and points out a remedy. In connexion with Dr. Wayland's work on the same subject, the
which would have the advantage of being agreeable to the Americans.-
Lord Brougham, who has been suffering from partial loss of sight, is conpublication is siguificant of the present state of American Universities.The Earl of Carlisle (Lord Morpeth) has lately been delivering lectures
sidered to be out of danger. He lately real an original paper before the before the Mechanics' Institute of Leeds, on his recent tour in the Uni:ed
French Academy of Sciences on the diffraction of light.-Pensions on the States, and on literary subjects.
Civil List, of £100 a year each, have been granted to George Petrie, Esq., The fleur de lis was made the ornament
LL.D., and to J. Killo, Esq., M.D. Mr. Petrie is a member of the Royal of the northern radius of the mariners' compass, in compliment to Charles
Hibernian Academy of Arts, and Vice-President of the Royal Irish Acaof Anjou (whose device it was), the reigning King of Sicily, at the time when Flavio Gioja, the Neapolitan, first employed that instrument in navi.
demy of Sciences, and author of the treatise on the “ Round Towers of gation. The following are the officers of the Royal Society for 1850-1 :
Ireland,” and of many other antiquarian works. Dr. Kitto has been partially President, Lord Rosse ; Treasurer, Col. Sabine: Secretaries, Messrs.
deaf and dumb from an accident when a boy, in spite of which difficulties Hunter, Bell, and Smith.--St. Paul's Cathedral is 404 feet from the pave.
he travelled through many lands. With his physical failings he has done ment to the top of the cross ; Salisbury Cathedral spire is 404. The Ox
much for the cause of biblical literature, and is the author of many works, tord "Tom" bell weighs 17,000 lbs; Lincoln 12,096. — M. Guizot has been
such as the “Pictorial Bible," “ History of Palestine,” “Cyclopædia of elected President of the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres, and
Biblical Literature," &c.-- Pensions of £100 a year have also been M. de Wailly, Vice-President. It is stated that an archæologist has lately
granted to Mrs. Belzoni, the aged widow of the celebrated traveller, and discovered among the archives at Chartres ninety-two original letters of
to Mr. Poole the author of " Paul Pry," and of several contributions to the Kings of France, from Francis the First to Louis Eighteenth. --Jo a
perodical literature. The latter is a great sufferer from bodily infirmities. recent letter to the Rev. Dr. Tefft, of Cincinnati, Martin F. Tupper. Esq.,
- The number of books, pamphlets, and printed works of every kind, the celebrated English poet, announces his intention of visiting the United
which have been issued from the press in France, during the year 1850, States within the next six months. -One of the most rare and beautiful
has been 7208. Among these must be reckoned 281 newspapers ; 2697 Vases in the Vatican was destroyed by a fall on a very windy night. It
engravings and lithographs are stated to have appeared during the year. stood near a window which was blown opea. The vase contained the I just expired ; 122 maps and plang, 579 pieces of vocal music, and 625, ashes of Germanicus, or of Augustus himself. — The king of Bavaria has
pieces of instrumental music. -- The English papers are earnestly ad-, formed the gigantic design of causing to be executed a series of pictures vocating the repeal of the paper tax. A public meeting to further this on subjects derived from the annals of all times and of all nations, the whole object was to be held in London on the evening of the 2d inst. The being destined to form a sort of pictorial universal chronology. Mr. Jo. | London Times says that the paper duty in the case of such publications as siah P. Cooke has been appointed to the Professorship lately held by the | Household Words, or Chambers' Journal is more than 20 per cent. unfortunate Dr. Webster. A person in New York has invented a ma.
| The Dead of 1850.-Sir Robert Peel, Louis Philippe, President chine for stopping railway carriages by electricity. The plan contemplates
Taylor ; the Duke of Cambridge, the Emperor of China, the American the arrangement of a galvanic battery on the locomotive, under the eye of
giatesman, Calhoun ; the Prussian Minister, Count Brandenburg ; the the engineer, with a rod running to each wheel in the train, connected with
Queen of the Belgians; the Duke of Palmella; the Vice Chancellor of. the different clogs or breaks, and :o be connected with the battery by a
England ; the Recorder of London; the Chief Justiee Doherty of Dublin. touch, so as to apply sinultaneously and instantly any desirable amount of
Wordsworth, Jeffrey, and Bowles : Miss Jane Porter ; Wyatt, t.:e sculptor: pressure to any clog.-Mr. Andrew Smith, C. E., the inventor of the
Sir Martin A. Shee; Patrick Fraser Tytler, the historian ; the elder wire rope manufacture, has discovered the affinity between aerial electric
Brunel : James Smith, the agriculturist ; Neander, the German theologian; city and terrestrial magoetism.--A gentleman of Cork, who has laboured
poor Waghorn, of the overland route : Schumacker, the celebrated astrono, for years in devising a plan to obviate the effects of backwater on paddle
mer, at Altona ; Christian Lauritz Sverdrup, who died in his seventy wheele, has proceeded to London, to lay the invention before Messrs.
ninth year. M. Sverdrup has occupied the chair of philology at the Univerą Maudsley, the eminent engineers.--It is said that the Book of Common
sity of Christiana since the foundation of that establishment by Frederiek,
VI, King of Denmark, in 1808 ; Mr. Robert Gilfilan, known to the public as
contemplates the division of the school fund among the different the author of several beautiful songs in the Scottish dialect, and some pieces
school sections, according to the average attendance of pupils at of poetry of considerable merit; and Mr. JJ. Audubon, the eminent natural.
each school, it is important that trustees should procure a copy of ist, who died at his residence, on the banks of the Hudson last month. He
the Register without delay. was 76 years old. No man has contributed more to oraothological science than Mr. Audubon ; Rev. Dr. Judson, the venerable American Missionary in Burman; Margaret A Fuller, the American Essayist; M. Link, a Profes
OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS, PAMPHLETS AND PERIODICALS RECRIVRD. sor at Berlin and a celebrated Botanist; Vicount Alford, M. P. ; Sir W.
We have to acknowledge the receipt of the following Official Docu Gordon; Dr. Haviland, Regius, Professor of Medicine at Cambridge, Eng.
ments, Pamphlets and Periodicals, kindly sent to the Head of the land, the Duke of Newcastle, and the Earl of Northamton.
Educational Department of Upper Canada, and to the Journal of
1. DOCUMENTARY HISTORY OF THE STATE OF New YORK. With Maps, Engravings,
&c. Vol. I. 4to., pp. 523. 2. TRANSACTIONS of the New YORK STATF AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, 1849. With
Maps and Engravings. 8vo. pp. 914. Notice to TRUSTEES AND T&ACHERS. — We deem it important
3. TRANSACTIONS OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK, 1849. at this early period of the year, when engagements with Teachers
Engravings. 8vo., pp. 417.
4. THIRD ANNUAL REPORT ON THE NEW YORK STATE CABINET OF NATURAL HISare usually made, to direct the attention of Trustees and Teachers
TORY, AND THE HISTORICAL AND ANTIQUARIAN COLLECTION ANXEXED THERETO, to the 15th Section of the School Act, which enacts, “That no
1819. With beautifully coloured plates. 8vo., pp. 183. Teacher shall be deemed a qualified Teacher within the meaning
15. Sixty-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT OF THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF THE
- STATE OF NEW YORK, 1819. 8vo., pp. of this Act, who shall not, at the time of his engagement with the
(The foregoing were received from the Regents of the University of the Trustees, and applying for payment from the school fund, hold a
Stale of New York.) certificate of qualification as hereinaster provided."
6. RESEARCHES RELATIVE TO THE PLANET NEPTUNE, by 8. C. WALKER, Esq., 1849.
4to., pp. 60. Ample opportunity has been afforded to Teachers in every county
Smithsonian Institution, Washington. to obtain certificates from the County Boards of Public Iustruction. 7. PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND SESSION OF THE NATIONAL CONVENTION OF THE
FRIENDS OF EDUCATION, With Appendices. Philadelphia, 1850. 8vo., pp 175. The first meeting of these Boards took place on the 14th of No
American Association for Advancement of Education. veniber, 1850—several months after the law authorizing the granting 8. ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OP COMMON SCHOOLS, STATE OF NEW
YORK, 1850. 8vo., pp. 1:28. of legal certificates was passed, thus giving those who considered
Hon. Christopher Morgan. their qualifications for the office of Teacher to be somewhat doubtful, 9. PROCEEDINGS OF THE MUNICIPAL CONCIL OF THE COUNTIES OF FRONTENAC, LENtime and opportunity to prepare themselves fully for examination
NOX AND ADDINGTON, 1850. 4to., pp. 17.-COUNTY OF WATERLOO, 1850.
The County Clerks. by the County Boards. The “ Programme for the Examination and
10. PERIODICALS 'RECEIVED:-English Journal of Education; Massachusetts Teacher: Classification of Common School Teachers" was also published in
The Student ; Eclectic Journal of Education ; Common School Journal; N. Y.
Journal of Education ; Cock's Musical Miscellany : Musical Reriew, &c. this Journal in October last-nearly a month before the day of the first meeting of the Board, and, in most cases, two and three months
SEQUEL TO THE SECOND BOOK OF LESSONS. before the examination of candidates actually took place. No ex
Toronto, 1851. BREWER, McPhail & Co. 12mo., pp. 216 cuse, therefore, can reasonably be urged against compliance with An admirable re-print of one of the national series of text books, the provision of the section of the Act above quoted, if local Super authorized by the Council of Public Instruction, for use in the schools of Upper Canada.
The Sequel is illustrated with very neat wood cins; and will prove a very useful interintendents refuse to honour the order of Trustees in favour of
mediate class book, in connexion with the other reading books of the same series. In persons not holding certificates of qualification. These officers, as our next number, we hope to be able to give the entire list of national books, (with
their prices,) authorized and recoinmended to be used in our common schools. the Local Superintendent of Guelph remarks in a letter on the subject, cannot reasonably be expected to assume responsibilities in
NOTICE direct violation of the Law, in the distribution of the school sund
TO COMMON SCHOOL TEACHERS, COUNTY OF YORK. in favour of parties who have by their own neglect created the difficulty, and who have far more interest than the Superintendent can
THE BOARD OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION for this County have in the consequences resulting froin their compliance or non
1 bas appointed the following named places for the Examination of compliance with its unquestionable requirements. Trustees should Common School Teachers :also be careful how they involve themselves by assuming responsi
1. The CITY OF TORONTO-in the Court House, at 9 A.M., on Tuesday, the 18th March
next. Examining Committee-The Chairman, the Rev. Messrs. Grasett and Roal, bilities to parties on whose behalf, without a certificate, they cannot
and G. A. Barber, Esq., City Superintendent. claim a penny of the school fund." See the appeal to second and 2. BRAMPTON-At 9 A.M., on Tuesday, the 11th March. Examining Committee-The third class teachers on the 21st page.
Superintendents, Rev. Mr. McGeorge, A. Simpson, and Dr. Crumbie. 3. Duffin's Creek—Tuesday, March 18th, at 9 A. M. Eramining Committee-The
Superintendent, Dr. Foote, Messrs. Aonis, and W. B. Warren.
4. NEWMARKET_Tuesday, the 18th March, at 9 A.M. Examining Committee-The To Local SUPERINTENDENTS.--We would respectfully suggest
Superintendent of the first Circuit, Messrs. Smith and Hartman. to local Superintendents the propriety of folding their Annual Reports
J. JENNINGS, Office of Board of Public Instruction,
CRAIRXAN. to the Chief Superintendent of Schools in the forın of a letter, and
18th February, 1851. 3 transmitting them without a cover. Several Reports have been received at the Education Office enclosed in heavy or coorse brown W ANTED, a situation as a Common School Teacher, in any paper--the postage on which, has unnecessarily amounted to seve
part of Canada West. Has been trained in the Normal and Model
Schools, Dublin ; also, in the Toronto Normal School; and can produce a ral shillings, We hope local Superintendents will add up each
First Class Certificate from the Board of Exaininers for the County of York, column in their Reports, as intimated last month. They might also, -having bad six years experience as a Teacher, under the Board of National in a separate column, insert the number of free schools in operation
Education in Ireland, and two years and a half subsequently in this city.
Communications to be addressed to John TAFFE, Common School, No. in their township during 1850, with such remarks upon ihe opera 8, Toronto. tion of that system as may occur to them. In the next number of
February, 1851. the Journal, we hope to be able to give such extracts from local Superintendent's reports, referring to the subject, as may appear
W ANTED a Teacher, duly qualified to teach a Common School appropriate. Superintendents will please report the smaller towns
in the township of Whitby. Salary, at least, £50 Apply to Mr.
JAMES MITCHELL, Trustee, near the Plank Road, 4th Concession. and Incorporated Villages which may be within their jurisdiction
February, 1851. separately, in order that the apportionment of the Legislative school grant to those towns and villages can be made without unneces W ANTED a Teacher for School Section No. 1, township of sary trouble or delay.
V Scout. Salary £50-raised on the free school system. Apply, personally, to Mr. Levi Card.
Feb. 1851. SCHOOL REGISTERS.--The School Registers authorized and
TORONTO: Printed and Published by Thomas Hugh BENTLEY. required by law to be used in each Common School of Upper
TERMS: For a single copy, 5s. per annum ; not less than 8 copies, 4s. 44d, each, or Canada, are now ready for delivery at the Education Office, Toronto,
$7 for the 8; not less than 12 copies, 4s. 24. each, or 810 for the 12 ; 20 copies and up
wards, 3s, 9d. each. Back Vols. neatly stitched supplied on the same terms. All price, ls. 3d. each, or 12s. 6d. per dozen. These Registers are subscripcions to commence with the January number, and paymeut in advance must in designed to last for two years in a School with less than 50 pupils,
all cases accompany the order. Single numbers, 7 d. each.
All communications to be addressed to Mr. J. GEORGE Hodoins, and for one year in a school of less than 100 pupils. As the Act
Education Office, Toronto.
PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF A FEMALE SEMINARY IN THE CITY OF PROVIDENCE, RHODE ISLAND.
Designed for Forty Pupils, and under the management of Mr. Joun Kingsbury.
CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER.
PAGE, 1. What is a German University ? ......... II. Causes of Individual and National Enlightenment (continued) ...... 34 III. MISCELLANEOUS : 1. Great Men. 2. Poetry of Pope. 3. Extract from
em by N.P. Willis. Esa. 4. Absence of Courage in promotiug Edu-
Poetry. 15. Happiness, ....
2 Educational movements-State of New York. 3. Misapplication
40 V. Collateral advantages of a well organized System of Public Schools (com
United States, . .......
What is the rank of a German University? It is higher than that of our colleges; it is really a cluster of professional schools.
Does it admit all students that choose to come? And does it receive students not versed in Latin and Greek ? No, no, to both inquiries. Every student must have passed the severest examination before admission, and have attained a proficiency in Latin and Greek far beyond that of college graduates in the United States. The regular place of preparation is the Gymnasium, where all students go through a thorough course of classical study. “They are not only taught to read Greek and Latin with fluency, but to write them. They are moreover accustomed to speak the latter language with ease, in the latter part of their course to hold all their exercises in it.” [Dr. Robinson, in Bib. Repos. Vol. 1.] They undergo semi-annual examinations in the Gymnasium ; the last of which, designed to show whether they are fitted for the University, is very severe ; for three days they have to write exercises on questions proposed to them in history, the Greek and Latin languages, mathematics, besides themes in German, and in at least one foreign modern language-while locked up alone and without books. Oral questions are added.
A certificate of having creditably passed this examination is necessary to admit them to the University. Those who do not come from the Gymnasium are subjected to a similar examination before a commission appointed by Government. As the whole system is under the control of Government, the process is in all cases equally thorough. Foreign students, unless intending to hold employment in the state to which the University belongs, are indeed admitted to the lectures, but not to a membership of the University,
WHAT IS A GERMAN UNIVERSITY ? A popular notion seems to be that a German University is an institution to which a person may resort in almost any stage of study without previous examination, pursue any branch he chooses, to the entire neglect of the “dead languages," and quit at pleasure ; the whole being quite a cheap, almost a self-supporting institution, receiving students, to considerable extent, below the range of the college course. The German Universities are no such crude and heterogeneous systems.
wihout this certificate ; but such practical and powerful checks are
THOUGHTS ON THE CAUSES AND RESULTS OF IN. intentionally thrown around it by Government that the attempt thus DIVIDUAL AND NATIONAL ENLIGHTENMENT. to evade a regular course, says Dr. Robinson, never occurs among
(BY A CORRESPONDENT.] German students, and “ any erratic course of education is impossible," with those who aspire to any station of influence or emolument.
(Continued from Vol. III., Page 172.) If then the studies of the German University and their order were
While the external circumstances of life among which every one wholly optional, this, in the case of young men who have had the
necessarily exists, produce an increasing and unavoidable effect in training of the Gymnasia, (superior in some respects to that of our
moulding individual and national character; it is also obvious, that colleges,) and are now entering on their professional studies, would
the general tendencies of various nations are productive of marked be a very different affair from what it is to turn a band of untaught
results in the formation of character, aided by numerous physical boys into a college course, to cull out studies to their liking, or
causes, whose action may be traced through the history of races. according to their incompetent judgments.
The maritime pursuits and commercial character of a people are But are the studies of the University optional with the student ? usually the result of the physical features that mark the country An affirmative reply gives a very erroneous impression to the Amer they occupy; the simple quietness of agricultural pursuits usually ican student. Practically, to the great mass of students, they are
stamps the popular character with corresponding features, and the not. We have seen that it is not optional whether the student
harsh and stern, though often sublime scenery of a land of mountain have a thorough knowledge of the Latin and Greek languages in and of flood imparts to its possessors the bold and daring habits of order to enjoy the benefits of the University. When in the Univer
the huntsman and the warrior. Various races also often retain, sity, the student may take his own time, and, with some exceptions, apparently by hereditary descent, peculiar traits and tendencies his own order of studies ; he may, at his choice, extend his pursuit under great variations of external circumstances. A restless collaterally. But a certain prescribed course for each profession he
energy of purpose, and anxious desire for improvement, will urge to must attend, in order to be admitted to examination. That examina
perpetual change one body of colonists in a strange territory, while tion, too, is of the most rigid searching character ; and on his another similarly situated will plod through centuries of smiling passing it, his hopes for life depend. These courses, in the several
contentment without a thought of alteration. professions, are called Brod Collegia, because " a man's future bread
The question is not now, which will be the most happy or virdepends on having attended them.”
tuous ; .but which will have the better chance of obtaining the In practice there is therefore a necessity, and that of the sternest larger share of the general enlightenment making its unavoidable kind, imposed upon the great mass of students to pursue most
progress through the world. thoroughly a certain established routine according to its nature. In ancient times when the “people" did not exist, save as a As the University belongs to the Government, this necessity is
mass of human animals, to be driven to the farm, the forest, or the imposed, not through the laws of the University, but by its own
field of blood, at the pleasure of their owners, the idea of a direct direct requisitions in its various posts of honour and profit. It is
means of instruction, with a view to their elevation, intellectual or done thus:
political, could never have been thought of. Even the Spartans All stations of honour or emolument, all public employments in who certainly framed a system of popular education, had evidently church and state, from that of statesman down to that of village
in view the elevation of the state only, as a military or political teacher, are the gift of the Government. It thus holds almost every
power; the training afforded to the people was exclusively with a avenue to distinction and success.
view to the performance of certain duties wisely deemed effective in For these posts it rigidly prescribes its course of preparatory supporting the then existing state of things; the moral man was study. A man cannot be an officer of state, a teacher in a higher utterly neglected and even degraded, while the citizen was careinstitute, a physician, a lawyer, or a preacher, unless he has been at fully formed; personal character was altogether sacrificed to the a University. '“ This is a question which, if answered in the negative, upholding of a governmental machinery. precludes all other questions. The only exceptions are in the case Through the long gloom of the dark ages, the masses of the naof village schoolmasters, and the department of the mines ; for
tions of the earth, reared and matured under an atmosphere of disboth of which there are special seminaries, which take the place of cord, ignorance, and blood, could scarcely hope for aid in the path the University course." (Robinson.]—For each of these employ of intelligence, even if they knew its value ; but what will be said ments the student must study the prescribed course and sustain a to certain “ wealthy philosophers" of the nineteenth century, who severe examination; if he fails in examination, one more opportunity would still close up that path, as leading to mischief, when is allowed him, when, if he fails again, his hopes are at an end. As pressed by the foot of the artisan or the labourer ? That the igcomparatively few of the students can subsist on their own resources norant or depraved should neglect the offered advantage from its for life, but more than nine-tenths of them are looking to some
presumed expense in time or money, from a sluggish indifference to situation in the gift of the state, the extent of their option is this all improvement, or from that unhappy “let-well-enough-alone" study this course or starve. The stimulus has no parallel in this principle, that has chained so many of the sons of labour to the rock country. The Government prescribes even the time of study at the
of their fathers' ignoranoe, is not to be wondered at.' But that the University, four years for the profession of medicine, three years for educated man, the man of estate and standing, the patron of refinethe others.
ment and elegance, whose whole enjoyment and happiness are neIs the German University a cheap, self-supporting Institution ? cessarily, more than those of others, bound up with, and dependent No ; it is endowed with royal, and, in that country, almost incredible
on, the firmness and strength of the bands of social polity, that such munificence. The University of Berlin occupies an immense build
a one should cry down the truest and soundest means of upholding ing, formerly the palace of King Henry : has a large botanical
the fabric, might well be esteemed a prodigy past belief, were we garden, vast and expensive collections in the various departments
not well aware of the existence of such an anomaly. The opinions of Natural History, Anatɔmy, &c. ; has the use of the Royal Library
of such persons are utterly undeserving of refutation. Though of 400,000 volumes, and besides ample supplies for occasional wants, many, however, do not go to such extreme lengths, they are ret receives an annual appropriation of $60,000 from the Government.
perfectly apathetie on the subject. It is difficult to get the unenEvery thing is on a scale proportional. The University of Bonn
| lightened mass to weigh prospective benefits. They can see an and Halle each receive $56,000 annually from the state. Bonn also immediate result, but they cannot look forward. Laws must be occupies a palace, has its botanical garden, its Cabinets. Not to go
made to restrain the vicious, punishments inflicted to deter them, further into detail, some idea of a German University and the scale
and life and property must be protected. These are direct necession which it is conducted may be had from the single item of their
ties, and they can acknowledge the expediency of contributing to Libraries. That of Gottingen contains 360,000 volumes ; that of
the support of an expensive machinery to ensure the results on which Reslau, 250,000 ; that of Heidelberg, 200,000 ; Tubingen 200,000 :
social peace and comfort directly depend. Such are the means of Munich 200,000; Leipsic 112,000; Erlangen 100,000.
cure and they must be applied. But is the same care evinced as The above facts being drawn from the statements of Dr. Robinson regards the means of prevention ? Certainly not. It is only in the Biblical Repository, from the Bibliotheca Sacra, the Encyclope within the last half century that even the most enlightened statesdia Americana, and other authentic documents, may be relied upon. ! men appear to have thought the prevention of crime a principle de