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authoress, died rather suddenly at her residence, Yelverton-place, Twicken desire to send the articles which have been displayed in the Crystal Palace, ham, on Monday, the 22nd ult. This venerable lady was in the 77th year vessels are ready to take the same forth with. The duration of the Exhibiof her age....... A Druidical monument, consisting of the stone on which tion will be a period of four months.- N. Y. Com. Advertiser. human victims were offered up by the Gauls, has just been discovered near Magnetism.--Most extraordinary and inexplicable discoveries the forest of Lucheur. It is about 7 feet long, 14 feet wide, and a foot and

have been made, and are making, as experimeois irrefragibly prove, in a half ubick. The hollow destined to receive the blood is about nine inches

regard to magnetism. They have been perforined in Brighton, to the entire deep, and eighteen in superficial extent. The stone has been raised with

conviction of persons of the highest science, both Foreigners and British, out any fracture...... A map of France, which was begun in 1817, is not

and are yet altogether so incredible that we almost fear to allude to them as yet finished. It is to contain 258 sheets, of which 149 are already published.

rpalines. They will, however, come before the Royal Society, at its earThere yet remains five years' work in surveying and viue years' work in

liest re-assembling, and be stated in all their details. Meanwhile, what engraving to be done. The total cost will exceed £400,000 sterling. Up

will our readers, and especially our scientific readers, think of the fact, that to this line 2,219 staff officers have been employed in the work....... the magnetic force runs in transverse directions, as it may be employed by A Spanish journal contains the following singular summary : “There are

the male or female sex ; that is to say, that if in ibe hands of a male opera3064 languages spoken throughout the world --587 in Europe, 737 in Asia,

for it proceeded from east to west, or west to east, the same current in the 276 in Africa, and 1264 in America. The number of males is nearly equal

bands of a female operator would immediately change to fiom norih to south, to females. The average of human life is 33 years; a fourth of the popu

or south to north, and cut the former line at about right angles. Thus mag. lation die before the age of four years, the half before that of 17 years ; such netism is shown to derive different influences from the two sexes ! Bur this as survive these periods enjoy a measure of health which is denied to the is not all. A letter written by a woman, weeks before, produces an effect other half of the human race."

upon the current of a like peculiar nature. And again, any part of a dead The Great Exhibilion.—The following statistics of the Great aninal, as the horn of a deer, a bit of ivory, and a dead fly held in the hand Exhibition will, we doubt not, be found interesting:- The income of the

of any individual in contact, stops the inagnetic action, which silk, the establishinent has been as follows up to the present dale:- Public subscrip

material from living worms, does not interrupt. In fine, there are wonders rions, £64,344; privilege of printing, £3,200; privilege of supplying refresh

the most astonishing in store ; and it does seem that we are, indeed, on the ments, £5,500; amount received for season tickets up to first May, £10,

eve of what has for some time been prophesied, viz., penetrating deeply into 010; Royalty of 20 per copy on catalogues-Total funds in hand on the 1st

the profoundest secrets and mysteries of this pervading agent in the whole of May, £113,044. Amount received at the doors up to August 30, £252,

economy of the universe, the globe we inhabit, and the human kind! It i 141 9s. 6d. ; ditto up to the end of September, £62,007 128.; ditto up to

stated that a gentleman in Newport, Ky., is perfecting an application o Saturday, October 4, £12,128 Os. 6d. Grand total, £439,321 28. The

electricity for propelling a box containing letters over wires from place to liabilities incurred, so far as they have been at present ascertained, are as

place, on the telegraphic principle. The experiment over wires of 600 follows:-To Messrs. Fox and Henderson for the building, £79,800; to

yards in length, has, it is said, worked well. Messrs. Munday for rescinding of contract, £5,000; extra galleries, coun Library Catalogue.-The Library of the Paris Observatory has ters, and fittings, £35,000 ; management, including printing, &c., up to just received a valuable addition to its scientific catalogue. When Laland, May 1, £20,943 ; police force, £10,000; prize fund, £20,000, Total, the French astronomer, died in 1807, he left a vast number of manuscripts £170,743 It is understood that the royalty to be paid by the Messrs. to be divided among his numerous heirs. One of his descendants, an officer Spicer and Clowes will not be enforced, in consequence of the sale of cata in the army, has been for a long time engaged in attempting to get these logues not having been as profitable as was anticipated. The expenses of

manuscripts together again. In this attempt he has at last succeeded, and management, gas, water, &e., will probably amount to £50,000, and the

has made a present of the whole, forming thirty-six volumes, to M. Arago. sum likely to be recejved this week for adnjission will be at least £20,000.

The latter, fearing that they might again becoine separated, has, in his turn, This would bring the total income up to £460,000, and the total liabilities

caused them to be deposited at the Observatory. to about £:320,000, leaving the very handsome balance in hand of £240,000), or nearly a quarter of a million sterling. The total number of visitors was

The Imperial Geographical Society of St. Petersburg, which 5,547,238.

recently sent an expedition in search of the Nile, has set about the preparaAwards at the Great Industrial Exhibition.--Of the 17,000 ex

tion of a new mission to explore the peninsula of Kamschatka and other

Russian possessions in the Pacific Ocean. This latter expedition is to be hibitors in the Crystal Palace, 170 received first class or council medals;

placed under the direction of a young Polish geographer, the Count de 2918 received second class or prize medals; and 1912 “honourable men

Czapski, who has volunteered to contribute an annual sum of 5,000 silver tion.” Of this number the United States exhibitors received 5 council

rubles ($4,000) towards its cost, medals, 75 prize medals, and 47 honourable mentions. The list of awards

The Bamboo. occupies twenty-four columns of the London Times.

There is no plant in Bengal that is applied to

such a variety of useful purposes as the bamboo. Besides being employed Catalogue of the Great Exhibition.-Some curious statistics

in the coustruction of the implements of weaving, it is used for almost every connected with the preparation of the catalogue of the World's Fair, are

conceivable purpose to which wood is applied in other countries. It forms given in Dickeps's best vein, in the Household Words. The article is

the posts and frames of the roofs of huts; scaffoldings for building houses ; entitled " The Catalogue's Account of itself.” Denuded of the adornments

portable stages used in the various processions of the natives: raised floors, with which the author has embellished his account, the following are some

for storing rice and various kinds of agricultural produce, in order to preof the principal facts he communicates. Fifteen thousand persoas had to

serve them from damp; platforms for merchandise in warehouses and shops; be written to for the modicum of "copy" for the catalogue, or a descrip

stakes for nets in rivers; bars, over which nets and clothes are spread to tion of what each was about to send to the Exhibition, Fifty thousand

dry; rafts; the masts, yards, oars, spars, and decks of boats. It is used printed circulars were sent out. The catalogue, the labour upon which was

in the construction of bridges across creeks ; for fences around houses and commenced in January, 1851, was classified, made up, printed and bound

gardens; as a lever in raising water for irrigation ; and as flag poles in in four days. The first perfect impression was only produced at 10 o'clock

bazaars, police stations, akbaras, ac. It is the material of which several on the night preceding the Exhibition, yet 10,000 bound copies were punc

agriculıural implements are made, as the harrow, and handles of hoes, clod tually delivered at the Crystal Palace on the following morning. The

breakers, &c. Hackeries or carts, doolees or litters, and biers are all made two copies presented to the Queen and Prince Albert, on that morning,

of it. The common mode of carrying light goods is to suspend them from bound in morocco, lined with silk, and gilt-edged, were bound, lined and

the ends of a piece of splint bamboo laid across the shoulder. The shalts gilded in six hours. Of the “ Official" catalogue 250,000 copies have been

of juvelins or spears, and bows and arrows, clubs, fishing rods, &c., are printed, consuming 105 tons of paper, the duly upon which was one thou

formed of it. It is employed in the manufacture of fire-works, as rockets, sand four hundred and seventy pounds sterling. Besides these, 5010 pages &c. A joint of it serves as an holder for various articles, as pens, small of lists, other catalogues, reports, &c., were printed. The weight of type instruments, and tools, and as a case in which things of little bulk are sent thus employed was 52,000 pounds.

to a distance. The eggs of the silk worm were ihus brought from China Mr. Fox of the firm of Messrs. Fox, Henderson and Co., the to Constantinople in the time of Justinian. A joint of it also answers the contractors for building the Crystal Palace, Mr. Paxton, the designer, and

purpose of a bottle, and is used for holding milk, oil, and various fluids ; Mr. Cubitt, the engineer, have had confered upon them the order of knight

and a section of it constitutes the measure for liquids in bazaars. A piece

of it, of small diameter, is used as a blow pipe, to kindle the fire, and by hood.

gold and silversmiths in melting metals. It also supplies the place of a tube The American and Austrian Commissioners have notified the

in a distilling appajatus. A clest bamboo is employed as a conduit for public that another edition of the Crystal Palace project will be published

conveying water from the roofs of huts. Split into small pieces, it is used in the commercial emporium of the new world. They say, as tbe Exhibi. for making baskets, coops for poultry, bird cages, and various traps for bition will open on the 15th of April, all goods must be in New York by | fishing. A small.bit of it, split at one end, serves as a longs to take up The 1st of March next, and for the convenience of those exhibitors who I burning charcoal; and a thiu slip of it is sharp enough to be used as a knife

in shelling betel nuts, &c. Its surface is so hard, that it answers the pur. them, which I calculated to be about 2,000 feet above the level of the sea. pose of a whetstone, upon which the ryots sharpen their bill-hooks, I had a treme:dous scramble at one place, having to surmount an almost sickles, &c.

perpendicular precipice of about 1,200 feet. I was amply rewarded for my The Palo de Vaca, or Cow-Tree, of Brazil This is one of

trouble, however, by the number of new plants which I fouud beside the

glacier.” It may be remembered that Mr. Dawin noticed the curious phe. the most ren.arkable rees in the forests of Brazil. During several months in the year when no rain falls, and its branches are dead and dried up, if

nomena of glaciers descending to the level of the sea in the Gulf of Penas,

on the similarly mountainous and stormy west coast of Patagonia ; (lai. the trunk be tapped, a sweet and nutritious milk exudes. The flow is

48 deg S. ;) and no one can compare the opposite east and west coasts of most abundant at sunrise. Then, the natives receive the milk into large

Scotland, Ireland, Norway and Sweden, South America, and Tasmania, vessels, which soon grows yellow and thickens on the surface. Some drink

respectively, with those of the New Zealand Islands, without being struck plentifully of it under the tree, others take it home to their children. One

with the similarity of their prominent features. The eastern side in all might imagine he saw a shepherd distributing the milk of his finck. It is used in tea and coffee, in place of common milk. The cow-tree is one of

these cases is tolerably continuous in outline, flatter, drier, and morel the largest in the Brazilian forests, and is used in ship-building.

sunny; while the western, which is the windward, is, on the contrary, Antiquariun Exploring Missions.—The French government has

indented by fingering fiords, running deep into the heart of the country,

which is mountainous, perennially humid, foggy, rugged, and boisterous, lately made a literary acquisition of no ordinary value. A French gen

more uni orm in temperature, and rarely visited by the sun's rays.-Literutleman, M. Perret, has been engaged for six years in exploring the catacombs under Rome, and copying with the most scrupulous fidelity the

ty Gazette. remains of ancient art which are hidden in those extraordinary chambers. Assyrian Discoveries--Departure of Colonel Rawlinson. --We Under the authority of the Papal Government, and assisted by M. Petit, an are glad to hear that the Lords of the Treasury have at length consented accomplished French artist, M. Perret has explored the whole of the sixty to advance to Colonel Rawlinson the sum of £1,500, to enable him to concatacombs, together with the connecting galleries. “Burying himself for ringe his explorations and exhumations in Assyria. We may doubt if this five years in this subterranean city, he has thoroughly examined every part | step would have been eveu thus tardily taken, but that the value of the disof it, in spite of difficulties and perils of the gravest character; for exam coveries has been so recently exemplified by Colonel Rawlinson, in relaple, the refusal of his guides to accompany him; dangers resulting from tion to the history of Hezekiah and Sennacherib. The grant, 100, is small, the intricacy of the passages; from the necessity for clearing away compared with tie sums and means devoted to a similar purpose in the through galleries choked up with earth, which fell in from above almost as

same country by the French Government; it is only very recently that a fast as it was removed; hazards arising from the difficulty of damming up

new expedition of several ships, with abundant appliances, set sail from streams of water which ran in upon them from above, and from the foulness

one of the French ports. Colonel Rawlinson is to proceed immediately to of the air and consequent difficulty of breathing and preserving light in the

Bagdad, where he is the resident of the East India Company, and from lower chambers, all these and many other perils have been overcome by

thence he will go to any quarter where his directions may be needed, and the perseverance of M. Perret, and he has returned to France with a col.

where the best promises of future discoveries may be held out. He will lection of drawings which extends to three hundred and sixty sheets in

also keep open the works already commenced, but he is to act entirely inJarge folio, ol which one hundred and fifty-four sheets contain representations

dependently of Mr. Layard. of frescoes ; sixty-five of monuments ; twenty-three of paintings on glasg -medallions inserted in the walls and at the bottom of vases--containing

Lithography, The Art of Prinling from Stone.--The process eighty-six subjects; forty-one drawings of lamps, vases, rings, and instru

of Lithographing is based upon the fact, that printing ink, being largely ments of martyrdom to the number of more than one one hundred subjects; composed of oil, will not adhere to any surface which is wet with water. and finally ninety contain copies of more than five hundred sepulchral Every one knows how utterly impossible it is to mix oil and water. To inscriprions. Of the one hundred and fifty drawings of frescoes, two-thirds. lithograph, then, all that is necessary, is to draw on the surface of a dry are inedited, and a considerable number have been only lately discovered slab of stone, with a greasy crayon, whatever is desired to be printed. A Amongst the latter are the paintings on the celebrated wells of Platonia, weak solution of nitric acid is then rubbed over the stone, which fastens said to have been the place of interment, for a certain period, of St. Peter

the drawing so that it cannot be rubbed off. After this, a solution of gum and St. Paul. This spot was ornamented with frescoes by order of Pope arabic is passed over the surface, and then the stone is ready for printing. Damascus, about A. D. 365, and has ever since remained closed up. Upon By means of a sponge, water is now rubbed on the stone, and while yet opening the empty tomb, by permission of the Roman Government, M. | wet the inking roller is applied. The ink of course adheres to the lines of Perret discovered fresco paintings representing the Saviour and the’apostles, I the drawing, because they are oily, but to the wet stone it does not stick. and two coffios (tonubeaux) of Parian marble. Oa the return of M. Perret The paper is now laid on, and with the stone passed through the press : the 10 France, the Minister of the Interior (M. Leon Faucher) entered into result being a beautiful and exact copy of whatever is drawn. The stone treaty with him for the acquisition of his collection for the nation. The employed for lithography, is of a peculiar kind of lime and clay nature, repurchase has been arranged, and the necessary amount, upwards of £7,500 sembling in appearance a smoo.h yellow hone, yet possessing the quality obtained by a special vote of the National Assembly. The drawings will of absorbing water. It is found chiefly in Bavaria, though there are quarries be published by the French Government in a style commensurate with their of it in England. The Bavarian stones, however, are those most univerhigh importance, both as works of art, and as invaluable monuments of sally employed, and their importation is a considerable object in commerce. Christian antiquity.

They are worth, in New York, from 5 to 10 cents per pound.-IN. Y. Sun. Discovery of Glaciers in New Zealand. The following ac

WILLIAM HODGINS, count of the discovery of glaciers at an elevation of 2,000 feet, at Millord

ARCHITECT AND CIVIL ENGINEER. Haven, west coast of the Middle Island, New Zealand. is from a letter re

KING STREET, TORONTO, ceived from Dr. Lyall, Surgeon of H. M. steam.vessel, Acheron, Captain

DIRECTLY OPPOSITE THE ARCADE, ST. LAWRENCE RALI, Stokes, employed surveying the coasts in that locality. The writer is

TTAVING devoted much attention to the study of SCHOOL known to most of our readers as a zealous naturalist, who accompanied

I ARCHITECTURE, offers his services to School Authorities throughout Sir James Clark Ross during his three adventurous south polar expedi the Province, in preparing Designs, with detailed Plans and Specifications tions:-"Milford Haven, New Zealand, 13th March, 1851. Since my last of Grammar and Common Schools, and their appendages, so as to meet the date we have been in two or three sounds, where the water was so deep requirements of the present improved system of Education.

* Reference kindly permitted

Chief Superintendent of Schools, that we had to let go the anchor close to the shore, and then make fast to

and the officers of the Elucational Depırtment. the trees by hawsers. We spent about a fortnight in the celebrated Dusky Bay, of Cook. The harbour we are now in is one of the most re W ANTED, a competent Head Master to take charge of the

VV Union School in this Town-to be opened on the 1st of January markable I have ever seen. It is about nine or ten miles deep, and not

next. Also, a Second Male Teacher and two Female Teachers for the above a mile or two across at the widest part. The entrance is narrow,

same. Liberal salaries will be given. and immediately on entericg you have precipices of three thousand feet

Applications, accompanied with testimonials of character and qualificalowering right over head on both sides. As we went in, the engineers tions, and stating the amount of salary required, may be addressed to the

REV. 1. B. HOWARD could see the mountains on both sides at once, from the stokehole of the

Chairman, B. C. S. Trustees, Peterboro. steamer. I wish you were here to take some sketches of the scenery. The hills surrounding the harbour vary in height from upwards of 4,000 to near

TORONTO: Printed and Published by Thomas Hugh BENTLEY. 7,000 feet, and on many of them unbroken streams of water are seen, ori TERMS : For a single copy, 59. per annum ; not less than 8 copies, 4s. 4 d. each, or

87 for the 8; not less than 12 copies, 4s. 24. each, or $10 for the 12 ; 20 copies and upginating at a height of 4,000 or 5,000 feet. There is one large waterfall on

wards, 39, 9d. each. Back Vols. neatly stitched supplied on the same terms. AI the side of the sound 1,200 feet, and a fine one close to where the ship is, subscriptions to commence with the January number, and payinent in advance must in

all cases accompany the order. Single numbers, 7 d. each. between 400 and 500 feet. There are glaciers in the clefts near the tops of

All communications to be addressed to Mr. J. GEORGE HopGINS. some of the mountains. I succeeded yesterday in getting to the lowest of

Educalion Office, Toronto.

2 in.

[blocks in formation]




X. CIXDEX TO VOLUME IV., ............



educated freely; and those that do not wish to have education for

nothing, may pay for it if they please." This filled his school. 1. Systems of Education and their Founders, No. VI. Joseph Lancaster, ... 177 As the number of his pupils increased, a new schoolroom was II. Sketch of the late Rev. Dr. Lingord, ..............

... 178 providol, chiefly through the benevolent aid of the late Duke of III. Effect of the Great Exhibition in Sardinian Italy-Free Schools,.... ... 179

Bedford and Lord Somerville, “ who," says Lancaster, “ appeared IV. The Reward of Diligence, ..........

to be sont by Providence to open wide before me the portals of use. V. MISCELLANEOUS.-1. Lines by Milton in his old age (Poetry.) 2. The late Accident in the Ninth Ward School, City of New York. 3. Foundatiow

fulness for the good of the poor.” “ The children,” he adds, “ now and Source of National Greatness, ......... ................. 180

came in for education like flocks of sheep; and the number so VI. EDITORIAL.-Election of School Trustees--receiving of their Annual Report, greatly increased, as to place me in that state which is the mother

&c., 14th January, 1852, ........... ..................... 182 of invention. The old plan of education, in which I had been VII. EDUCATIONAL INTELLIGENCE.-1. Canada. 2. Nova Scotia. 3. British and

hitherto conversant, was daily proved inadequate to the purposes of Foreign. 4. United States, ..............................:

instruction on a large scale. În every respect I had to explore a VIII. LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE, ........................ IX. EDITORIAL AND OFFICIAL Norices. ADVERTISEMENTS, ..............

new and untrodden path. My continued endeavours have been happily crowned with success." Nothing can be more beautiful

than the account given of his position and character at this time. MODERN SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION AND THEIR

He was always domesticated with his pupils. In their play hours

he was their companion and their friend. He accompanied them FOUNDERS.

in bands of two, three, and (on one occasion) of five hundred at JOSEPH LANCASTER. BORN, 1778. DIED, 1838. Ætas 60 Years.

once, to the environs of London for amusement and instruction.

Nor did he care only for their intellectual necessities. Distress and, No. VI.

privation were abroad:-he raised contributions, went to market, and Joseph Lancaster was born in Kent Street, Southwark, on the between the intervals of school, presided at dinner with stxty or 27th of November, 1778. His father was a Chelsea pensioner, who eighty of the most noody of his floek. “The character of benohad served in the British army during the American war. To the factor he scarce thought about ; it was absorbed in that of teacher pious example and early instruction of his parents he always attri and friend. On Sunday evenings, he would have large companies buted, under the divine blessing, any acquaintance he possessed of pupils to tea, and after mutually enjoying a very pleasant interwith the power of religion. “My first impressions," he says, “ of course, would conclude with reading a portion of the sacred writhe beauty of the Christian religion were received from their in tings in a reverential manner. Some of the pupils would vary the structions." There is a touching beanty in his own account of exercise occasionally by reading select pieces of religious poetry, himself as a little child, retiring to a corner, repeating the name of and their teacher would at times add such advice and abservations, Jesus, and as often reverently bowing to it. "I seemed to feel." as the conduct of individuals, or the beauty and importance of the he says, " that it was the name of one I loved, and to whom my subject required. Is it any wonder that with pupils so trained, to heart performed reverence. I departed from my retirement, well whom so many endearing occasions presented, evidences should satisfied with what I had been doing, and I never remembered it abound of affection, docility and improvement! In them he had but with delight." This little incident was an epitome of the man, many ready co-operators, and, however incapable of forming designs, and, inconsistent as it may seem to be with his future religious pro- | never were agents more prompt aud willing to execute." These fession as a member of the society of Friends, it truly shadowed

were his best and most joyous days. forth the enthusiastic, not to say passionate feeling, which through He was now rapidly becoming an object of public attention. His life so eminently characterized him.

school-room was visited by “ forcign princes, ambassadors, peers, About this period, and that of his attaining the age of eighteen,

commoners, ladies of distinction, bishops and archbishops ;" his he seems to have been an assistant at two schools, one a boarding,

publications were passing rapidly through editions, each larger the other a day school ; and thus, as he afterwards states in a letter

than its predecessor ; his school, ably and zealously conducted by to Dr. Bell, he became acquainted with all the defects attendant on

youths trained under his own eye, and imbued with his own enthuthe old system of tuition in both kinds of schools. At eighteen he

siastic spirit, was forsaken for lectures in all the principal towns of commenced teaching on his own account in his father's house, and

the kingdom, in every part of which he was received with the most the following description of the undertaking, extracted from an old

marked and flattering attentions from all classes ; even the monreport of the Borough Road School, is from his own pen. It refers

arch did not disdain to admit him, uncovered, to his presence, but to the year 1798.

sustained, encouraged, and applauded him. This interview is too “ The undertaking was begun under the hospitable roof of an

characteristic to be omitted.

“On entering the royal presence, the king said : Lancaster, I affectionate parent : my father gave the school-room rent free, and

have sent for you to give me an account of your System of Eduaf er fitting up the forms and desks myself, I had the pleasure, be

cation, which I hear has met with opposition. One master teach fore I was eighteen, of having nearly ninety children under instruo

five hundred children at the same time! How do you keep them tion, many of whom I educated free of expense. As the number

in order Lancaster ? Lancaster replied, “ Please thy majesty, by of scholars continued to increase, I soon had occasion to rent larger premises."

the same principle thy majesty's army is kept in order by the word

of command. His majesty replied, 'Good, good ; it does not reOn the outside of his schoolroom be placed the following printod quire an aged general to give the command-one of younger yoars notice :-"All that will may send their children and have them can do it.' Lancaster observed, that, in his schools, the teaching

branch was performed by youths who acted as young monitors. settle in Canada. This was in 1829. But after a time, and proThe king assented, and said, "Good.' Lancaster then described bably through his own folly, he again sank, and then opened a prihis system; and ho informed me that they all paid great attention, vate school for subsistence. and were highly delighted ; and as soon as he had finished, his But his career was rapidly drawing to a close. He had fully majesty said : Lancaster, I highly approve of your system, and it rosolved on a voyage to England ; but about a week before the is my wish that every pour child in my dominions should be taught affecting accident occurred which occasioned his death, he expressed to read the Bible ; I will do anything you wish to promote this ob some doubts on the subject, saying, “He knew not the reason, but jeot, Please thy majesty,' said Lancaster, if the system meets he could not see his way clear in leaving America." thy majesty's approbation, I can go through the country and lecture On the 23d of Octobər, 1838, he was run over in the streets of on the system, and have no doubt, that in a few months, I shall be New York ; his ribs were broken, and his head very much lacerated. able to give thy majesty an accouut where ton thousand poor chil. He was iminediately taken to the house of a friend, where he died drou are being educated, and some of my youths instructing them." without a struggle, in the sixty-first year of his age.” His majesty immediately replied : 'Lancaster, I will subscribe £100 annually ; and,' addressing the queen, you shall subscribe £50,

THE LATE REV. DR. LINGARD. Charlotte ; and the princesses, £25 each ; and then added, Lan

The biography of a man of letters, whose hours have been chiefly caster, you may have the money directly. Lancaster observed :

spent in his study, can only be satisfactorily written by one who * Please thy majesty, that will be setting thy nobles a good exam

has been admitted into an intimacy of friendship with him. Such ple.' The royal party appeared to smile at this observativn; but

biographies are sometimes extremely interesting. The projects of the queen observed to his majesty, “How cruel it is that enemies

the author-probably dwelt upon for years of works which he may should be found who endeavour to hinder his progress iu so good a

not have lived to accomplish; his predilections, his prejudices, his work.' To which the king replied ; Charlotte, a good man seks

tastes, his manner, his social peculiarities,—the delineation of these, his reward in the world to come." Joseph then withdrew."

when the picture is carnestly and graphically executed by one who Being imprudent in money matters he was arrested for debt. A

I know, and reverenced, and had a warm affection for the subject of friendly docket was struck against him, and his creditors were called

it, has frequently a charm which he looks for in vain in more ex together. The result was, that in 1808 his affairs were transferred

citing narratives. to trustees -a fixed sum was allowed for his private expenses-a

Such a biography of Dr. Lingard we aro rejoiced to have reason oorrect account of all receipts and expenditures was for the first

to anticipate from the pen of the Rev. Mr. Tierney. This gentletime kept ; and shortly after an association was formed, originally

man has already distinguished himself in literature He is favourentitled “the Royal Lancasterian Institution for promoting the Edu

ably known to the world as the learned editor of Dodd's * Ecclesication of the Children of the Poor," and subsequently, for the sake

astical History," and his elaborate work, “The History and Antiof greater simplicity, comprehension, and brevity-the BRITISH AND

quities of the Castle and Town of Arundel,” displays great and FOREIGN SCHOOL SOCIETY.

painful research, which has had its reward in the production of very Lancaster's affairs were indeed transferred to trustees, but the

curious and interesting matter. But, perhaps, the best guarantee man remained unchanged. He was still the victim of his impulses.

of Mr. Tierney's ability, as certainly it is his best title, to write a The excitement of his mind never subsided. The repression of

life of the late Dr. Lingard, resides in the fact that he was honoured his extravagance was to him an intolerable interferenco. One by

with the friendship of that illustrious historian. If we remember one he quarrelled with his friends; then separated himself from the

the great work on which his fame is firmly established, we shall institution he had founded ; commenced a private boarding school

not be accused, when we employ the word “illustrious,' of using at Tooting ; became still more deeply involved ; went through tho

| the language of hyperbole. Gazette ; and finally, wearied with strife and sorrow, sailed in the John Lingard was a native of Winchester, and was born on the year 1818 for the new world.

5th February, 1771. Whilst yet a child in the Catholic congregaOn his arrival in the States he was everywhere welcomed and

tion at Winchester, the piety of his disposition, and the quickness of honored as the friend of learning and of man. His lectures were his abilities fell under the observation of the celebrated Dr. Milner, numerously attended, and, for a time, all appeared to go well with who conceived such hopes of him, that he sent him to the secular him. But his popularity rapidly decayed. Rumors of debt and

college at Douay. He was in the third year of his divinity at that of discreditable pecuniary transactions in England, soon followed

seminary, when, in October, 1793, the first French revolution broke him ; sickness, severe and long continued, wasted his family ; and out. The dangers which threatened so many at that perilous period poverty, with her long train of ills, overtook him. Under these cir

did not altogother pass him by, as we learu from the following cumstancos he was advised to try a warmer climate, and an open

anecdote, which he was accustomed to relate to his friends, and ing having presented itself in Caraccas, he was assisted by his

which we have borrowed from a contemporary:-On one occasion, friends to proceed thither. He went with his son-in-law and

when the disaffoction of the populace had risen to such a degree daughter, (who afterwards settled in Mexico,) and, to use his own

that the military were under arms in the streets, the young Lingard words, “was kindly received-promised great things, honored with

was looking out, when he observed an orderly ride rapidly up to the the performance of little ones," and after expressing, in no mea

commanding officer, and in a few moments every trooper vaulted sured terms, his indignation at the breach of all the promises mado into his saddle. Shortly after came a counter order. The authoto him—was glad to leave his family, and escapo with his life.

rity of the “ sovereign peoplo" was declared, and a Mons. de Baix, This was accomplished by a hasty fight into the interior, from

who had rendered himself obnoxious, was hurried amid yells and whence he subsequently reached the sea shore, and embarked in a

execrations a la lanterne. The student knew this gentleman, and British vessel bound for St. Thomas.

penetrated the crowd to inquire the cause of his summary punishAfter a short stay at Santa Cruz and St. Thomas, we here again

ment; when, his dress attracting attention, he heard the cry of “ LA his lectures were attended by the governor and the gentry of the

Calote," and presently, “ Le Calotin a la lanterne !" He took to island, he returned to Philadelphia. Again sickness overtook him,

his heels, darted down a narrow lane, and, thanks to his fleetness of and poverty, and much sorrow. In miserable lodgings, with an ap

foot, our eminent historian escaped. On another occasion he was parently dying wife, pinched by want, and pressed hard by difficul

compelled to sing the “ Ca iro," with a bayonet at his breast. The ties of every kind, he appealed to the benevolent, and in addition

young divine left the town before his superiors, and the majority of to other aid, obtained a vote of 500 dollars from the corporation of

the students were hurried away to Escherqnin. New York. This enabled him to take a small house, and to recover

Early in 1795, when the community fund means to return to strength,

their native country, several of the members established themselves at He now determined to return to England, and all but agreed for Old Hall Green, near St. Edmund's, Herts, whore Dr. Douglass, Vicar his passage, when circumstano-s induced him to return through A postolic of the London district, had secured them a residence under Canada. On his arrival at Montreal he commenced his lectures, the Rev. Dr. John Daniel, their old superior ; whilst others repaired and again for a time floated along the stream of popular favor. The to Crooke Hall, near Durham, where Dr. Gibson, Vicar Apostolic of Parliament of Lower Canada voted him several grants for educa the Northern district, and the sixteenth president of Douay College tional purposes. His worldly circumstances improved, and he de- before his promotion to the episcopacy, had provided them an asylum. termined to give up the thought of returning to England, and to | Amongst there was the subject of our memoir, and it was here that

In his preface, Dr. Lingard says, “It is long since I disclaimed any pretensions to that which has been called the philosophy of history, but might with more propriety be termed the philosophy of romance. Novelists, speculatists, and philosophists, always assumo the privilege of being acquainted with the secret motives of those whose conduct and characters they describe ; but writers of history know nothing moro respecting motives than the littlo which their authorities have disclosed, or the facts necessarily suggest. If they indulge in fanciful conjectures, if they profess to detect the bidden springs of every action, the origin and consequences of every event, they may display acuteness of investigation, profound knowledge of the buman heart, and great ingenuity of invention ; but no reliance can be placed on the fidelity of their statements. In their eagernoss they are apt to measure fact and theory by the same vi-ionary standard ; they dispute or overlook every adverse or troublesome auihority, and then borrow from imagination whatever may be want. ing for the support or embellishment of their new doctrine. They come before us as philosophers who undertake to teach from the records of history; they are in reality literary empirics, who disfiguro history to make it accord with their philosophy. Nor do I hesitate to proclaim my belief that no writers have proved more successful in the perversion of historic truth than speculativo and philosophical historians."

We cannot do better than close this short paper with a passage of such masterly sense and manly eloquence.-Bentley's Miscellany.

he completed his course of divinity, and received holy orders. It was now that his ability for teaching the higher studies of philosophy and divinity wore to be tested, and the singular efficiency he displayed obtained for him the appointment of vice-president.

Notwithstanding his arduous avocations, the activo mind of Dr. Lingard employed itself upon the development of our Anglo-Saxon forofathers, and the result of his extensive and laburious rescaches was his "History and Antiquities of the Anglo-Saxon Church," which was given to the world in 1906, from the Newcastle press, and which was published in two octavo volumes. This work reached a second edition in 1810, and a third cdition was published in 1846, by Mr. Dolman.

The agitation of the Catholic question gave full activity to Dr. Lingard's pen. In 1807 he published in tho Newcastle Courant a series of letters on Roman Catholic loyalty; and his tracts on the Charges of Dr. Shute Barrington, the Bishop of Durham, and his replies, amongst others, to Dr. Philpotts (now Bishop of Exeter), with his reviews of Protestant, or Anti-Catholic, publications by Dr. Huntingford, Bishop of Gloucester, by Dr. Tomline, and by Kenyon, were read extensively at the time.

But the great work of Dr. Lingard, and by which his name will be familiarly known to posterity, is his “History of England, from the first invasion by the Romans to the accession of William and Mary in 1688." The first two volumes of this work were published in 1819, and it was completed a few years later. It was materially altered, improved, and enlarged as it passed through three editions, but the best edition is the last, which was published by Dolman, in the winter of 1849, and is in ten octavo volumes. .

For the last forty years of his life Dr. Lingard held the small preferment belonging to the Roman Catholic Church in the village of Hornby, near Lancaster, where, on the 17th of July of the present year, after a lingering illness, he breathed his last, at the age of eighty years.

Dr. Lingard's private virtues were worthy of his eminent abilities. His habits were attractively simple, his disposition was affectionate, and his nature most benevolent. Many profitable hours might of course be passed in the society of a man of such varied knowledge ; but many pleasant hours were likewise spent by those who had the happiness of his acquaintance, for his fund of anecdote was inexhaustible, and his conversation at all times pervaded by pleasantry and good humour.

The house in which Dr. Lingard lived for so many years was a most unpretending residence, having a small chapel behind it, a. door of communication opening into it from the house. In his garden, which was a long strip taken off a small grass field, he passed much of his time. It was the chief rocreation of his leisure to attend to bis fruit trees, wbich were trained and pruned by his own hand. His garden was the burial-place of his favourites,-l is spaniel Ætna, his cat, his tortoise, and his horse, which last was laid beneath the shade of a flourishing oak tree, reared from an acorn brought by himself from the shores of the Lake of Thrasymene in 1817. Over the grave of “ Ætna," his faithful companion of many years, the doctor, it is said, has been seen to stand until his eyes were suffused with tears, and he would exclaim, “Ah, poor Etty !" No anecdotes are trivial when, as in this instance, they display so clearly the nature of the man.

We have now to speak, which we must do very briefly, of the works of Dr. Lingard. The “ History of the Anglo-Saxon Church” is, undoubtedly, the fruit of great labour and research, containing a vast amount of most curicus information which had lain buried for centuries. Others have since laboured in this field, or rather, worked in this mine, but they have added little to the mass which had been accumulated by the patient assiduity of our author.

To Lingard's “ History of England" too much praiso cannot be awarded ; and it has already had no ordinary share. It is, unquestionably, the very best, not only because it is the most impartial, but because it is the fullest and the completest history of this country that has ever been given to the world. As o mere writer, Lingard is certainly not equal to Hume, whose style, so easy, so simple, so indiomatic, is inimitable, and perhaps hardly to be excelled ; but it is small praise of Dr. Lingard, that in all the higher qualities of an historian, in his “knowledge of the spirit of antiquity, in exactness and circumstanciality of narration," he is immeasurably superior to the great Scotchman.


MENT IN FAVOUR OF FREE SCHOOLS. The Genoese correspondent of the Newark Daily Advertiser speaks thus of the effect of the Industrial Exhibition upon the interests of popular education in Southern Europe. He remarks:The London Exposition has produced a sensible effect upon the public mind in this comparatively free country, which was probably more numerously represented in London during the exhibition than any other on the continent, except France. I learn from an official source that over 2000 passports for London were issued at the Foreign Office in Turin during the last two months of that great fair. Every town and settlenient of the country had it representatives there, and the effect has been an awakening of public attention to the importance of giving new energies to home industry—the essential condition of national independence and prosperity.

One of the fruits of this awakening is the organization of a “National Society of Workmen for mutuul Aid and Instruction." This association was inaugurated in the capital (Turin) on the 19th inel., with great solemnity. The Mayor and municipal authorities attended in official costume, and many manufacturers of high standing gave the sanction of their presence. After the ceremonies of the inauguration, a procession with music and banners, and an address by Mr. Brofferio), an eminent member of the Sardinian bar, who is also a member of the popular branch of the Parliament, the whole Association with its distinguished guests, participated in a rural feast. Upwards of 3000 members were present, including 35 deputations from auxiliary associations in different parts of the kingdom. This is believed to be the first association of mechanics and workingmen ever formed in Southern Europe, and such an institution could not be tolerated in any other country this side the Alps. The augury is for good. It is but the beginning of the end.

The friends of education are also moving under the inspiration of the new light that is breaking upon the country, and a large deputation has gone from this city to meet a “ Congress of Educators and the Friends of Free Instruction," in one of the Palaces of the King at Alexandria, which has been liberally offered for its use by the King himself.

THE REWARD OF DILIGENCE —“Seest thou a man diligent in his business ?" says Solomon, " he shall stand before kings." We have a striking illustration of this aphorism in the life of Dr. Franklin, who, quoting the sentence himself, adds, “ This is true; I have stood in the presence of five kings, and once had the honour of dining with one." All in consequence of his having been “diligent in business" from his earliest years. What a lesson is this for our youth, and for us all!

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