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Fliterary and Scientific Entelligence.
and London, are examples. From the Picton Sun we learn that Dr. Whitley's lectures on Education, as local Superintendent, are creating some interest in his township. flis re-appointment is hailed with much pleasure. --The examination of the Carleton, Leeds and Grenville, and Wentworth and Halton County Grammar Schools are reported as highly satisfactory. - The Rev. Alexander Luke, of the Prescott Grammar School, has been lately presented by his pupils “with a beautiful and costly pencil case with a gold pen, as a token of their high regard for him." How grateful to a Teacher must be such a tribute of esteem and affection on the part of his pupils!--The examination of Mr. D. Watson's school, London, C. W., on the 24th Dec., exhibited the result of much solicitude on the part of the Teacher, and proficiency on the part of the pupils. - John Kirkland, Esq. local Superintendent at Guelph, is writing an excellent series of articles for the serious consideration of persons at the Annual School Meetings.
Various papers in the Province extract liberally from our Educational and Literary Summaries without the slightest acknowledgment !
New Professorships, Toronto University.-A Lectureship on Hebrew and Oriental Literature has been established in the Toronto University, and Mr. J. M. Airschfelder, so well known amongst us for some years past, has been appointed to the office. This appointment bas given general satisfaction. An important bul is now be ore the Senate of the University, for the establishinent of a Professorship of Agriculture, and an Experimental School, in connection with the Provincial Board of Agriculiure. It is supposed that the fees in the several University Classes will be reduced, and means will be taken to increase the number and value of the Prizes.-(Patriot.
Education in Brockville.-Our Town Schools are becoming very efficient. The Principal of the Grammar School, James Windeat, Esq., A. B. of Cambridge University, well sustains, in this distant land the character of his Alma Mater. We believe there is not in the Province a better or more eminent seminary of learning than the Brockville Grammar School; nor is there one in all the Districts of Upper Canada, that has been more successful, in obtaining for its pupils prizes, and other rewards and promotions, in the University of Toronto. The Common Schools are also in an efficient state, and the Teachers, Messrs. M'Kerris, Cosgrove, Miller, and Shaw, appear to give general satisfaction to the Board of Trustees, in their respective wards. In addition to the Public Schools there are many. Private Seminaries, both Male and Female, in which the rudiments of a sound literary education are being communicated to the youth of the town. There are Private Schools taught by Miss M'Kerris, Miss Kelly, Miss M'Clean, Miss Miller, and Miss Glass, and by Mrs. Campbell, Mrs. English, and Mrs. Drummond, in all of which young Ladies are sure to have their morals attended 10, and their taste for literature, music, drawing, and polite accomplishments improved. In the school of Miss M'Kerris we observed some really elegant flowers and other specimens in wax, which are highly creditable to the young lady artists.- Statesman.
[The Recorder, of the 20th Dec., reports the examination of several of the foregoing schools as very gratifying and satisfactory. Several essays by pupils of the Common School were read, and elicited much interest and applause. Ed. J. of Ed.]
Items.-The distribution of Prizes of the American Art Union took place on the 20th of December. The Receipts for 1849 have been $96,492. 1,000 works of art were distributed, many of them rare and beautiful pictures. But one prize reached Toronto, and that to the Honorary Secretary, Mr. Rowsell. Mr. Simmonds of Hamilton obtained another.
The Christian Socialist, the organ of the new liberal and reforming class of things spiritual and temporal, has appeared. In this journal will be found * clergymen and the friends of clergymen, openly avowing they will fight for the cause they hold as true, yea, even in the ranks of chartists aod infidels; recognizing truth even when propounded by their antagonists, and resolved to merge differences in the broad union of agreement”-a beroie age we live in, trul, !- fleury Mayhew's "Pictures of London Life," as Commissioner of the Morning Chronicle, are to be enlarged, and published in weekly numbers, with the title, "London Labour and London Poor: a Cyclopædia of the Social Condition and Economy of those who Will Work, those who Cannot Work, and those who Will Not Work." Mr. D’Israeli is writing the life of Lord George Bentinck, late Leader of the Protectionists of England, at the request of the Duke of Portland, his father. ---- The original MS. of Waverley has been presented to the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, by Mr. I. Hall, brother of Capt. Basil Hall, who had paid forty'guineas for itin 1831.— Sir Jn. Herschell will succeed Mr. Shiel as Master of ine Mint. -Her Majesty has granted a pension of £10 a-year to Mr. John Payne Collier, editor of Shakspeare, and author of the History of the English Stage.-- According to the will of the poet, the collection famous in Germany, as the Goethe Inheritance, is to be sold. It is proposed to buy the house in which the collection is, but the beirs-his two grandsons-refuse to turn the old homestead into a show-room. The Goldsmiths' Company of London offer a prize of £1,000 for the best samples of design and workmanship in gold and silver by British artists. Smaller prizes in other departments are given by other parties. The proprietors of the London Art-Journal offer a prize of 100 guineas for the best essay "On the best mode of rendering the Exhibition of 1851 practically useful to the British manufacturer.” The Essay will be published in the Art Journal, in July. The crystal palace is to be enlarged to the extent of 45,000 superficial feet, to make room for extra exhibitions. The Pearl, from Conada, has arrived in England, with ninety packages of the productions of Canada for the Exhibition.-Mr. A A. Applegarth, the eminent macbinist, has received a commission to erect a great printiog machine, on his latest principle, for the Exhibition of 1851. liisintended to be used to throw off copies of the Illustrated London News, in three languages, before the visitors.---Mr. Funnell, of Brighton, is constructing a watch smaller in circumference than a threepenny piece, for the Exhibition of 1851; Mr. John Burton, of Bradford, is also constructing a beautiful little tea-kettle, made from a fourpenny piece. This curiosity is complete in every particular, possessing spout, hanger, and lid with a binge on, the whole fitting compactly into a common Brazilian nut, mounted with a single hinge.Germany has lost one of her most popular poets, Gustavus Schwab, at the age of only 58. Schwab was the friend of Uhland. - La Nacion says that the tomb of the "Cid" has just been found at Burgos, in an antechamber of the arruntamiento. The remains of Don Rodrigue Campeador and Chimene his wife, immortalised by ancient legend and the poem Guilhon de Castre and Corneille, were deposited in an old trunk. On this trunk, placed as rubbish, was the chair on which the ancient counts of Castile, Diego, Panello, Nuno, Rasura, and Lain Calvo rendered justice. The history of the two lovers has been greatly embellished by romancers. Chimene was the daughter of Don Diego Alvoras, and not of a count of Gormas who was killed in a duel by the Cid.--A good translation of the late Rev. Henry Coleman's book on Agriculture in France, Belgium, Holland, and Switzerland, has just been published in Brussels. It is from the pen of the Baron Hector le Bailly de Tilleghem Mortier, who has added a great variety of interesting and useful notes. An exposition of the products of national industry is now going on at Madrid.- The London Athenaum says, that all information froin travellers in Africa aflords reasonable grounds for be. lieving that the interior of that continent consists of an immense table-land, extending from the mountains of Meridefy, south of Lake Tchad, as far as the Cape of Good Hope, and inhabited by nations less barbarous than the other Africans. It is more of a European than of a tropical country.
Canadian Antiquities.--A Quebec paper mentions that in laying bare the foundation of the old French Episcopal Palace, preparatory to the completion of the Legislative Assembly Buildings, the remains of human bones were discovered, as well as a toonh carefully built in masonry. More recently the work men have come uron the corner stone of the Chapel attached to the palace, in which was found a leaden plate, bearing the inscription which appears below :-
Anno Domini MDCXCIV INNOCENTII Papæ XII anno III, LUDO. VICI XUI Francorum Regis Ll, primum palati Sui Episcopalis lapidem posuit JOANNES de Cruce de St. Pulliere Erclesix, O becensis Episenpus, Deipara El Viso Ludovico Eiusdem Ecclesiæ pationis, auspicibus.
BRITISH AND FOREIGN,
Convention at Queen's College, Cork. The interesting ceremony took place in the spacious and beautiful Examination Hall of the College, which was completely filled by a most respectable anditory, who manifested the liveliest interest in the proceedings. Every seat was occupied, whilst many who were unable to obtain any better accommodation stood around the room.
Thurles College, Ireland.—The Pope has conferred the diploma of D. D. on the Rev. P. Leahey, President of Thurles College, whence emanated the recent memorable Protest of the Roman Catholic Bishops against the Queen's Colleges.
At York £1,400 have been raised by a bazaar,"for ragged schools.
Items.–At the anniversary New England Dinner lately held in New York. the following toast was proposed and eloquently responded to. " The Common School-the tree of Knowledge originally planted in New England-iis seeds are waited over the continent.”— Two gentlemen have recently made a douation of $4,000 to the Wesleyan Wyoming Seminary.-- At the recent convention for revising the Constitution of New llampshire, the recommendation of the Committee on Education was adopted, providing ** prrmanent provision for Free Schools thionghont the Siate.---- Jenny Lind gube a free concert to the rhildren of the Public Schools at Baltin ule, on the eveni:e ofile 13th uli.
in the United States, we hope to be able to avail ourselves in a future number of the Journal. Monthly meteorological returns have been made to the Institution by various gentlemen in each of the American States, as well as from Her MAJESTY's Magnetical Observatories in Canada, Nova-Sootia, and Newfoundland. From the explanatory synopsis given by the Secretary of the “memoirs" of the forthcoming second volume of “Smithsonian Contributions," we anticipate a deeply interesting and valuable work.
OXYGEN MAGNETIC. - Mr. Faraday, at the last monthly meeting of the Royal Institution, announced to the members present his discovery (the subject of a paper sent in to the Royal Society) that oxygen is magnetic, that this property of the gas is affected by heat, and that he believed the diurnal variation of the magnetic needle to be due to the action of solar heat on this newly discovered cbaracteristic of oxygen-the important constituent of the atmosphere. We do not mean to give the above as the terms of Faraday's announcement, or as the exact facts of the conclusion drawa from his last experimental researches, but only as a foreshadowing of the new result and views of one of our most eminent British philosophers. We must add, however, that Bequerel also has recently directed attention to a somewhat similar conclusion; he communicated to the Academy of Sci. ences at Paris, that oxygen is magnetic in relation to the other gases, as iron is to the rest of the metals, and inserred that it is probable or possible (we have not the paper by us to refer to that the diurnal variation may be connected with this property of oxygen.- Literary Gazette.
Newspapers and Periodicals.-One hundred and fifty years ago there was not a single newspaper in England : and it is not two hundred years since the first idea of a regular newspaper was conceived in that island, to rouse the people to resist the Spanish Armada. Now in the United Kingdom there are 547 newspapers. In the year ending January 5th, 1849, 90,928,408 newspaper stamps were issued in the kingdom, of which 76,180,832 were in England alone. After full and careful examina. tion, it is estimated that the aggregate yearly issue of newspapers, maga. zines, and reviews, from the City of New York alone, in the yeat 1849, was 72,810,257, of which between nine and ten millions were periodicals.
Annual Report Of The New-YORK CITY AND COUNTY SUPER-
Common Schools, for the year 1849. Now-York, 1850.
8vo., pp. 24. We beg to thank Mr. McKeer for his Annual Report, from which we hope to select for our next number, some valuable and interesting facts and statistics relating to the progress of popular education and free schools in the City and County of New-York.
| WATER CURE JOURNAL
And Herald of Reforms. New-York: FOWLER and Wells.
4to., pp. 24. $1 per annum. A very interesting looking publication. Upon its profossional merits we can express no opinion, but it appears to be a valuable and spirited periodical. Several of the more important articles and reviews are illustrated with neatly engraved wood cuts.
Editorial Notices, &c.
LOCAL SUPERIXTENDENTS of Schools are required by the 10th clause of the 31st section of the School Act, to transmit their Annual Reports for 1850 to the Chief Superintendent, “on or before the 1st day of March." It is possible that the Legislature will meet in February. It is therefore important that those Reports should reach the Education Office with the least possible delay, as very little time will remain to prepare the Chief Superintendent's General Annual Report, to lay before the Legislature before it rises. The Session will probable be a short one. We earnestly request that the Superintendents will add up each column of their Report before transmitting it to the Educational Department.
METHODIST QUARTERLY Review,
Scott, New-York. January, 1851. 8vo., pp. 186. $2
per annum. The literary papers in this number of the Quarterly are most interesting and valuable. They are: “Divine Agency in Material Phonomena ;" "Present State of Astronomy;" “ Campbell's Life and Letters," and "Neander." The papers on CAMPBELL and NEANDER are written with much genuine sympathy with the peculiaritios and characters of these distinguished, men. The “Literary Notices" and " Intelligence,” &c., evince much industry and ability on the part of the Editor.
PROGRESS OF FREE Schools.-We take the following resolution from the last number of the Examiner, illustrating, as it does, the progress of enlightened views upon the subject of Education in the rural School Se..tions. The resolution was passed at the annual school meeting of Union Section, No. 3, Mariposa and Cartwright:
" Resoloed, -That this meeting regards the present School Act as an important improvement on former legislation for the support of Common Schools ; and we are of opinion that it only requires the addition (of other funds) to the Common School fund to make it a blessing to the youth of our land ; and to enable our patriotic Superintendent to realize what he so ardently hopes to see, the light of a Free School emitting its splendour and imparting its blessings to every child of every school section in Upper Canada.'"
| KUHNER'S Latin GRAMMAR ;
With Exercises, Latin Reader, and Vocabularies. Translated
and Remodelled by Professor J. T. CHAMPLIN, of Water
ville College. Boston, PHILLIPS & Co. 12mo., pp. 435. This work seems to have been remodelled with great care. The arrangement and division of subjects are very good. The Grammar may be regarded as a production of Professor CHAMPLIN rather than of KUHNER, as it embodies Prof. C.'s own views and modes of teaching the rudiments of the Latin language. It will prove an admirable assistant to a student of the grand and stately language of CICERO and VIRGIL.
Our acknowledgments are due to James W. Dawson, Esquire, Superintendent of Education for the Province of Nova-Scotia, for a.copy of his "Preliminary Report" on Schools ; and also for a copy of his Trạct on “ School ARCHITECTURE, abridged from Barnard's School Architecture, with notes” and wood cuts. A copy of this Tract has been furnished to each School District in NovaScotia,
I W ANTED a qualified Teacher for School Section No. 2, 4th
Concession Scarboro'. A liberal Salary will b. given. Apply to John Elliott, John TEADZEL, or M. MACXLEN, Trustees. -200h Jan. 1851. W ANTED a FEMALE TEACHER thoroughly qualified in all the
Lusual branches of a plain English education. Salary £50. Apply to WM. HEPBURN; Secretary, School Trustees, Chippewa.-20th Jan.,1851 W ANTED a TEACHER for School Section No. 1, Township of
Erin. He must be competent to teach Reading. Writing, Arithmetic, Buokeeping, Grammar, and the outlines of Geography. Salary £50 perannum. Apply to Jas. Taylor, WM. McDONALD, and ALEXANDER LAIRD, Trustees, Erin.-181h January, 1851. W ANTED immediately for Section No. 8, Township of Stanley,
County of Huron, a good TEACHER. None with less than 2nd class certificates need apply. Address the Trustees, Bayfield, Post Office.16th January, 1851.**
The SchooL REGISTERS are not quite ready. The orders already sent in to the Education Office will be executed on the completion of the stitching and binding,
FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BOARD OF REGANTS OF THE
Operations, Expenditures, and condition of the Institution
during the year 1849, Washington, 1850. 8vo., pp. 64. A most valuable official document, for which we beg to thank the Officers of the Smithsonian Institution. Of the Report of the Secretary (Professor HENRY) on the general operation of the Institution, and of the Assistant Secretary (Professor JeweTT) on Public Libraries
TORONTO : Printed and published by Thomas Hucu BENTLEY, TERMS : For a single copy, 56. per annum ; not less than 8 copies, 4s. 410. each, or 87 for the 8; not less than 12 copies, 4.. 2d. each, or $10 for the 12 ; 20 copies and upwards, 3s, 9d. each. Back Vols. neatly stitched supplied on the saine terms. All subscriptions to commence with the January number, and payment in advance inust in all cases accompany the order. Single numbers, 7 d. each. 7 All communications to be addressed to Mr. J. GEORGE Hodoins,
Education Office, Toronto.
CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER.
PAGE. I. Division of Time among various Nations-Mystical Numbers.-Westminster
Image of the Dead. 4. Time's Changes. 5. Appeal to Teachers.
National Character-Democracy-Echo-Friendship-George III, ... 21 IV. EDITORIAL. 1. Progress of Free Schools in Upper Canada. 2. Ditto in
England. 3. Comparative Expense of Large and Small Schools in
tiwn, 1851, ..........................................
British and Foreign. 4. United States, ......
To Local Superintendents. 3. School Registers. 4. Official Docu-
The Romans had neither decades, nor the week of seven days, but divided their months into three irregular intervals, named after three fixed epochs in each month, called the calends, the nones, and the ides. The days of the calends were the first of every month, originally the first day of a new moon, when it had been customary to call or summon the people together to mark the event by sacrifice or other religious service, and to regulate by it days for other public business; hence the term calendæ, call days, from calo (Greek kaleo), to call or summons. The nones (from nonus, the ninth) were the nine days before the ides ; and the ides (derived it is said from an obsolete verb iduare, to divide) * were the middle days of every month. When the Calendar was reformed by Julius Cæsar, the civil year so little corresponded with the seasons, that the summer months had advanced into the autumn, and the autumn months into the winter. Cæsar, following the advice of the Chaldean astronomer, Sosigenes, put back the 25th of March 30 days, to make it correspond with the vernal equinox, and fixed the lengths of the months as they now remain ; but he did not alter the designation of the days of the months, or introduce in respect to them any new division. The additional day given to February every fourth year (our leap year) was added to the calends, which had then 16 days instead of 15, reckoning from the ides, or middle of February to the 1st of March. It was introduced, not at the end of the month, as with us, but between the 6th and 7th of the calends, and called the bis-sexto calendas, whence our term bissextile, as applied to leap-year—the year of 366 days.
Many years, however, elapsed before the Roman people became fully accustomed 10 the Julian calendar. The progress of conquest about this period made the Roman people acquainted with the calendars of other nations. The people of India, Syria, Arabia, and probably Egypt, observed weeks of seven days. When these countries, or portions of them, became provinces of the Roman empire,
DIVISION OF TIME AND DAYS OF THE WEEK AMONG
VARIOUS NATIONS.-MYSTICAL NUMBERS. We have rarely met with so instructive and interesting a summary of the history of the various national divisions of time as the one in the October number (1850) of the Westminster Revieu, entitled Septenary Institutions. We select those parts of the paper which embody the historical view of these institutions, omitting the learned disquisition on the Observance of the Sabbath, and the many ingenious theories of the writer as regards the original design in instituting that day of rest.
their governors learned to count days in the same manner as the The same terms may be traced through all the dialects of India:* Eastern people they governed ; and the superiority of the hebdoma- and throughout Hindustan we may notice that the word seven is a dal method to the Roman being obvious, when once understood, it mystical number, to which superstition continues to attich a hidden gradually made its way from the provinces to Rome. In the third meaning. Professor Wilson, writing on the Hindoo festivals, tells and fourth centuries, we find weeks everywhere substituted for the us that, while fasting is held to be meritorious on the day consecalends, nones, and ides: and the days called by the planetary names crated to Aditya, or Ravi (the sun), every seventh Jupar day is also of dies Solis (day of the Sun), dies Lunæ (day of the Moon), dies considered sacred, especially the seventh day of the moon's inMartis (day of Mars), dies Mercurii (day of Mercury), dies Jovis crease, one of which, the Bhhaskaria Saptami, a winter festival, (day of Jupiter), dies Veneris (day of Venus), and dies Saturni is celebrated with great solemnity. In the form of prayer used in (day of Saturn).
the temples, the word seven occupies a conspicuous place. SapThe astronomical character of these terms shows that the adop
tami, or the great seven, is one of the names of the deity addressed: tion of the seven-days week by the Romans was quite independent
and the worshipper says, on presenting his offering, “Mother of of the Jewish or Christian religion, although the progress of Chris
all creatures, Saplami, who art one with the lord of the seven tianity may have, to some extent, promoted the change. The He
coursers, and the seven mystic words, glory to thee in the sphere of brew names of the days of the week are yom achurd, day one;
the sun." On prostrating himself before the image of the sun, the yom sheni, day two ; yom shelishi, day three ; yom rebii, or aruba,
worshipper adds, “ Glory to thee who delightest in the chariot day four; yom shamishi, day five : yom shishehi, day six: the drawn by seven steeds, the illumination of the seven worlds ; glory seventh day, yom shabu, or shebang, and sabbath, or shabbath.
to thee, the infinite, the creator, on the seventh lunar day. The Roman names were borrowed, not from the Jews, but from
In the Rig Veda-Sanhita (a collection of sacred hymns of great the Indian, Chaldean, or Egyptian calendars ; and it is curious to
antiquity, held by the Hindoos in the saine veneration as the Psalms trace the influence of the mythology of Western Asia and Africa,
of David among the Jews), the word seven frequently occurs iu through the Teutonic races, down to our own Saxon ancestors, from
passages like the following:whom our present nomenclature was immediately derived. By them “Divine and light diffusing Surya, thy seven coursers bear thee the seven days of the week were called Son-daeg, Moon-dueg, bright haired in thy car. Tuis-Daeg, Wodnes or Woden's-Daeg (in the old German, Odins "The sun has yoked the seven mares that safely draw his chalag), Thurres-daeg, or Thor's-day, Friga's-daeg, and Selerne's riot, and comes with them self-harnessed." daeg.
This may be an allusion to the seven prismatic rays, or to the Of the Egyptian week little is known, and the scanty historical seven days of the week ; but again we meet with the “ seven hills" references made to it belong to a late period. Herodotus merely
-the “ seven difficult passes"—the " seven days of initiation says (lib. ii. c. 82), that the Egyptians assigned their months and accomplished by Indra—the "thrice seven mystic rites," and the days to differentdeities. Pliny says that every hour in the day was “ seven pure rivers that flow from heaven." The caste of the Brahconsecrated by the Egyptians to one of the planets, and in such an mins is also divided into seven sections, which have their origin in order that the first hour of each day would, once in every seven
the seven Rishis or Penitente, sacred personages mentioned in the days, belong to the same planet. The order was that of Saturn, Vedas. Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, Venus, Mercury, and the Moon. The hours Seven, it will not be forgotten, was the perfect number of the consecrated to Saturn, at the beginning of the week would be mid- | Hebrews. We read, not only that creation was the work of seven night, seven a.m., two p.m., and ten p.m. Oa the next day they days, and of a s venth day Sabbath, but of a seventh month Sabbath, would be five a.m. noon, and seven p.m. ; following the same rota a seventh year Sabbath, and of a sev n times seven years Sabbath, tion, they would return to midnight, seven a.m., two p.m., and ten or years of jubilee. We read of animals entering the ark by sevens ; p.m., on the eighth day, and so of the rest. This rotation would of seven years of famine ; of seven years of plenty ; of seven priests mako the sun to follow Saturn, the moon to follow the sun, &c., in with seven trumpets, surrounding the walls of Jericho seven days ; reference to the first hour of every morning ; whence, according of Balaam commanding seven altars to be prepared for the sacrifice to Dion Cassius, the present order of the week, Sunday following of seven oxen and seven rams ; of silver purified seven times ; of seven Saturn's-day, Moon-day, Sunday, &c., each day being named after women laking hold of one man ; of a man possessed by seven devils ; the planet presiding at its birth.
and in the Revelations, of seven churches, seven candlesticks, seven Christmannus, a modern Latin writer, attributes the momencla. | spirits, seven stars, seven lamps, seven seals, seven angels, Seven ture to the Babylonians. Herodot's says it was the Chaldeans vials, seven plagues, seven thunders, and of a dragon with seven that taught the Greeks to divide the day into twelve parts, and Pto heads, and seven crowns upon his heads. leiny refers to the accuracy of their observations of eclipses in the The Hebrew seven, sau (S.B.O.), written Saba or Shaba, reign of Nabonassar, 730 years B.C. But the Indian origin of the and by modern Jews shebang, signifies also age. Sab (au) is seven-days week appears, on the whole, to be better established grey-headed. Sabbath, (nan) which we translate by the word than any other hypothesis that can now be found on the subject. " rest,” also means old age, and is doubtless derived from the same Indian astrology observed the same custom noticed by Dion Cassius, root. S.B.O., in the Egyptian Coptic, signified erudition. Sabe, of consecrating different portions of the day to different planets, and in Coptic, is a sage; (French, savunt.) The Druidical priests the order of their consecration gave the first hour of the morning were called Sabs. Sabæanism was the religion they taught. The to the same planet by which the day itself has been subsequently Celtic Şab-ailh was the day on which the Sabs assembled, whence called.
the term sabbat, an assembly ; in modern history a name confined In the ancient Sanscrit—the language of the holy wrilings of to the nocturnal assemblies of witches and sorcerers. India (from san, the sun, or sacred fire; whence the Latin, sanctum
The Suba day was, therefore, the day on which the “grey. scriplum),* the week of seven days is recognized under the follow headed men," or "aged fathers” of a tribe were in the habit of asing names :
sembling for council or sacrifice. The intervals of their meetings, Aditya-var . . . . Sun-day.
if hebdomadal—and they would necessarily be so for the observance Sorna-var. .. Moonday.
of the lunar festivals of India—would be Saba-day periods. Saba, Mangala-var . . Mars-day.
therefore, became a term of compulation, standing for the numeral Budha-yar . . . . Mercury-day. Vrihaspate-yar . . Jupiter-day.
* DAYS OF THE WEEK. Subra-var . . . . Venus-day.
English. Hindi. Singalese. Tibetan
Sun-day.. ....Rabivar ...... Erida...........Gyah-nyima. . . Tenang-gadva.
Mercury-day ..Budh-var......Ba-da-da.........Gyah-thag-på...Buddha-hu. * And, according to the late Mr. Godfrey Higgins, shan scrief, the Scoi.
Vrishpat-var) tish name for Gaelic. Both in Hebrew and Gaelic, san or scan means the
Bra-has-pa-ting-da..Gyah-phur-ba ..Kyasa-pade. sun, and that which is venerable or holy; san script is, therelore writing of
Guru-var the sun, or holy writing. Sean-nach, in Irish, means a high-priest, that
Venus-day...Shukra-var ..Si-ku-ra-da ...... Gyah-pasangs ..Sok-kya.
(Sanikar is, a priest of the sun; sean-achar was a feudal judge, whence, probably, Saturn's-day.. or Sena-sul-ra-da, ....Gyah-spen-pa ..Che-ne. the word senate.- Anacalypsis, pp. 264, 290.
seven, just in the same way as the moon became identified with the symbolized as male and female; and it is curious that the Chinese period of a lunation, which we still call a moon, or mooth.*
adopt the same notion, and, in its application, carry it out further The names given to the days of the week in modern Arabic, than the Pythagoreans. With the Chinese, even numbers partake answer to those of the Hebrew: yom-ahad, day one ; yom-thena, of the feminine principle yin, and odd numbers of the masculine day two ; yom-tulta, day three ; yom-arba, day four; yom-hamsa, yang. The sum of the first five even numbers, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10, day five ; Juma, mosque-day, or day of the congregation (for the which is 30, they call terrestrial numbers ; the sum of the first five Mohammedans, like the Christians, have changed the original day odd numbers, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, which is 25, celestial numbers. Five of worship); and Sabt, seventh. But in ancient Arabic, the also represents the heart ; and they reckon five planets, five viscera names, as given by Mr. Prinseps, were Bawal, Bahun, Jabar, of the human body, five elements, five primary colours, and five Dabar, Femunes, Aruba, and Shiyar.
tastes.* At their spring agricultural festivals they sow five sorts The fact that the modern Arabic names of the days of the week of grain. The new year commences with them, not on the 1st of do not correspond with the ancient, leads us to the conclusion that January, but when the sun has entered fifteen degrees of Aquarius. the Hebrew names are also of comparatively recent date ; and the They have a great public festival on the fifth day of the fifth moon, change probably took place when Moses altered the calendar, and and they have fifth day markets. And this leads us to observe, comroanded the Israelites to regard their Exodus from Egypt as the that when we pass the Himalayan range, or in proportion as we recommencement of a new era.
cede in any direction from India and Egypt, and the countries lying “ And the Lord spake to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, between them, we lose all traces of Sabbaths. saying, this month shall be unto you the beginning of months ; it The Chinese not only consider five a more perfect number than shall be the first month of the year unto you."-Exod. xii. 1, 2. seven (with the exception of the followers of the Indian Budhists,
The month referred to was Abib, or March, and was reckoned who, in China, are only a tolerated sect), but they have no weeks from the first new moon near the vernal equinox. The Egyptiau | or weeks of only five days, if the customary interval between one year commenced in August, with the first appearance at sunrise of market day and another in country districts may be so called. The Sirius, the dog star. I
year, with the Chinese, is divided into two descriptions of months In Persia, the days of the week are now called Yak-shambe, Do lunar months, and short solar months the latter dividing the solar shambe, Si-shambe, Char-shambe, Panj-shambe, that is, first day, year into twenty-four periods, which may be called half months, Becond day, third day, fourth day, and fifth day. Friday is called each having a distinct name, and comprising an average of about Juma (Mosque day); and Saturday, Hafta, the seventh.s But fifteen days. the ancient Persians are said not to have had the institution of Passing from the Old World to the New, we discover a curious, weeks, but to have called every day in the month by a distinct and it must have been at one time, a most unlooked-for coincidence, name.
between the customs, in this respect, of Western Asia and the abPythagoras, who is said to have travelled in Egypt, Chaldea, original population of Central America. The ancient Mexicans, Assyria, and India, imported from the East into Greece the symbo conquered by Hernando Cortes, had a week of five days, and a corlical inode of illustrating the properties of numbers, and from his responding dycle of years to that of the Tartars and Chinese, but of time (500 B. C.) we read in Greek authors of seven as the “vene 52 years, instead of 60. Their months were composed of periods rable" or sacred number. But the number which the followers of of 20 days; and they reckoned eighteen months in the year, with Pythagoras revered the most was the tetract or four, as forming a five supplementary days. They had also, astrological months of 13 square, and the root of an universal scale of numeration, the influ days, 1461 of which composed their cycle of 52 years; and it is ence of which was shown in the four seasons, the four elements, remarkable that this number should be the same with that which the four intervals of the tetrachord, the four cardinal points, &c. ; composed the great Sothic period of the Egyptians,-of 1461 years, and in consequence of which it was proper to divide mathematics when the annual seasons and festivals returned precisely to the into four branches, and arrange every subject into four divisions. same point of time. We may trace the same idea in the symbolical imagery of the pro The antiquarian is sometimes preplexed by the ancient druidical phots. Ezekiel describes four living creatures, with four sides, names of places in the British Isles, showing an eastern origin, such four wings, four faces, four horns, and altars of four cubits, four as the islands of Arran, Ila, Bute, Skye, Iona, and the rivers Isis, tables, &c.; and the term forty or four tens, presents itself and Cam, or Granta ;t but there are ample reasons for concluding throughout the Jewish records as a perfect number, rather than as that, not only England, Scotland, and Ireland, but even countries as a term used in a strictly arithmetical sense. The flood was upon far north as Iceland, have been many times visited and overrun by the earth forty days. Moses was in the mount forty days. Forty | numerous primitive tribes, strangers to each other, but swarms from days and Nineveh was overthrown. Christ was in the wilderness the same parent hive; the original seat of which, in many cases, forty days. The Israelites were forty years in the wilderness. but not in all, appears to have been the high table lands of the “The land had rest forly years," &c., &c. In modern times forty tropical regions. days composed the philosophical month of the Alchymists, and forty Passing from America to the numerous groups of islands in the days was held to be the proper period for quarantine.
Pacific, comprised in the term Polynesia, we still search in vain The triad, also, was a sacred number with the Pythagoreans. among their aboriginal inhabitants for septenary institutions. The monad was held to represent creative power, or the great first Everywhere has been found a calendar of months, commencing cause; the duad, matter; and the union of the two was regarded with the first visible new moon, but nowhere the Hindu and modern as the proper symbol of the beginning, middle, and end of all things, European week of seven days. The days are reckoned from sun
the hidden meaning, perhaps, which they had discovered in the set to sunset, and every day has a distinct name. In the Feejee triune divinity of India, composed of Brahma, the creator, Vishnou, Islands a solemn festival is held in the month of November, which the preserver, and Siva, the destroyer.
lasts four nights and three days, during which time the whole poFive, or the pentad, had also its mystical signification with the pulation remain shut up in their houses, and no work is performed ; Pythagoreans, as composed of odd and even numbers, which they
and throughout the Polynesian chain there are festivals connected
with the seasons, corresponding more or less with those of the * The Greek unv, men, and unin, mene, a month, and the moon,
Western hemisphere, but no Sabbaths nor seven-day weeks. New --the Latin mensis, and Sanscrit mâs, month, môs or músa, moon, Zealand and Australia, as far as the customs of the tribes of these are from the same origin. See Plut. Tim. p. 498, transl. Taylor.
countries have yet been examined, have been found equally destitute In Hebrew, moon and month are both expressed by the same of these institutions. wurd, 17 irah, commonly called jerah.
| Corrupted into yasmu'l ahadi ; yaromu'l isnayn; yawmu't salaso; yasmu'l arbad ; * 1.-Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, Mercury. 2.-Stomach, liver, heart, lungs, kidyaumu'l khamis ; yatonu'l jumat; yarmu'l sabt.
neys. 3.-Earth, wood, fire, metal, water. 4.-Yellow, green, red, white, black. 5. The Egyptians, in watching for the annual overflowing of the Nile, had noticed it to -Sweet, sour, bitter, pungent, salt.-Daris's Chinese, p. 295. be preceded by the rising of Sirius just before the sun; whence Sirius obtained the name + Rute is suoposed to be derived from Buddha : Arran and Na were the names of the or Thoth or the watch-dog, and the month of August canie to be called the Thoth
consort of Buddha: Skye is probably from Sakya ; Man from Man-arran, Maki-man. month, or Thoth days; whence also the English term of the dog days.
or Menu : Iona (Hebrew for a dove) from the lo and Isis of Egypt and the Venus of The Turkish names for the week have principally the same derivation. They are Cyprus, one of whose symbols was the dove, whence the island is also called Columba; Bazar-guni, market day, Bazar-arlasi, day after market; Sali, Tuesday (irs etymo. The river Isis at Oxford, and its coat of arms, a Bull, or Ox, show the very close conlogy unknown) ; Char-shambah, fourth day; Panj-shambah, fifth day ; Jama, Mosque nexion of Druidical and ancient Eastern mythology. Cam and Granta of Cambridge day ; Jama-artasi, day after Mosque day.
are both Indian names of gods. Anacalypsis, vol. ii., p. 257 and 295.