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iron, and sulphur. Thousands of pounds weight are now manufactu d by the finger of a child. A siderial motion is communicated to the telescope by clock work, by which means an object may be constantly kept in from these ingredients, and this artificial ultra-marine is as beaatiful as in the field of view, which essentially aids the observer in delicate examina
natural, while for the price of a single ounce of the latter we may obtain tions of celestial objects. The right ascension is read off by means of an many pounds of the former.- (Liebig. hour circle, eighteen inches diameter, reading to one second of time by a veroier, while the declination circle is twenty six inches in diameter, read
Editorial and Official Notices, &c. ing also to one second of time or four seconds of arc. 'The total cost of the instrument was $19,842. The object glass arrived in Cambridge on
IRREGULARITY IN THB DELIVERY OF THE JOURNAL.-Repeated the 4th of Dec., 1846, but the tube and mounting did not arrive until the
complaints having reached us of irregularity in the receipt of the 11th of June following. The instrument was mounted on the 23rd of June, 1847, a nd on the evening of the same day was first pointed to the heavens. Journal of Education, at various post offices, we beg to assure our The transit circle is by Sims, of London. The object glass by Merz, is correspondents, that every precaution is taken at the office of the four and one-eighth inches aperture, and sixty-five inches focal length.
publisher of the Journal to ensure correctness in mailing the Besides these, the observatory is furnished with many smaller instruments,
numbers to subscribers. Since the new postage law came into and a complete set of meteorological instraments, an astronomical clock, and siderial chronometers. One of the most ingenious contrivances con operation, we have received a few numbers of the Journal from nected with the Observatory is, the "observer's chair," invented by the
some of ihe post offices, marked, “not called for," " refused,” &c. Director. By means of this chair, the observer can transport himself to
It is possible the irregularities complained of may have been inany part of the dome without moving from his seat.- Boston Traveller.
increased of late by reason of the operation of this more prompt and Reward of Genius.-A late London publisher of high standing
exact system in the post office department. We sha!l be happy, and intimate acquaintance with British authors of the past and present generation, gives the remunerative payments which the most distinguished of
however, to furnish any missing numbers of the present Volume to them received for certain of their worke ; and he was at pains to verify the
any of the subscribers to the Journal who may not have received terms :-Fragments of History, by Charles Fox, sold by Lord Holland for 1 it regularly, Single numbers of previous Volumes can also be $30,000. Fragments of History, by Sir James Macintosh, for $2,500, obtained by parties wishing to keep their files complete. Lingard's History of England $23,415. Sir Walter Scott's life of Bonaparte was sold, with printed books for $90,000, the net receipts of the THE ANNUAL SCHOOL REPORT, for 1850, ordered by the House first two editions only being not less than $50,000. The life of Wilber of Assembly to be furnished to each School Corporation, local force, by his sons, $20,000. Life of Sheridan, by Moore, $10,000. Life Superintendent, and Municipality, is nearly printed, and will be of Hannah More $10,000. Life of Cowper, by Southey, $5,000. Life dispatched to the county clerks in the course of the ensuing month and times of George IV., by Lady C. Bury, $5,000. Byron's Works $100, (November.) Those for distribution among the school sections 000. Lord of the Isles, half share, $7,500. Lalla Rookh, by Moore, $15, will be addressed to the local Superintendents. The blank forms of 000. Rejected Addresses by Mr. Smith, $5,000. Crabbe's Works, re
School Reports for trustees and local Superintendents, will also be publication of them by Murray, $15,000. Wordsworth's Works, re-publi
dispatched in the same parcels. Local Superintendents will therecation, $5,250. Bulwer's Rienzi, $3,000. Marryat's Novels from $2,500
fore please apply to the county clerks for the blank reports for to $5,000 each. Trollope's Factory Boy $9,000. Hannah More derived
themselves, and for the schools under their charge, about the 15th $150,000 annually for her copy rights during the latter years of her life.
or 20th of next month. Roundell's Domestic Cookery, $10,000. Nicholas Nickleby, $15,000. Eustace's Classical Tour, $10,000. Sir Robert Inglis obtained for the
EDUCATIONAL DEPOSITORY.-As the maps, prints and other widow of Bish«p Heber, by the sale of his journal only, $25,000. With such facts before us, it is idle to complain that literary talent goes unre
School requisites recently procured in England, &c. have arrived warded. Nor is such ample remuneration confined to the other side of the
at the Educational Depository, the various articles ordered by Atlantic. Irving and Prescott have been rewarded with princely affluence,
Trustees, Superintendents and others, will be despatched to them and a man of Christian moderation would not wish for an income more
without delay, in accordance with the directions received in each ample than what would be furnished by the sale of Barnes' notes on the instance at the Education Office. New Testament, to say nothing of other authors equally successfui. Harpers' Large Book Concern.-The book concern, on Pearl
WILLIAM HODGINS, street, (connecting in the rear with the principal in Cliff street,) is 45 by
ARCHITECT AND CIVIL ENGINEER, 100 feet, and five stories bigh. Among other improvements to be intro
KING STREET, TORONTO,
DIRECTLY OPPOSITE THE ARCADE, ST. LAWRENCE HALL, duced, will be an apparatus for drying paper by steam, a process hitherto used, we believe, in but one establishment, in Edinburgh, Scotland. There
TAVING devoted much attention to the study of SCHOOL are employed in the establisi: meat about 400 hands, whose wages exceed
I ARCHITECTURE, offers his services to School Authorities throughout
the Province, in preparing Designs, with detailed Plans and Specifications $10,000 per month. In the composing rooms are forty hands, who are fre
of Grammar and Common Schools, and their appendages, so as to meet the quently engaged upon 18 or 20 works at a time. In the stereotype foundry requirements of the present improved system of Education. 13 hands are employed, turning out 7000 plates per week. Between 50, * Reference kindly permitted to the Chief Superintendent of Schools, 000 and 60,000 ]us. of metal are consumed yearly in this establishment. In
and officers of the Educational Department. the copper steel-plate printing-room are 6 hands and 8 presses-each of
VANTED, a competent Head Master to take charge of the the latter averagiog 700 impressions per day. The press room contains
Union School in this Town-to be opened on the 1st of Januar 20 Adams' power presses, and 2 hand presses, which are kept constantly
next. Also, a Second Male Teacher and two Female Teachers for the running. Each power press averages 5000 impressions per day, 45 hands same. Liberal salaries will be giden. are employed in working them. Eight new presses are to be put up in
Applications, accompanied with testimonials of character and qualifica. the new building. Fifty girls are employed in the sewing rooms, and 100
tions, and stating the amount of salary required, may be addressed to the
REV. I. B. HOWARD girls are folding, pressing and dryii.g the sheets.—[N. Y. Jour. of Com. 2 in.
Chairman, B. C. S. Trustees, Peterboro. Artificial Lapis Lazuli.—Of all the achievements of inorganic | CLASSICAL TEACHER WANTED.-A gentleman comchemistry, the artihcial formation of lapis lazuli was the most brilliant and 1 petent to instruct in Classics, Mathematics, and all the branches of most conclusive. This mineral, as represented to us by nature, is calcu.
an English Education. Address R. W. S., Box No. 28, Dundas Post Office,
All letters to be prepaid. lated powerfully to arrest our attention by its beautiful azure-blue colour, its remaining unchanged by exposure to air or to fire, and furnishing us
W ANTED by a Teacher who has been nine months at the with a most valuable pigment (ultra-marine), more precious than gold ! W Provincial Normal School, a situation in a Common School, or as Analysis represented it to be composed of silicia, alumina, and soda (three an Assistant in some higher Institution. Salary at least £80, per annum. colourless bodies), with sulphur, and a trace of iron. Nothing could be
Address J. H., Ennisville Post Office, U. C. discovered in it of the nature of a pigment, nothing to which its blue col.
TORONTO : Printed and Published by Thomas Hugh BENTLEY. our could be referred, the cause of which was searched for in vain. It
TERMS : For a single copy, 5s. per annum; not less than 8 copies, 4s. 410. each, or might, therefore, have been supposed that the analyst was here altogether, $7 for the 8 ; not less than 12 copies, 48. 24. each, or 810 for the 12 ; 20 copies and up
wards, 3s, 9d. cach. Back Vols. neatly stitched supplied on the same terins. A12 at fault, and that, at any rate, its artificial production must be impossible.
subscriptions to commence with the January number, and payment in advance must a Nevertheless, this has been accomplished; and simply by combining, in all cases accompany the order. Single punibers, 7 d. each. the proper proportions, as determined by analysis, silica, soda, alumina,
IT All communications to be addressed to Mr. J. GEORGE HODOINS,
Education Office, Torento.
CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER.
if it be as much more commodious as it is loss picturesque, must bo
PAGE. considered a great improvement. Bailie Bell was a proficient at I. Modern Systems of Education and their Founders, ...
draughts, backgammon, and chess. Such of the students, and of II. Lord Rosse's Discoveries of Starry Firinaments, ........ 111. YOUTH'S DEPARTMENT,-1. The Child's Dream (Poetry.) 2. Observe
the professors also, as were fond of these games, used to meet at Children. 3. Be kind to your Mother. 4. The Rurn Bon-fire. 5.
his house, and Andrew, while a mere child, acquired such singular Children's Joys and Sorrows. 0. The Wonderful rorination of an
skill in all of thom, that the best players were fond of ongaging Iofant. 7. Energy in a Boy. 8. The Beauty of the Sky, ......... 164 with him. A more remarkable instance of tho bailie's versatile IV. MISCELLANEOUS.-1. The close of the Great Exhibition (Poetry.) 2 The
talents is, that he engaged with Mr. Wilson, afterwards professor Final Scene in the Great Exhibition. 3. Passing through an Iceberg. 4. The Celtic Race. 5. English and American Pronunciation 6. Early
of astronomy at Glasgow, in a scheme for casting types upon some Rising. 7. Reading and Thinking. 8. Time and Purpose, ........
plan of their own. They were employed upon this, his son said, V. EDITORIAL.-1. Circular to Local Superintendents of Common Schools.
day and night, night and day, in a garret ; and though they did not 2. Circular to County Clerks. 3. Reminiscences of the Progress of
suoceed, yet, after the professor's removal to Glasgow, the wellEducation in New Englam. ............
known printers, Robert and Andrew Foulis, are said to have been VI. Statistics of Education and Home Missions in Eugland, ............ 171
beholden to him for the beauty of their typography. Bailie Bell, VII. The Fall of the Leaf, .......... VIII. EDUCATIONAL INTELLIGENCE.-1. Canada. 2. British and Foruign. 3.
having saved a little property, retired from business a short time Sandwich Islands. 4. United States, ..........
172 before the close of his life. Dr. Bell was the second son of tho IX. LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE, ....................
bailie. His first school-experiences are curious, not only as giving indications of his future course in life, but as recording a system
which the world has happily now outgrown. He never spoke of MODERN SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION AND THEIR
the discipline, or rather tyranny, which he witnessed and endured in FOUNDERS.
those years of his life, without indignation. “Oh, it was terrible !" THE REVEREND ANDREW Bell, D. D. BORN, 1753. DIED, 1832. he said, “ the remains of feudal severity! I never went to school Ætas 79 YEARS.
without trombling. I could not tell whether I should be flogged or No. v.
not." His father, he used to say, had been driven from the gramAndrew, the son of Alexander and Margaret Boll, was born in 1 mar-school by cruelties that would now hardly bo believed ; yet the city of St. Andrews, on the 27th of March, 1753. His father noither his father nor he were wanting in capacity or diligence. was a barber in that city-a personage of more importance in the
Schools were everywhere conducted in those days upon a system age of periwigs, and when considered as a surgeon of the lowest of brutal severity, which never ought to have existed, except whero class, than in these times. He had been educated for a better the master happened to be a man of singular humanity. In station, but was thus reduced by a complication of misfortunes proof, however, that the severity of Scotch parents was then little brought upon him, his son says, in early life by his inexperionco and less in degree, Dr. Bell instanced the case of a little boy, who, on credulity. He was a man of extraordinary abilities ; and having his return from school, after a merciless flogging, was observed to acquired no inconsiderable degroo of mechanical and practical
sit very uneasily : the father examined him, and though he saw sciencc, added to his original trade, that of clock and watchmaker; that a great wound had beon made, he merely observed, there was regulated, by observations, the timepiece in the public library of the room for more! “But mind," Dr. Bell added, “ he did not forget university, and assisted Dr. Walker, the Professor of Natural Phi to remonstrate with the mastor.” Between the fear of punishment, losophy, in preparing his experiments. His habits and appearances and the earnest desiro of improvement, his thoughts were so wbolly were singular, yet not so as to lessen the respect in which he was engrossod by his lessons, that the family often said, it was a wonder held for his talents, probity, and strength of character. Persons
Andrew did not go east instead of west when ho went out of tho are still living who remember him hastening through the street, door ; and, indeed, though he did not lose the way, yet when he with a professor's wig, ready dressed, in oach hand ; his arms at full was going to any particular place, he generally overpassed it, being stretch to prevent their collision. After trimming ono profossor, he
lost in thought as he went along. What he know, he knew well, would sit down and breakfast with him, and then away to trim and
and never forgot ; but a want of verbal memory rendered that breakfast with another; his appetite, like his mouth, (and his mind
which, for common capacities, is, however unattractive, the easiest also,) being of remarkable and well-known capacity. He was at
of their tasks at school, to him the most difficult. According to his one time bailie of the city ; and once by his personal influence, after
own account, he never could correctly get by heart a single rule of all other means had failed, he quelled what is called a “real-mob" the Latin syntax, though he perfectly understood the meaning, and -riots upon that score being thon so frequent as to obtain this
was at no loss to apply it. My old master, Dr. Vincent, used specific denomination. The house in which he lived, and which
to say, “Give me a reason, boy! I would always rather you should was his own, stood in South street, on the east side of the town or
givs mo a reason than a rule.” But under a more Busbeian sysparish church, and adjoining it. It consisted of two stories, with
tem than that of Westminster had becomo in my days, and a loss an outer staircase, supported by wooden pillars, and a wooden pro
reasonable master, this natural defect or peculiarity sufficiently jection into the streot. This served for his shop, and there he accounts for the fear with which Andrew took his way to school. enjoyed his afternoon lounge. This style of building was formerly
Notwithstanding this, he made good progress in Latin ; Greek, in common in old Scotch towns; particularly in Edinburgh, Kircaldy, this country, was seldom or never taught at that time in such schools. and St. Andrew's. It has now become rare in Scotland ; and the
“I do not suppose," he said, " the master could have taught it ; so specimens of it which were common in tho North of England al we began our Greek al
we began our Greek alphabet when we went to tho university." generation ago, have almost all been replaced in a manner which Tho inclination which led him to scientific studies was manifested
at this time in the earnestness with which he applied himself to cation, which originated at the Madras asylum, and has since spread arithmetic. Dissatisfied with the book of arithmetic which was its branches over divers lands. The following fact is curious :used in the school, he set about composing one for his own improve Dr. Bell was dissutisfied with the want of discipline, and the imment, taking, it is said, Mair's for the foundation. Not only his perfect instruction in every part of the school ; but more particularly leisure hours woro devoted to this object, but much nightly labour with the slow progress of the younger boys, and the unreasonable also-so early did he acquire that uncomfortable and injurious habit; length of time consumed in teaching them their letters. They were and, young as he then was, he completed the task so much to his never able to proceed without the constant aid of an usher, and, with own satisfaction, that when, about ten years afterwards, most of his that aid, months were wasted before the difficulties of the alphabet papers were lost in a shipwreck, he particularly regretted the loss were got over. Dr. Bell's tempor led him to do all things quickly, of this.
and his habits of mind to do them thoroughly, and leave nothing So early as 1769, Andrew Bell matriculated at the United Col incomplete. He tells us, that from the beginning he looked upon Jege. He was the youngest pupil in the mathemetical class, and perfect instruction as the main duty of the office with which he had obtained the prize in that class when still young enough to be charged bimself ; yet he was foiled for some time in all the means called Little Andrew; and, subsequently, “several public and hon that he devised for attaining it. Many attempts he made to eorreet ourable marks of distinguished merit and proficiency.” During the ovil in i's earliest stage, and in all he met with more or less these years, he held the Glendie bursary as next-of-kin ; his mother, opposition from the master or ushers. Every alteration which he (Margaret Robertson,) being descended from the Dean of Cashel of proposed, they considered as implying some reflection on their own that name, who founded, by his will, a bursary at St. Salvator's, for capacity or diligence ; in proportion as he interfered, they thought the benefit of his descendants. The resources derived from this themselves disparaged, and were not less displeased than surprised, privilege were, however, scanty, and young Bell was compelled to that instead of holding the office of superintendent as a sinecure, his eke them out by teaching. He diligently applied himself to mathe- intention was to devote bimself earnestly to the concerns of the matics and natural philosophy,-having for his instructor in the asylum, and more especially to the school department. Things were latter, Dr. Wilkie, the author of the “Epigoniad,"
in this state, when, happening on one of his morning rides to pass On obtaining twenty-one, Andrew Bell resolved on seeking bis | by a Malabar school, he observed the children seated on the ground, fortune in the colonies, and having received some offers from Vir and writing with their fingers in sand, which had for that purpose ginia, embarked for America, first providing himself with honourable been strewn before them. He hastened home, repeating to himself testimonials. It was in the year 1774 that he sailed from Glasgow as he went, “ Evenxa," "I have discovered it ;" and gave immeFor the next five years nothing is known. In 1779 he was enga diate orders to the usher of the lowest classes to teach the alphabet ged as private tutor at an annual salary of £200, in the family of in the same manner, with this difference only from the Malabar mode, Mr. Carter Braxton, a wealthy merchant of West Point, on the that the sand was strewn upon a board. These orders were either Hudson River. Two years later he accompanied the sons of this disregarded, or so carelessly executed, as if they were thought not gentleman to Europe, and devoted himself to their education ; and worth regarding ; and after frequent admonitions, and repeated so prudent had he been, that he was now in possession of, or held trials made without either expectation or wish of succeeding, the securities worth not less than 8 or £900, though, unfortunately, few usher at last declared it was impossible to teach the boys in that of these securities were realized. He had much trouble with the way. If he had acted on this occasion in good will, and with young men, but fought through all difficulties, until, compelled by a merely common ability, Dr. Bell might have cried Evenxo, a second combination of circumstances, he, in 1784, consented to their return. time. But he was not a man to be turned from his purpose by the Meantime, he had himself succeeded in getting ordination in the obstinacy of others, nor to be baffled in it by their incapacity ; baffled, Church of England ; and soon after obtained an appointment as however, he was now sensible that he must be, if he depended for preacher to the Episcopal chapel at Leith, with a salary of £70 a the execution of his plans upon the will. and ability of those over year ; but this he left in six months, to undertake the education of whose minds he had no command. He bethought himself of emLord Conyngham's second son, an engagement, however, in which ploying a boy, on whose obedience, disposition, and cleverness, he he was disappointed; and therefore returned to his flock. Ulti- could rely, and giving him charge of the alphabet class. The lad's mately his destination was India. Having taken farewell, by letter, name was John Frisken. He was the son of a private soldier ; had of his Leith friends, and obtained a doctor's degree, he sailed for learned his letters in the asylum, and was then about eight years Madras, and arrived there on the 2nd of June, 1787; and on the old. Dr. Bell laid the strongest injunctions upon him to follow his 10th of August was appointed chaplain to the 4th regiment, sta instructions, saying, he should look to him for the success of the tioned at Arcot. He attempted to add to his means by the delivery simple and easy method which was to be pursued, and hold him of philosophical lectures, in which he was only moderately success responsible for it. What the usher had pronounced to be impossible, ful; and on the day on which he concluded his second course, this lad succeeded in effecting without any difficulty. The alphabet sailed with his apparatus for Bengal and Calcutta, where he re was now as much better taught, as till then it had been worse, than mained two months, and then returned to Madras to receive a any other part of the boys studies; and Frisken, in consequence, shower of appointments.
was appointed permanent teacher of that class. Though Dr. Bell We now approach the grand mission of his life. When the did not immediately perceive the whole importance of this successful Madras Guvernment desired Captain Dempster to leave Dr. Bell experiment, he proceeded in the course into which he had been, as there, instead of oarrying him on to Bengal, according to his original it were, compelled.- What Frisken had accomplished with the destination, it was in comformity to an application from the com alphabet class, might, in like manner, be done with those next in mittee then employed in establishing a Military Male Orphan order, by boys selected, as he had been, for their aptitude to learn Asylum in that presidency. The committee made this application, and to teach. Accordingly, he appointed boys as assistant teachers because they looked on him as a person eminently qualified to to some of the lower classes, giving, however, Frisken the charge of superintend the education of children. The opinion so justly formed superintending both the assistants and their classes, because of his at this time of his peculiar talents, placed him in the way of prefer- experience, and the readiness with which he apprehended and exement, and enabled him to lay the foundation of his fortune ; and the cuted whatever was required from bim. This talent, indeed, the office to which he was in consequence appointed, called forth those Jad possessed in such perfection, that Dr. Bell did not hesitate to talents in the manner which has signalized his name. Dr. Bell throw upon him the entire responsibility of this part of the school. offered his services without salary. The succesive appeals to the The same improvement was now manifested in these classes as had public were successful, and application was from time to time for. taken plaoe in teaching the alphabet. This he attributed to the warded to the Court of Directors to increase their funds. Though diligence and fidelity with which his little friends, as he used to call the Company at first refused, they had help from other quarters, and them, performed his orders. To thein a smile of approbation was the affair went on prosperously, so that they were soon able to l no mean reward, and a look of displeasure a sufficient punisbment. provide for 200 boys. Rules were of course appointed ; an acting Even in this stage he felt confident that nothing inore was wanting president and select committee were nominated ; an annual exami- to bring the school into such a state as he had always proposed to nation was had ; and while Dr. Bell's solicitude increased, the himself, than to carry through the whole of the plan upon which he establishment grew into reputation and influence.
was now proceeding. And this, accordingly, was done. The It remains to trace the origin and growth of the system of edu- | experiment which from necessity had been tried at first with one
class, was systematically extended to all the others in progression ; sult of his labors and experiments in a final and authentic account and, what is most important with scholastic improvement, moral of his new system of education, and this report was accepted as a improvement, not less, in consequence of the system, is said to have record of the institution which he had established. Soon after his kept pace. For the assistant teachers, being invested with author return to Europe, he published his report, with additions, under the ity, not because of their standing in the school, retained their influ title of “ An Experiment in Education, made at the male Asylum at ence at all times, and it was their business to interpose whenever Madras, suggesting a systein by which a school or family may their interference was necessary. Such interference prevented all teach itself under the superintendence of the master or parent." He that tyranny and ill-usage, from which so much of the evil connected spared no pains in rendering the report, perfect in all its parts ; with boarding-schools arises ; and all that mischief in which some and thus laid before the public a clear description of the system, toboys are engaged by a mischievous disposition, more by mere wan gether with most abundant testimony to its success in the only en tonness, and a still greater number by the example of their com tablishment where it had been tried. panions. The boys were thus rendered inoffensive towards others, “The system" was introduced into the school of St. Botolph's, and among themselves ; and this gentle preventive discipline made Algate, in 1798, and the second practical experiment was made in them, in its sure consequences, contented and happy. A boy was the schools at Kendal, by Dr. Briggs, in the following year; an appointed over each class to marshal them when they went to incidental trial was successfully made in the Blue Coat school, and church or walked out, and to see that they duly performed the opera Dr. Bell also attempted to introduce the system into Edinburgh ; tions of combing and washing themselves. Ten boys were ap but was met by insuperable obstacles. pointed daily to clean the school-rooms, and wait upon the others at The advantages of the methods which he recommended were altheir meals. Twice a week during the hot season, and once a week timately acknowledged, and the system was adopted pretty generally during the monsoon season, they were marched by an usher to the in England; but a similar project having been put on foot by Joseph tank, and there they bathed by classes. As to any purposes of in Lancaster, a controversy arose, which eventually led to the formastruction, the master and ushers were now virtually superseded. tion of two societies, namely the National Society and the British They attended the school so as to maintain the abservance of the and Foreign School Society. This period of Dr. Bell's life manirules; though even this was scarcely necessary under Dr. Bell's fests great activity. He went from place to place, still engaged on vigilant superintendence, who now made the school the great plea- | his apostolic errand, diffusing the blessing of education wherever sure as well as the great business of his life. Their duty was, not he could. There is, however, appointed an end to all earthly lato teach, but to look after the various departments of the institution, bor ; and, in September of the year 1830, indications of declining to see that the daily tasks were performed, to take care of the boys health became apparent. Ultimately he lost the power of articulain and out of school, and to mark any irregularity or neglect either tion, and was obliged to communicate his wishes by means of a in them or the teachers. The master's principal business regarded slate and pencil ; still bis mind remained vigorous. Having during now the economy of the institution : he had charge both of the his active life accumulated a great amount of wealth, his money daily disbursements and monthly expenditure under the treasurer. now became a burthen to him. After changing his mind again The preciso date of that experiment which led to the general in and again as to its disposal, he at length suddenly transferred troduction of boy-teachers cannot be ascertained ; but that these £120,000 to trustees in St. Andrew's, Scotland, for a projected teachers had been introduced in 1791, or early in the ensuing year, college. One twelth of the amount he had placed in the hands of is certain. In private letters, written to his friends in Europe, Dr. trustees ; (£10,000) he subsequently gave to the Royal Naval Bell relates the progress of his improvements step by step, and the School, and five other twelfths he transferred to the towns of Edinimpressions made upon his own mind by tho completo success of burgh, Leith, Glasgow, Aberbeen, and Inverness. His estates in his exertions in a favourite pursuit. These letters show also how Scotland, producing about. £400 per annum, he made over to trussoon he became aware of the importance of the system which he tees for the purpose of promoting and encouraging the education of was developing and bringing to maturity.”
youth in Cupar Fife. His princely donation to St. Andrew's proved Dr. Bell had of course, to contend against the opposition of mas most unfortunate ; it involved him in disputes with the trustees, ters and ushers, with whose interests the new system seemed to be terminating only with his death, which took place at Cheltenham, inconsistent. But such opposition was but a rope of sand con England, on the 27th of January, 1832, in the 79th year of his age. trasted with the decision of his character with whom they had to His remains were removed to London on the 9th of February, and deal. The measures he took to counteract it were as various as interred in Westminster Abbey on the 14th ; the highest dignitathe kinds of annoyance resorted to, and at length succeeded in es ries and other eminent persons attending as mourners. The eletablishing reform. It was not done, however, without involving ments of his character were, a strong mind, with great perseverance, the resignation of the schoolmaster, who declared himself inca a rigorous sense of order, and a great stock of worldly prudence. pable of undergoing the fatigues involved in his duties. On Dr. Bell inquiring what duties he meant, he replied “ Almost every Lord Rosse's DiscoVERIES OF STARRY FIRMAMENTS.- As produty." He was asked also “ What fatigues ?" and he replied,
fessor Nichol very truly remarks, “investigation regarding such 4 The fatigues of the mind." Such is the state of too many pro aggregations is virtually a branch of etomic and molecular inquiry," fessors of education : they desired only mechanical employment,
with stars in place of atoms-mighty spheres in place of “dust" and a routine of tasks, involving no thougbt, and inducing none in “the firmament above" instead of "the firmament beneath." In their unfortunate pupils. That this mental indolence has in a great
fact, the astronomer, in sweeping with his telescopic eye, the “ blue part been now corrected, is due to Dr. Bell's perseverance and saga depths of ether," is as it were some Lilliputian inhabitant of an city. The boy Frisken proved a capital coadjutor to the doctor ;
atom prying into the autumnal structure of some Brobdignagian though only eleven years of age, he taught all the younger classes,
world of sawdust, organized into spiral and other elementary forms, amounting to a third of the whole school. The education at the of life, it may be, something like our own. The infinite height asylum, under Dr. Bell's superintendence, was so complete as far as appears in short like the infinite depth, and we knowing not preit went, and the character of the boys so good, that applications cisely where we stand between the two immensities of depth and were made for them from all quarters. Of one of those boys, named height? The shapes evolved by the wonderlul telescope of Lord Smith, an interesting account is given, for which, however, our
Rosse are, many of them, absolutely fantastical ; wonder and awe readers must consult the work itself ; where they will find recorded
are mingled with almost ridiculous feelings in contemplating the the scientific accomplishments of the celebrated Tippoo Sultan.
strange apparitions-strange monstrosities we had almost called them Attached as Dr. Bell was to India, still he was haunted occa --that are pictured on the black ground of the illustrations. One sionally by a desire to return home. The state of his health re aggregation looms forth out of the darkness like the skeleton face of quired change of air. For this purpose he went to Pondicherry, some tremendous mammotb or other monstrous denizen of ancient to Tanjore, and to Trichinopoly, but still his health declined. times, with two small fiery eyes, however, gazing out of its great Nevertheless, long after he had obtained- leave to return, he still hollow orbits. Another consists of a central uncleus, with arms lingered on the scene of his labors. At length, however, leaving of stars radiating forth in all directions, like a starfish, or like the the superintendence of the Orphan Asylum to the care of Mr. Kerr, 1 scattering fire sparks of some pyrotechnic wheel revolving. A he prepared to return to England.
third resembles a great wisp of straw, or twist or coil of ropes--a Previous to quitting India, Dr. Beil took care to embody the ro. fourth a cork-screw or other spiral seen on end-a fifth a crab--ą sixth a dum-bell--many of them scroll or scrolls of some thin tex- \ with the utmost care: for it is here and here alone, that we can disture seen edgewise, and so on. It is even a suggestion of the cover the nature and character of first principles. An altention to author's that some of the spiral and armed wheels may be revolving the commencement and development of their ideas would correct yet in the vast ocean of space in which they are engulphed. Thus many of our speculative polions, and confute m.st of the sentiments has the telescope traced the “birding" influences of the Pleiades, of abstract philosophers, respecting what they so confidently adJoosened the bands of " Orion”—erst the chief nebulous hazy won vance concerning these first principles.-Rrid. ders, once and for all revealing jis separate stars ; and thos, in brief, has this wondrous instrument "unrolled the bravens as scroll."
BE KIND TO YOUR MOTHER. Yet even these astonishing results are as nothing to the fact that those fantastic shapes which it has revealed in the depths of this
Filial kindness is a'ways beautiful. There is not a more touchlambo of creation, are not shapes merely of the present time—that
ing picture in the Bible, than that of Ruth, while answering the thousands of years have passed since the light that showed them
intreaties of her mother-in-law, Naomi, to return unto her own left the starry firmaments only now revealed-ihat the telescope, in
people. "Whither thou goest, I will go, and where thou lodgest, short, in reflecting these astonishing shapes, deliver to the eye of
I will lodge-thy people shall be my peopie, and thy God my God; mind turned inward on the long stored records of a universal and where thon diest, I will die, and there will I be buried.' eternal memory of the past, than to a mere eye of sense looking out
"I will never marry a man who does not treat his mother well,' ward on the things of passing time !-The Builder.
said a lively friend to us once. And why not? we queried. If he is unkind to her, to whom he is so deeply indebted,' she replied,
what need one expect from him, to whom he owes comparatively Youths' Department.
nothing ? There was sound philosophy in this remark. Most of
our truly great men have been noted for the kindness--yea, referTHE CHILD'S DREAM.
ence, even--with which they have treated their mothers. WashBY WM. BARR.
ington revered his ; Roger Sherman treated his with the most
marked attention ; and it was one of the famous Judge Story's last Oh, stay by my couch to-night, Mother,
requests, that he might be buried beside his mother, in Mount And sing ine some beautiful song: For I fain would dream as I dreamed last night, .
Auburn. But filial respect and love is not often rewarded as in the For my eyes would gaze at that wondrous sigut,
Gustavus III., King of Sweden, passing one morning through a
village, in the neighbourhood of the castle, observed a young peaBright spirits of light in their shining plumes,
sant girl of interesting appearance drawing water at a fountain at Where sunlight no longer that land illumes,
the wayside. He went up to her, and asked her for a draught. There hovered in shining bands!
Without delay, she lifted up her pitcher, and, with artless simpliBright forms, on dazzling wings, Mother,
city, put it to the lips of the monarch. Having satisfied his thirsl, Went by on their flashing round; And trembled the cords of their golden Tyres,
and courteously thanked his benefüctress, he said, “My girl, if you Aud anthems of praise from the heavenly choirs
would accompany me to Stockholm, I would endeavour to fix you Through the star-lit courts resouod.
in a more agreeable situation.' And happier forms were there, Mother,
"Ah, Sir,' replied the girl, I cannot accept your proposal. I am Than bloom in this time bound sphere; And the joyful acclaim of that blood-washed throng
not anxious to rise above the slate of life in which the Providence As they chanted the strains of the heavenly song,
of God has placed me; but if I were, I could not for an instant There fell on my raptured ear.
* And why ? rejoined the King, somewhat surprised.
• Because,' answered the girl, colouring, my mother is poor and And chanted the notes of the seraphim's song
sickly, and has no one hut me to assist or comfort her under her A cherub serenely bright!
many afflictions ; and no earthly bribe could induce me to leave her, And she sang the song we sung, Mother,
or to neglect the duties which affection requires from me.'
Where is your mother ? asked the inonarch.
In that little cabin,' replied the girl, poin:ing to a wretched
hovel beside her.
The King, whose feelings were interested in favour of his com-
panion, went in, and beheld stretched on a bedstead, whose only As dying, “Sweet Mother, good bye-good bye ;
covering was a little straw, an aged female, weighed down with I'll meet you in Heaven,” she said.
years and sinking under infirmities. Moved at the sight, the moOh, there was no misery there, Mother,
narch addressed her:-
I am sorry, my poor woman, to find you in so destitute and
afflicted a condition.' Envenomed its zephyrs bland.
Alas, Sir, answered the venerable sufferer, I should be indeed She quitted the blazing ranks, Mother,
to be pitied, had I not that kind and attentive girl, who labours to And quick to me hastening sped ; And the shining curls of her golden hair
support me, and omits nothing she thinks can afford me relief. Were kissed by the gales of that redolent air,
May a gracious God remeniber. it for her good,' she added, wiping As sweetly, dear Mother, she said.
away a tear.
Never, perhaps, was Gustavus more sensible than at that mo-
ment, of the pleasure of possessing an exalted station ; and putting Through its changeless bowers we'll sweetly roam,
a purse into the hand of the young villager, he could only say, And join in the heavenly choir."
• Continue to take good care of your mother; I shall soon enable Oh, stay by my couch to-night, Mother,
you to do so more effectually. Good bye, my amiable girl-you And sing me some beautiful song;
may depend on the promise of your King,
On his return to Stockholm, Gustavus settled a pension for life
on her mother, with the reversion to ber daughter, at her death
N. Y. Home Journal. OBSERVB CHILDREN.—Nothing, perhaps, would conduce so much to the knowledge of the human mind, as a close attention to the THE Rum BON-FIRE.-One day, when the Marshal in Poruand actions and thoughts of very young children ; and yet no branch poured a quantity of liquor into the streets, the boys got some in the history of human nature is more neglected. The pleasant matches and set fire to it, and it burned blue. Thus they had a rum and extravagant notions of the infantile mind amuse for the instant, bon-fire. Well, it was better that the boys should burn the rum, and are immediately forgotton, whereas they merit to be registered | than that the rum should burn the boys.