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“ Poor School,” in 1808. The principles on which this school

I. Modern Systems of Education and their Founders. No. IV. Count de was established, were to employ agriculture as the means of moral

Fellenberg ......
II. Collateral Advantages of a well Organized System of Public Schools

education for the poor, and to make their labours the means of de(continued)...... III. Youth's DEPARTMENT. 1. To a Child (poetry). 2. From my Mother, Sir.

fraying the expense of their education. In this institution, Vehrli 3. Religious Education. 4. Are you kind to your Mother ? 3. Perse

attained that practical knowledge of teaching, which fitted him for verance...............................

148 IV. MISCELLANEOUS. 1. John Milton-an incident in his life. 2. Dr. John Ley

his higher work in the Normal School at Kruitzlingen. den. 3. A Connecticut Parish. 4. Recent Ascent of Mount Blanc.

About the same time, a school of “Theoretical and Practical 5. The Garden of Eden. 6. The Frenchman at his English Studies. 7. Lamartine's Portrait of M. de Stael. 8. The Good and the Beautiful.

Agriculture" for all classes, was formed and provided with profes9. Noble Sentiment of Sir H. Davy. 10. Good Nature. 11. Napoleon's

sors. To this school several hundred students resorted annually. Soldiers. 12. Teaching. 13. Soul vs. Marble. 14. Fame........... 149 V. EDITORIAL. 1. Rights, Powers, and Duties of School Trustees and Municipal In the same year, Fellenberg commenced the formation of a Normal

Councils in Townships. 2. Practical Lessons on Education from
Boston. 3. Popular Education among the Ancient Hebrews. 4. Pro-

School, or seminary for teachers, at his own expense, inviting one of gress of the Common Schools in Upper Canada, froin an American point

the most distinguished educators of the day to conduct it. Fortyof view. 3. Promotion of Education in England.......


152 2. British and Foreign. 3.

two teachers, of the canton of Berne, came together the first year United States. ................ ............... ..............


and received a course of instruction in the art of teaching. So


160 great was the zeal inspired by the liberality of Fellenberg, and the

course of instruction, that the teachers were content to prolong MODERN SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION AND THEIR their stay beyond their first intention, and to lodge in tents, in lack FOUNDERS.

of other accommodations on the premises. Owing to some jealousy EMANUEL, COUNT DE FELLENBERG.-BORN 1874. Died 1846,

and low party intrigue, the government of Berne interfered with his ÆTas 72 Yeaks.

plan of bringing the teachers of the canton annually together for a No. IV.

similar course, and henceforth the benefits were open only to The great educational establishment of M. de Fellenberg at

teachers from other cantons, and to such as belonged to the School Hofwyl, in the canton of Berne, has attracted more attention, and

of Agricolture. The teachers, after one of these annual courses, exerted a wider influence, than any one institution in Europe or

presented an address to de Fellenberg, from which the following is America, during the present century. It originated in motives of

an extract. It is addressed to "the worthy Father and Friend of patriotism and benevolence, about the year 1805, and was sustained

the People.” for forty years by personal efforts and pecuniary sacrifices on the

" When we reflect that without education no true happiness is part of its founder, which have never been equalled among men of

to be attained, and that this can only be secured by means of wellhis wealth, and social position. Born to every advantage of educa

taught and virtuous teachers; and when we recollect that you have tion which wealth and rank could secure, advanced early to posi

devoted yourself to the object without regard to the sacrifice it may tions of trust and influence in public life, enjoying extensive oppor

require, we must rejoice that this age is favoured with such a tunities of observation by travel in the most refined nations, thrown

friend of his country; and when we remember the kindness and by the political convulsions of his country and of Europe, from 1790

friendship with which we have been treated at Hofwyl, we are comto 1805, much among the people and their rulers, De Fellenberg

pelled to give you our affection as well as our admiration, and which became convinced that improvement in early education was the only

will not diminish as long as our hearts beat, and our children shall

learn to say, 'So lived and laboured Father de Fellenberg.'* Wo resource for the permanent strength and elevation of the state of his own and other countries. To this object, at the age of thirty

will not enter here into any particular statement of our views conone, he consecrated himself and his fortune. Being possessed of

cerning the course of instruction we have received, which we shall ample means, be resolved to form on his own estate, and on an in

in due time make known to the public: we will only say, for your dependent basis, a model institution, in which it should be proved

own satisfaction, that this course has far exceeded our expectations, what education could accomplish for the benefit of humanity. Out

by its complete adaptation to practical life, by the skill and efforts of this determination arose the Institution at Hofwyl.

of your assistants, and by the moral and religious spirit with which He commenced with two or three boys from abroad, with his own

the whole has been animated. We have been led to enter with a children, in his own house ; and from time to time received others,

fervent devotion into a sacred engagement, that we will live and but never more than two or three new pupils at once, that they might

labour in our calling in the spirit which you have exhibited, and fall insensibly into the habits of the school, without producing any

thus prove to you that your nuble sacrifices have not been vain. effect upon its general state. In 1807, the firet building was

We are more deeply penetrated than ever before with a sense of erected for the “ Literary Institution," and the number of pupils

the sacredness of our calling. We are resolved to conduct ourincreased to eighty, mostly from patrician families. During this

selves with prudence and caution, in affection and union, with unyear he projected an institution for indigent children, and employed

yielding and conscientious faithfulness, in the discharge of our duty, Vehrli, the son of a schoolmaster of Thurgovia, in the execution of

and thus to prove ourselves worthy of your Institution.” the plan, aster training him in his own family. The farm-house of

In continuation of our brief sketch of de Fellenberg's establishment the establishment was assigned for this school, and here Vehrli re

at Hofwyl, we will add that, from 1810 to 1817, it attracted the atceived the pupils taken from among the poorest families in the neigh

tention of educators and statesmen in Switzerland and all parts of bourhood. He left the table of M. de Fellenberg, and shared their

Europe. Pupils were sent from Russia, Germany, France, and straw beds and vegetable diet, because their fellow-labourer on the

England. Deputations from foreign governments visited it, to farm, and companion in hours of relaxation, as well as their teacher,

This title was habitually given to De Fellenberg by the Swiss teachers and youth and thus laid the foundation of the “ Agricultural Institution," or " who appreciated his character, or who had experienced ius kindness.

learn especially the organization of the School of Agriculture, and facility, and should learn to discover the beauty of forms, and to the Poor, or Rural School. In 1815, a new building was erected distinguish them from their contrasts. It is only where the talent to accommodate the increasing number of the Agricultural School, is remarkable that the attempt should be made to render the pupil the lower part of which was occupied as a riding-school and gym an artist. nasium. In 1818 another building became necessary for the resi The cultivation of the ear by means of vocal and instrumental dence of the professors, and the reception of the friends of the music is not less important to complete the development of the hupupils ; and soon after a large building, now the principal one of man being. The organs of speech, the memory, the understandthe establishment, with its two wings, was erected for the Litera ing, and the taste, should be formed in the same manner by instrucry Institution, which furnished every accommodation that could be tion, and a great variety of exercises in language, vocal music, and desired for health or improvement. In 1823 another building was declamation. The same means should also be employed to cultierected, in the garden of the mansion, for a school of poor girls, vate and confirm devotional feelings. which was placed under the direction of the oldest daughter of In the study of natural history the power of observation is deFellenberg ; and in 1827 the Intermediate or Practical Institution veloped in reference to natural objects. In the history of mankind was established.

the same faculty is employed upon the phenomena of human naThe Practical Institution, or “Real School," was designed for ture and human relations, and the moral taste is cultivated, at the the children of the middle classes of Switzerland, and not solely same time the faculty of conceiving with correctness, and of emfor the same class in the Canton of Berne, aiming thereby to assi ploying and combining with readiness, the materials collected by milate the youth of the whole country into common feelings and the mind, and especially the reasoning faculty, should be brought principles of patriotism, by being educated together, and on one into exercise, by means of forms and numbers, exhibited in their systein. The course of instruction jpcluded all the branches which multiplied and varied relations. were deemed important in the education of youth not intended for The social life of our pupils contributes materially to the forthe professions of law, medicine and theology. The pupils be mation of their moral character. The principles developed in their longed to families of men of business, mechanics, professional experience of practical life among themselves, which gradually men, and persons in public employment, whose means did not allow extends with their age and the progress of their minds, serves as them to furnish their children an education of accomplishments, the basis of this branch of education. It presents the examples and who did not wish to have them estranged from the simplicity and occasions necessary for exhibiting and illustrating the great of the paternal mansion. In view of these circumstances, the principles of morals. According to the example of Divine Provibuildiogs, the furniture, the table, and the dress of the pupils, were dence, we watch over this little world in which our pupils live and arranged in correspondence to the habits in these respects of their act, with an ever vigilant, but often invisible care, and constantly families at home. In addition to an ordinary scholastic course, endeavor to render it more pure and noble. the pupils were all employed two hours in manual labor on the At the same time that the various improvements of science and farm, in a garden plot of their own, in the mechanic's shop, and art are applied to the benefit of our pupils, their sound religious in household offices, such as taking care of rooms, books and tools. edncation should be constantly kept in view in every branch of

The following summary of the principles of education, as study ; this is also the object of a distinct series of lessons, which developed in the experience of Fellenberg, is gathered also from generally continue through the whole course of instruction, and this work, and from a letter of his directed to Lady Byron, who whose influence is aided by the requisite exercises of devotion. has established and supports a School of Industry at Earling, after By the combination of means I have described, we succeed in the model of the Rural School at Hofwyl:

directing our pupils to the best methods of pursuing their studies “ The great object of education is to develop all the faculties independently ; we occupy their attention, according to their indiof our nature, physical, intellectual, and moral, and to endeavour ta vidual necessities and capacities, with philology, the ancient and train and unite them into one harmonious system, which shall forin modern languages, the mathematics, and their various modes of apthe most perfect character of which the individual is susceptible ; plication, and a course of historical studies, comprising geography, and thus prepare him for every period, and every sphere of action statistics, and political economy. to which he may be called. It is only by means of the harmoni Moral Education.—The example of the instructor' is 'all imous development of every faculty of our nature, in one connected portant in moral education. The books which are put into the system, that we can hope to see complete men issue from our insti pupils' hands are of great influence. The pupil must be constantly tions- men who may become the saviors of their country, and the surrounded with stimulants to good actions in order to form his benefactors of mankind. To form such characters is more impor habits. A new institution should be begun with so small a number tant than to produce mere scholars, however distinguished, and this of pupils, that no one of them can escape the observation of the is the object on which the eye of the educator should be fixed, and educator and his moral influence. The general opinion of the to which every part of his instruction and discipline should be pupils is of high importance, and hence should be carefully directed. directed, if he means to fill the exalted office of being a fellow Intimate intercourse between pupils and their educators begets conworker with God.'”

fidence, and is the strongest means of moral education. The edu“On the reception of a new pupil, our first object is to obtain an cator must be able to command himself-his conduct must be firm accurate knowledge of his individual character, with all its resources and just ; frequent reproofs from such are more painful to the pupil and defects, in order to aid in its further development, according to than punishment of a momentary sort. the apparent intention of the Creator. To this end, the individual, While influences tending directly to lead the pupil astray should independent activity of the pupil is of much greater importance be removed from the school, he must be left to the action of the than the ordinary, busy officiousness of many who assume the office ordinary circumstances of life, that his character may be developed of educators and teachers. They too often render the child a mere accordingly. The pupil should be led as far as possible to correct magazine of knowledge, collected by means purely mechanical, his faults by perceiving the consequences of them ; the good or which furnishes bim neither direction nor aid in the business of bad opinion of his preceptor and comrades are important means of life. The more ill-digested knowledge a man thus collects, the siimulation. Exclusion from amusements, public notice of faults, more oppressive will be the burden to its possessor, and the more and corporal punishment, are all admissible. Solitary confinement painful his helplessness. Instead of pursuing this course, we en is efficacious as a punishment. Rewards and emulation are unnedeavor, by bestowing the utmost care upon the cultivation of the cessary as motives. conscience, the understanding, and the judgment, to light up a Religion and morality are too intimately connected to admit of torch in the mind of every pupil, which shall enable him to ob séparation in the courses inculcating them. The elementary part serve his own character, and shall set in the clearest light all the of such a course is equally applicable to all sects. exterior objects which claim his attention.

No good is to be derived from employing the pupils as judges or All the various relations of space should be presented to the eye, juries, or giving them a direct share in awarding punishment for to be observed and combined in the manner best adapted to form offences. It is apt to elevate the youth in his own conceit. the coup d'ail. Instruction in design renders us important services Family life is better adapted, than any artificial state of society in this respect-every one should thus attain the power of repro within an institution, to develop the moral sentiments and feelings ducing the forms he has observed, and of delineating them with 1 of youth.

Intellectual Education.--A system of prizes, or emulation, and

For the Journal of Education. the fear of punishment, do not afford the strongest motives to in ON SOME OF THE COLLATERAL ADVANTAGES WHICH tellectual exertion. Experience shows that places in a class may MAY BE DERIVED FROM A WELL ORGANIZED be dispensed with. It is possible to develop a taste for knowledge,

SYSTEM OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS. a respect and attachment for teachers, and a sense of duty which

(Continued froun page 129.) will take the place of any lower motive in inducing the requisite

In the last number of this Journal we stated our intention of amount of study.

endeavouring to indicate what and how to observe in Canada. It In the higher departments of instruction it is better to confine

is almost needless to remark, that in any attempt to deduce genthe task of the teacher tu giving instruction merely, placing the

eral laws from the results of simultaneous observations made at pupil under the charge of a special educator, at times when he is

different posts, over a wide tract of country, it is of the utmost not engaged in the class-room,

importance that there should exist no difference whatever in the With the other, and more useful branches of instruction, correct modo of observing and recording the phenomena to which meteorideas of natural history and phenomena should be communicated to ologists attach importance. It is equally essential that the collator children, and require, first, that they shall be duly trained to obser and theorist should be able to place implicit reliance on the truthvation by calling the observing faculties into frequent exercise. fulness of the observations they may be engaged in arranging and Second, that they shall be made acquainted with the elements of intorproting. With regard then to observers, trustworthynoss is natural history, especially in reference to familiar objects. Third, the first quality to be asked for ; indeed without this character, that the most familiar phenomena of natore, such as thunder and their observations are worse than useless, they are highly injurious. lightning, the rainbow, &c. ; and further, the most simple princi The third class of observers recognized by the Smithsonian ples of the mechanic arts, trades, &c., should be explained to them. Institution is composed of those who observe without instruments Fourth, they should be taught to draw, in connection with the the progress of vegetation, the course of the winds, the time of other instruction. Accuracy of conception is favored by drawing, rain-fall, and the state and appearance of the sky and atmosphere. and it is a powerful aid to the memory. The most important princi Quetelet in his instructions for the observation of periodic pbe. ples of physiology, and their application to the preservation of | nomena, published by the authority of the Royal Academy of Brushealth, should form a part of the instruction.

sels, lays much stress upon the progress of vegetation. He Physical Education.—Pure air, a suitable diet, regular exercise

considers that it is especially by means of the simultaneousness of and repose, and a proper distribution of time, are the principal

observations made at a great number of stations, that these remeans of physical education. It is as essential that a pupil leave

searches are invested with a high degree of importance. A single his studies during the time appropriated to relaxation, as that he

plant studied with care presents us with the most interesting facts. study during the hours devoted to that purpose. Voluntary exer

We are enabled to trace on the surface of the globe, synchronitic cise is to be encouraged by providing suitable games, by affording

lines for its leafing, its flowering, its fruiting, &c. The lilac, for opportunities for gardening, and by excursions, and by bathing.

instance, flowers in the neighbourhood of Brussels on the 5th of Regular gymnastic exercises should be insisted on as the means

May ; we can easily conceive a line traced on the surface of the of developing the body; a healthy action of the bodily frame has

earth, upon which the flowering of this shrub occurs at the same an important influence on both mind and morals. Music is to be

period of time, as well as the lines on which its flowering is adconsidered as a branch of physical education, having powerful mo

vanced or retarded, ten, twenty or thirty days. Quetelet asks, aro ral influence. The succession of study, labor, musical instruction,

these lines equidistant from one another ? Are they analogous to or play, slould be carefully attended to. The hours of sleep should

the isothermal lines, or lines of equal temperature? What are the be regulated by the age of the pupil. Experience has taught me

I relations which exist between them? Again, have the lines of that indolence in young persons is so directly opposite to their na

simultaneous flowering a parallelism with the lines relating to si. tural disposition to activity, that unless it is the consequence of bad

multaneous leafing, or to other distinguishing characteristics in education, it is almost invariably connected with some constitu

the development of the vegetable in question. We may fupposo tional defect. The great art of education, therefore, consists in

that while the lilac begins to flower at Toronto on the 2nd of Juno, knowing how to occupy every moment of life in well-directed and

there exist a series of places towards the North where this shrub useful activity of the youthful powers, in order that, as far as pos

only begins to push forth its leaves at that date-but the line which sible, nothing evil may find room to develop itself.”.

we may conceive to intersect those localities has a certain con

nection with the line of simultaneous flowering and fruiting to M. de Fellenberg died in 1846, and his family discontinued the

the South. We are led to inquire whether those localities, where educational establishments at Hofwyl, in 1848, except “the Poor

the leafing of certain shrubs or vegetables takes place on the same School," which is now placed under a single teacher, and the pupils

day, witness also their flowering and fruiting at the same relative are employed in the extensive operations of the farm to acquire a

epoch. If not, what effect has the difference in point of durapractical knowledge of agriculture. But the principles developed

tion upon the flowers or fruits of vegetables ? What effect has it by the distinguished philanthropist and educator, have become em

upon the sample and yield of grain-producing crops? What on bodied in the educational institutions of his native country and of

root crops ? What on pasture and hay? These are important Europe. This is particularly true of the grent aim of all his labors

questions, in their bearings upon agriculture ; these are also espoto develop all the faculties of our nature, physical, intellectual and

cially important in Canada West, where vegetation advances some moral, and to train and unite them into one harmonious system, which shall form the most perfect character of which the individual

degrees to the north of its corresponding curve to the east und west

of the great Lakes which ameliorate the climate of the peninsula is susceptible, and thus prepare him for every period, and every

portion of the Province and thus give it very marked advantages sphere of action to which be mav be called.-[Abridged from “ Nor

in many respects over other portions of this continent, lying between mal Schools, &c., by the Hon. H. Barnard, pp. 157-162.

the same parallels of latitude. We thus see how the most simple

phenomena may afford us many curious and interesting results, and RELIGIOUS EDUCATION.-As “ the chief corner stone" of a reli ostablish in a manner most conclusive and satisfactory tho characgious education, the minds of the young should be very frequently ter of our climate in favourable comparison with those of surrounddirected towards our blessed Saviour. They may not be able to ing countries ; besides exhibiting a distinct outline of those harappreciate all his labours of love, to understand all his divine in monious laws which govern the existence of every thing that has structions, to comprehend all the gracious purposes of his death, and life in the vegetable and animal worlds. resurrection, and mediation ; but I know that, at a very early age, For the phenomena relating to the animal kingdom, and especially they may become truly interested in his character and sufferings. thoso which concern the migration of birds of passage, afford reI have seen the cheeks of an intelligent child suffused with tears sults equally remarkable and interesting. To the honour of tho whilst reading the indignities of the judgment-hall, and the awful | Regents of the University of the State of New York be it spoken, sufferings of Calvary. And when the heart is thus impressed, that they are the only scientific body who have for a considerable every word from the lips of the gracious Being who has become period of time (26 years) given due attention to a system of simulsuch an object of affectionate interest, is received with reverence taneous observations extending over a large extent of country, and and respect.

have at the same time published collected results from year to year. The subjoined table affords an illustration of the mode in which have no recommendation but that of novelty. One ought every day observations on the progress of vegetation may serve to indicate to hear a little music, to read a little poetry, to see a good picture, the character of the seasons at different localities.

and, if it were possible, to say a few reasonable words.-Goethe. Florering Seasons of the Peach, Cherry and Apple, for various localities

Youths' Department.
Year 1844. Latitude. Peach. Cherry. | Apple.
Madison, Wis. 430.5 April 15.

April 26.

TO A CHILD. Lambertville, N. J. 400.23 u 14. April 17. April 19.

BY T. K. HERVEY. lear 1845. Madison,

Just out of heaven!-grace from And breezes not from Paradise
April 30. May

1. May 6.

Shall chill thee on thy way;
Lambertville, -
April 3. April 11. April 19. Around ihy forehead clings, Where hills that seem for ever near

And tancy gazes till her eye
Year 1846.

. Shall fade before thy cheated eyes, Cao almost see thy wings.

And shouts of laughter in thine ear, Madison, - - May 2. May 2. May 8.

The world, as yet, hath laid no stain Sink, wailing, into sighs;Lambertville, - April 19. April 19. April 24. Upon thy spirit's light,

Where thou shalt find hope's thouNor sorrow flung a single chain

sand streams Year 1847,

Upon its sunny flight.

| All flow to memory's gloomy river, Madison, - - . | 439.5 May 5. May 5. May 10.

The rose upon thy cheek still wears | Whose waves are fed by perish'd

dreams Lambertvile, - 409.23 April 22. April 26. May

The colour of its birth; 4.

Its hues unwithered by the tears For ever and for ever; Sandusky, Ohio, - | 419.30 April 21. April 25. April 28. And breezes of the earth;

Where guilt may stamp her burning And round the lints of beauty, yet,

brand Year 1850.

The gleams of glory play,

Upou thy soul's divinest part, Madison, - -

- May 15. May 18. As thou hast left the skies of late And grief must lay her icy hand Lambertville, . April 24. April 28. May 1.

And in their starry plains hadst met Upon thy shrinking heart;
The rainbow on thy way;

| Till-like a wounded sipking bird Sandusky - - May 1 May 4. May 13. And like the bird that pours its lay Joy's song may never more be heard,

Its own bright paths along,

And peace, that built within thy From the foregoing table we should infer—if reliance could be

Thy foot-steps dance along thy way, l. breast, placed upon its accuracythat the differences between the times Unio thine own heart's song! May perish in its very pest; of the flowering of the Peach, Cherry and Apple, at Madison and

Oh: thus that it might ever be! And youth, within thy darkened eye

But onward, onward, darkly driven, Grow old, and cease to prophecy; Lambertville, are respectively 13, 15 and 17 days. In other words, I The world shall be too cold for thee; Till thou, amid thy soul's decline, we might suppose that the season at Lambertville was one fort Of such as thee is heaven.

And o'er thy spiri:'s ruin'd shrine. night earlier than at Madison in Wisconsin-and this will probably

That thou migh'st ever be as now! And o'er the forms that haunt thy
How brightly on thy childish brow

sleep be very near the truth, though not sufficiently near for scientific Is heaven's sign unfurld!

To fade with night-may'st sit and purposes, in determining the lines of simultaneous flowering-and

Thou walk'st amid our darker day, weep: other characteristics of the climate of a country from allied data.

Like angels who have lost their way, Like me, 'may'st vainly weep and
And wandered to the world.

pray It may be well to describe the reason why such observations are | Oh! that thou might at once go back, To be the thing thou art to-day,.. not strictly scientific. It is evident that in their present form they Nor tempt the sad and onward track And wish the wish-as old as wild

Wbere lights that are not of the skies Thou were, again, a playful child. logo a portion of the interest with which they might be invested, if

Shall lead thy wandering teet astray; || the time of leafing and fruiting were given ; the observations are not complete they do not comprehend the history of the annual “FROM MY MOTHER, Sır."-A few days since a case came up progress of the vegetable from the formation to the fall of its leaves ; in the U. S. District Court in Philadelphia, in which a captain of a then again, some varieties of peach, cherry and apple, flower and vessel was charged with some offence on shipboard by his crew. fruit long before other varieties. We do not know the particular | An incident occurred in the hearing of the case, which excited a varieties of trees on which the observations were made. These deep feeling in court and in all present. considerations diminish the value of what would be otherwise highly A small lad was called to the witness's stand. He had been a important and interesting records. The first object then, after hand on board the barque at Pernambuco, and was present during engaging trustworthy associates in a comprehensive scheme, is to the controversy between the captain and the crew. The shaggy select for observation some kinds of common and hardy vegetables appearance of his head, and the bronzed charncter of his face and indigenous to the country. We must in fact reject from our list neck, from the exposure of a Southern sun, at first sight, would all which, upon cultivation, give rise to numerous varieties, such as seem to indicate carelessness and neglect ; but underneath that long roses, tulips, &c. We should also reject all those which show a 1 and matted hair, the fire of intelligence gleamed from a pair of disposition to put forth their leaves and flowers at different periods small and restless eyes, which could not be mistaken. The counsel of time ; finally, we must reject all wild annual plants. The only for the captain, from the extreme youth of the lad, doubted whether exceptions which are admissable among biennual plants are the he understood the obligation of an oath he was about to take, and winter grains, because the time of sowing arid the variety cultivated, with a view to test his knowledge, asked loave to interrogate him. can be always determined. In naming the species of vegetables This was granted, and the following colloquy took place: upon which observations may be made with every prospect of ob Counsel —"My lad, do you understand the obligation of an taining highly useful information, we shall adopt those which have been especially marked out by Quetelel, and the Regents of the BoyYes, sir, I do.” University of the State of New York. It will perhaps be well to Counsel“ What is the obligation ?' observe that observations in the vegetable kingdom are of two Boy"To speak the truth, and keep nothing hid." kinds :- 1st. Those which relate to the annual period of a plant. Counsel" Where did you learn this, my lad." 2nd. Those which relate to its diurnal period.

Boy“From my mother, sir," replied the lad, with a look of The annual period is the time which elapses between the succes | pride, which showed how much he esteemed the early moral prinsive returns of the leaves, flowers and fruit. The diurnal period oiples implanted in his breast by her to whom was committed his comprises the time of the opening and shutting of the leaves of physical and moral existence. the flowers. The same kinds of plants, it is to be observed, open For a moment there was a deep silence in the court room, and and shut their leaves at the same hours of the day, in the same

then, eye met eye, and face gleamed to face with the recognition locality.

of a mother's love and moral principle which has made their fixed (To be continued.)

expression upon this boy, it seemed as if the spectators would forget

the decorum due to the place, and give audible expression to their THE GOOD AND BEAUTIFUL.—Man is so inclined to give himself emotions. The lad was instantly admitted to testify. up to common pursuits, the mind becomes so easily dulled to im Behold the mother's power! Often had evil influence and corrupt pressions of the beautiful and perfect, that one should take all pos example assailed this boy. Time and care, and exposure to the sible means to awaken one's perspective faculty to such objects, or battling elements had worn away the lineaments of the infant face, no one can entirely dispense with these pleasures; and it is only and bronzed his once fair exterior, but deeply nestled in his bosom the being unaccustomed to the enjoyment of anything good that still the lessons of a mother's love, which taught him to love and causes men to find pleasure in tasteless and trivial objects, which I speak the truth.

oath ?

ARB YOU KIND TO YOUR MOTHER ? Come, my little boy, and | Lost," exalting his name among the stars, to illumine the sons of you, my little girl, what answer can you give ine .o this question ? | light for ages to come. As neglect, and scorn, and persecution, Who was it that watched over you when you were a helpless baby ? | and poverty did not kill the blind old man, the heart of Charles Who pursed and fondled you, and never grow weary in her love ? | secms to have relented, or rather, perhaps, he resolved to buy himWho kept you from the cold by night, and the heat by day? Who for who ever heard of a Stuart with heart enough to relent? For guarded you in health, and comforted you when you were ill ? this purpose the King offered him the office of Latin Secretary, Who was it that wept when the fever made your skin feel hot, and from which he was removed a few years before, at the restoration. your pulse beat quick and hard? Who hung over your little bed Contemplate the nobly endowed old man, at this critical moment of when you were fretful, and put the cooling drink to your parchied

his history. On the one side was royal favour, honourable office Tips ? Who sang the pretty hymn to please you as you lay, or under the crown, with bis ample rewards, and all the attentions and knelt down by the side of the bed in prayer ? Who was glad when blandishments of a rich and titled nobility. By holding on to his you began to get well, and who carried you into the fresh air, to prineiples, he could not hope to change the government. What use help your recovery? Who taught you how to pray, and gently then in adhering to them? On the other side was neglect, poverty helped you to learn to read? Who has borne with your faulls, and and want, and contumely, and the scorn and derision of the aspirbeen kind and patient with your childish ways? Who loves you ants of the day. Milton was unmoved by the bribe. He promptly still, and contrives, and works, and prays for you every day you declined the office and the honour which his sovereign tendered, live? Is it not your mother, your own dear mother? Now, then, and passing his remaining days in the quietness of obscurity. And let me ask you, Are you kind to your mother? There are many when the angel of death came to release his celestial spirit, he fulways in which children show whether they are kind or not. Do

filled his mission so gently, that even his attendants did not observe you always obey her, and try to please her ? When she speaks,

the moment of his departure.- Southern Presbyterian. are you ready to attend to her voice? or do you neglect what she wishes you to do? Do you love to make her heart feel glad ?


It is long since Dr. Leyden died, and the rocord of his life may PERSEVERANCB.-Let not the failure of your first efforts deter be considered old ; yet it

be considered old; yet it really is not so, for the example of his you. Alexander Bethune's first effort for print was a contribution energy and the greatness of his genius are too precious to humanto the “ Amethyst ;" but the lady at whose request he wrote it, ad- ity to be allowed to wane into the shades of forgetfulness. Besides,

ity to be allowed to wane vised him not to send it. He wrote an article for “Blackwood," his ecoentricities and enthusiasm invest his personal history with an and it was declined. A host of others have tried, and they have interest that is always new. failed; but where there has been a firm aud settled purpese to suc He was born one of the poorest of Scotland's poor peasantry, ceed, they have tried, and tried and tried again, and in the end they and his early life was passed in superlative indigence, yet the vigour have been successful.

of his fame, and the majesty of his intellect, liftod him triumphantly Let not the unfavourable opiniou of others deter you. Xeno above tho depressions of his condition, and eventually placed him crates was a disciple of Plato, and a fellow student with Aristotle. amongst the chiefs in the republic of letters. Leyden attended the Plato used to call Xenocrates "a dull ass that needed the spur," parish school, where he obtained the rudiments of his education, with and Aristotle "a mettlesodle horse that needed the curb." When, uncovered feet; and he took his position on the forms of the Uniafter the death of Plato, the Chair of Instruction in the Academy versity of Edinburgh in the coarsest of homespun. Yet the aristowas vacant, the choice of a successor lay between Aristotle and cratic alumni did not dare to laugh twice at his uncouth pronunciaXenocrales; the honour was conferred mpon Xenocrates.

tion of Greek, or the unwonted poverty of his attire, for he was as “If it should please God," said a father once, "to take away proud as the proudest of them, and his right arm was strong. This one of any children, I hope it will be my son Jsaac" as he looked poor youth, who supported himself by teaching, and who faithfully upon him as the most unpromising. That child became the truly prosecuted his studies as a student to theology, contrived in the eminent Dr. Isaac Barrow. Such was the character of Sheridan, in course of his probation to acquire the mastery over eleven lanhis earliest days, thal bis mother regarded him as “the dullest and guages. most hopeless of her sons." In spite of the unfavourable opinion It was Bishop Heber that first stumbled on him, in an old bookwhich others had formed of these men, they rose, and so may you. store in Edinburgh, and led him from his modest obscurity. An inBe as resolute, be as diligent, be as patient, be as persevering troduction to Sir Walter Scott was his admission into the highest as they were, and success will as certainly put ils seal upon your

literary circles of the Scottish metropolis. It was Leyden who asefforts as upon theirs.

sisted Scott in the collection of the materials for the “Minstrelsy of

the Scottish Border," and the following anecdote shows his enthuMiscellaneous.

siasm in the work. Scott had obtained the fragments of a rare old ballad, but had dispaired of completely restoring it, when it was dis

covered that an aged couple in the solitudes of one of the rural disJOHN MILTON-INCIDENT IN HIS LIFE.

tricts were in possession of the precious lay. A party was one day It is said that “every man has his price." The implication is, convened at 39 Castle-street to dinner. The genial smiles and inthat every man can be bought from one party to another; or that no spiring conversation of the host had illumined every face with pleaone is so firm in adherence to principle, that he cannot be induced sure, when suddenly the wild tones of a voice were heard echoing to sacrifice it by the proffer of some very attractive reward, in the along the corridors, the dining-room door was thrown open, and form of wealth or honour. The great weakness often betrayed by

John Leyden, with his fair hair matted with sweat, his blue eyes men, in the facility with which they change their principles, has

gleaming with inspiration, his unfashionable attire covered with dust, furnished occasion for the maxim.

and his shoes white with travel, was seen brandishing his arms But, thanks to the Great Author of all truth and goodness; there wildly aloft, and chanting the disiderated passages of the old ballad. bave been exceptions-noble exceptions to the maxim. It re He had travelled about fifty miles to consummate his purpose. lieves the humiliating picture of human weakness and oupidity to Leyden had a most unbounded contempt for anything which he contemplate the image of a man whom gold could not bribe, or conceived to be effeminacy, and this sentiment, together with his honours seduce. Such a man was John Milton, the great Puritan national prejudice against Englishmen, conduced to render Ritson, Poet of the seventeenth century-an excellent name, second to no the author of the “Percy Anecdotes," particularly obnoxious to him, other" in the radiant list of which England has reason to be proud.” and the feeling was heartily reciprocated. Leyden looked upon On the restoration of Charles II. in 1660, Milton of course was im Ritson as he would upon a dainty little English poodle dog ; Ritson mediately dismissed from office, as Latin Secretary. Poor, hated,

had about as high an opinion of a bear as of John Leyden. This antipersecuted, and fined, his work in defence of the great principles

pathy manifested itself upon one occasion in a manner not very of liberty publicly burnt as a mark of indignity, he retired to his pleasing to Ritson, who was a most fastidious epicure, and who lowly dwelling, blind and in want, for he had been reduced to hum above all things hated half-cooked meat. Leyden stumbled upon ble circumstances. Instead of committing suicide, or dying of a | Ritson in Scott's parlour one aay, at Lasswaae,

Ritson in Scott's parlour one day, at Lasswade, when the great broken heart, as politicians in our times might have done, he applied novelist, himself, was engaged with visitors in viewing the beauties his mind to his work, and wrote his immortal poem, " The Paradise 1 of the river Esk, A grunt and stiff bow were the only marks of

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