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nearly one thousand since the last census was taken in 1844.—Letters tremendous power has been for some time engaging the attention of our from Christiana announce that the Swedish government is fitting out an most eminent engineers, and will, when sufficiently tested, be experimented Expedition for the circumnavigation of the world.-- A new system of vpon before the public. If successful, as there is every present appearance posting the names of streets has been patented in London, and is on trial by of its being, the revolution it must effect in the economic working of railthe authorities. The name is blown or stamped in the glass on the street waye, and indeed in every branch of trade and manufacture where steam is lamps, and is thus seen equally as well by night as by day.
employed as a motive power, is altogether incalculable. It almost opens The Cilies of London and Paris compared.-The report of M.
to the wondering gaze the Utopian vista in which unskilled manual labour
shall be no longer necessary. It is sufficient for us, however, to state that Darey, divisional inspector of the Poats at Chaussees, who has been to
several of the leading railway companies are in treaty with the patentee ; England to obtain information relative to the macadamized roads, has just been published. In this work we find the following particulars relative 10
and that, consequently, if anything whatever is capable of being made out the population, extent of the streets, &c., in Paris and London :- The total
of the discovery, the railway interest will possess at once the first benefit
and chiet honour in its realization." surface of London is 210,000,000 of square metres; its population is 1,424,000; number of houses, 260,000; extent of the streets, 1,126,000 metres; The New Ring of Saturn.-We had occasion to announce extent of the streets, not including the foot-pavement, 6,000,000 metres; recently that the Messrs. Bond, the astronomers at the Cambridge Obserextent of the sewers, 639,000 metres. The total surface of Paris is 34,379, vatory, had ascertained beyond all doubt, the existence of a third ring 016 square metres; population, 1,053,879; number of houses, 20,526; around the Planet Saturn. The new ring, at the time of its discovery, was extent of streets, 425,000 metres ; surface of the streets, 425,000 metres; well observed and carefully defined ; and subsequent observations bave surface of the streets, exclusive of the foot-pavement, 3,600,000 square confirmed the deductions first made. The same appearances, noticed at metres; length of the sewers, 135,000 metres; surface of the foot-pavement, the Cambridge Observatory, were afterwards observed by Messrs. Dawes 888,000 metres. Thus, in London, every inhabitant corresponds to a sur and Lassell, in England. The honour of the discovery belongs to Messrs. face of 100 metres; at Paris, to 34 metres. In London, the average of Bond, under whose faithful and intelligent labours, the great Equatorial at inhabitants for each house is 74 ; at Paris, 34. In London, the average Cambridge has already made many important contributions to this departlength for each house corresponds to 40 metres 40 centimetres ; a: Paris, 10 ment of astronomical science. The eighth satellite of Saturn, it will be a length of street of 15 metres. These details establish the difference which remembered, was discovered by Mr. Bond, about two years ago.-[Boston exists between the two cities, from which it appears that there is in London Traveller. a great extent of surface not built over; that the houses are not very high,
Mr. Wyld's Model of the Earth - The model of the earth, conand that almost every family has its own. The Boulevards of Paris is the part where the greatest traffic takes place, and the following are the results
structed by Mr. Wyld, the Queen's Geographer, which it was originally of the observations of M. Darey on this subject :-On the Boulevard des
intended should have a place in the Chrystal Palace, is now on exhibition, Capuchines there pass every 24 hours 9,070 norses drawing carriages,
in a building erected for its accommodation in Leicester square ; as it was Boulevard des Italiens, 10,750; Boulevard Poissonniere, 7,720; Boulevard
found that the necessary arrangements for erecting and exhibiting the model, St. Denis, 9,609; Boulevard des Filles du Calvaire, 5,850; general average
were incompatible with the space and convenience that could be afforded of the above, 8,600. Rue due Fabourg St. Antojne, 4,300; Avenue des
by the building in Hyde Park. This gigantic model is on a scale of ien
miles to an inch. It is constructed on the concave surface of a globe, the Champs Elysees, 8,959. At London, in Pall Mall, opposite Her Majesty's theatre, there pass at least 800 carriages every hour. On London bridge,
south pole occupying the lower portion, and the north perpendicularly above not less than 13,000 every hour. On Westminster bridge the annual traffic
it, without regard to the inclination of the ecliptic. Four galleries connected amounts to not less than 8,000,000 horses. By this it will be seen that the
by stairs in the centre enable one to survey the whole internal surface, and traffic in Paris does not come up to one-half of what it is in the macadamized
from the upper gallery, over which the icy regions of the north pole form a streets of London.
canopy, the eye reaches downward in all directions, and is able to embrace
almost the whole surface of the globe. Each part of the model is approErperiinental Proof of the Earth's Rotation. Within the last priately tinted--the vertile valley, the granite range, the snowy peaks, the few weeks, a young and promising French physicist, M. Foucault, wbo volcanic craters, the lake, the river, and the sandy plain--60 that vivid was induced by certain reflections to repeat Galileo's pendulum experiment impressions can be obtained of all the features of the earth's surface.--[Ibid. in the cellar of his mother's house at Paris, succeeded in establishing the
The Crystal Palace by Moonlight.—The clear nights and the existence of a fact, connected with it which gives an immediate and visible demonstration of the earth's rotation. Suppose the pendulum to be set
full bright moon have enabled us to see the Crystal Palace in a new lightmoving in a vertical plane from north to south, the plane in which it
that of moonlight, and certainly, like Melrose, you must see it by moonvibrates, to ordinary observation, would appear to be stationary. M.
light, if you would see it rightly. Under the blue cloudless azure of the Foucault, however, has succeeded in showing that this is not the case ; but
heavens, studded with its glittering star eyes, the traveller westward sees that the plane is itself slowly moving round the fixed point as a centre in a
its elegant proportions sail out into exquisite relief above the long line of direction contrary to the earth's rotation-i. c., with the apparent heavens,
Knightsbridge Barracks, like a delicate caprice of an evening's frost, gracefrom east to west. His experiments have since been repeated in the hall of
fully disclosing its chaste beauties to its own chaste moon. Approach the observatory, under the superintendence of M. Arago, and fully con
nearer and a hundred moons sparkle in the fall arched transept, and the firmed. If a pointer be attached to the weight of a pendulum suspended by
“broken light of stars” smile at you through the web of iron net-work, a long and fine wire, capable of turning round in all directions, and nearly
and a silver glitter, chequered by the arms of intervening trees, floats outin contact with the floor of the room, the line which this pointer appears to
ward till it loses itself in the dark distance of the Park.-Leigh Hunt's trace on the ground, and which may easily be followed by a chalk mark,
Journal. will be found to be slowly but visibly turning round, like the hand of a The Berlin Museum.-The Museum is a showy building-one watch dial; and the least consideration will show that this ought to be the of the finest in Berlin. Along its front is a row of fluted columos, and case, and will excite astonishment that so simple a consequence as this is,
upon the walls behind them allegorical fresco paintings, consisting of of the most elementary laws of geometry and mechanics, should so long
groups of figures larger than life, the work of Baron Cornelius. Upon a have remained unobserved. * * * The subject has created a great platform by the side of the steps leading up to the colonade at the entrance gensation in the mathematical and physical circles of Paris. It is proposed to the Museum, stands the Amazon group in bronze, a production of Kis, to obtain permission from the Government to carry on further observations the model of which has attracted so much attention in the Exhibition in by means of a pendulum suspended from the dome of the pantheon, length London, which model, it is understood, has been presented by the Prince of suspension being a desideratum in order to make the result visible on a of Prussia to the Queen of England. It is a most striking group-one of larger scale, and secure greater constancy and duration in the experiment. the worke of art in Berlin which one stops to gaze at every day if he happens --[Literary Gazelle.
to be passing by.- (Correspondent Boston Traveller. Great Discovery in Illuminating and Motive Power.--The
The Bible, the First Printed Book.— Interesting Historical MisRailway Times has the following :-.“ The decomposition of water has at
cellena.-It is a remarkable and interesting fact, that the very first use to length been obtained, and that at a merely nominal cost, and with unerring
which the discovery of printing was applied was the production of the Holy precision. This great discovery originating in America, has been perfected
Bible. This was accomplished at Mentz, between the years 1450 and 1455. by the experiments of an eminent German chemist, and patented in the
Guttenberg was the inventer of the art; Faust, a goldsmith, furnished the three kingdoms by Mr. Shepard. The carburetted hydrogen may be formed necessary funds. Had it been a single page, or even an entire sheet, which to any extent, which, while possessing an illuminating power equal to that
was then produced, there might be less occasion to have noticed it; but of coal gas, is capable of being itselt applied to the same purpose as steam there was something in the whole character of the affair, which, if not unat a remarkable high pressure. The gas is also capable of producing an precedented, rendered it singular in the usual current of human events. amount of caloric equal to that of live coal, and so well and cheaply fitted This Bible was in two folio volumes, which have been iustly praised for the to act as a combustible agent in the conversion of water into steam. This l strength and beauty of the paper, the exactness of the register, and the
lustre of the ink. The work contained twelve hundred and eighty-two pages, and, being the first ever printed, of course involved a long period of time, and an immense amount of mental and mechanical labour ; and yet, for a long period of rime after it had been finished and offered for sale, not a single human being, save the artists themselves, knew how it had been accomplished. Of the first printed Bible, eighteen copies are known to be in existence, four of which are printed on vellum. Two of these are in England, one being in the Grenville collection. One is in the royal library of Berlin, and one in the royal library of Paris. Of the fourteen remaining copies, ten are in England, there being one copy in each of the libraries of Oxford, Edinburgh, and London, and seven in the collections of different moblemen. The vellum copy has been sold as high as $1300, James Lennox, Esq., of this city, has a copy in his library, which was purchased by Mr. David Davidson, agent for Messrs. Wiley & Putnam, at auction, in London, in 1848, for the sum of £500, sterling, equal to $2220, iudependent of freight or duties. The custom-house officers passed it free of duty, in consideration of its being a curiosity. It is the only copy on this side of the Atlantic.—[N. Y. Christian lotelligencer.
Early Versions of the Bible. -As soon as printing was invented, Christianity availed itself of the discovery, for the purpose of multiplying copies of the Holy Scriptures in every language, as may be seen by the following detail :
A. D. Ist. Faust's Catholic Edition, ............
1462 2nd. Bender's on Bember's, ...
. 1167 3rd. Malermis' Italian Bible, .....
. 1471 4th. Four Gospels, (Belgic,) ....
1472 51h. Entre Bible, do, ....
1475 6th. Julian's (an Augustine Monk,) ......................
1477 7th. Delft Edition, ......
1477 8th. B. Ferrier's Edition, (Spanish,) ......
1478 9th. Gouda Edition, .........................
1479 10th. Guyard's des Moulin's, (French,) ...
. 1490 Ilth. Four Versions printed before, ....
1522 12th. Luther's New Testament, (Protestant.) .............. 1522 13th. Estaple's New Testament, (Catholic,)
1523 14th. Tyndal's New Testament, (Protestant,)
1526 15th. Estaple's Old Testament, (Catholic,) .......
1528 16th. First Protestant Belgic Version, .....
1527 17th. Luther's Old Testament, (Protestant,) ......
1530 18th. Tyndal's Penteteuch, (Protestant,) .......
1530 19th. Brucciolis' Italian Bible, (Catholic,) ................. 1532 20th. Coverdale's Version, (Protestant,) .........
1535 21st. Olivater's French History, (Protestant,) .............. 1537 22nd, First Italian Protestant Version, ........
.. 1563 2:3rd. Antwerp and Louvian Bible, (Catholic,) ............. 1578 24th. Rhenish Testament, (Catholic,) ..................... 1582 In the beginning of the next century the Catholic Douay Bible was published, and was followed by the well-known King James' Protestant Bible. The oldest and most known manuscripts are :Ist. German Catholic MSS. A. D., .........
...... 1270 3rd. Spanish d o. do. ............
. 1280 4th. Anglo-Saxon, do..
.................. 1200 and 1300 5th. French Catholic do.............................. 1299 But the latin versions were generally used as long as the latin continued to be spoken and understood in Europe.—[English paper.
Wycliffe's Version.--" The long expected reprint of the English Version of the Scriptures, made from Latin Vulgate by Wycliffe and his followers, has just appeared in four quarto volumes. It is from the Oxford University Press, and has been produced under the able editorship of the Rev. John Forshall, Secretary of the British Museum, and Sir Frederic Madden, Keeper of the Manuscripts in the same institution. We trust to be enabled to make a full report of it in our next number.– [Journal of Sacred Literature.
Distribution of the Bible.—The entire dispersion of Bibles and Testaments in English at home and abroad, during the last fifty years, has been about 27,000,000. It has also been estimated that within the last fifty years 32,000,000 of Bibles has been distributed over the earth, translated into two hundred dialects.
Periodical Press.—The Jameston (Chautauque) Journal, pubJishes a lecture, delivered as one of an academic course, by D. Sherinan, Esq., which gives an interesting history of the Periodical Press, derived from authentic sources, and exceedingly well presented. The first news. paper was issued in manuscript, at Venice, in 1583, and was called the Gazette. The first printed newspaper was published in England, in 1588, called The English Mercurie, imprinted by Her Majesty's Printer. The paper was not regularly published. The first periodical newspaper was published at Frankfort, Germany, in 1610. In 1624, the Public Intelligencer and London Gazette was established. Soon afterwards various papers had their entrances and exits in London, among which were The Scots Dove,
The Parliament Kite, The Secret Owl, &c. The Spectator was the first purely literary journal. It appeared in 1711. This publication, as it is known,
I owes its immortality to Addison. The Tattler, conducted by Sir Richard
Steele, though published a short time previous, was not exclusively literary. The first French newspaper was published at Paris, in 1631, by Ronandot, a Physician. The first Literary Journal and Review ever published was Le Journal des Savans, commenced in 1665, in France. There are now published in France, seven hundred and fifty journals, of which three hundred and ten are political. The first American paper was The Boston News. Letter, which appeared on the 24th of April, 1719. The Boston Gazette was started soon after. The third American newspaper was the American Weekly Mercury which appeared in Philadelphia on the 22nd of December, 1719. The fourth American newspaper was the New England Courant, established at Boston, August 17, 1721, by James Franklin, elder brother to him rendered his name so illustrious.
London Periodicals.-It is stated that in London the sales of periodicals are as follows:- The Family Herald, 175,000; London Journal, 170,000 ; Reynolds, Miscellany and other works, 55,000 : Lloyd's Miscelluny and other works, 95,000. Some of the publications sell for three halfpence, and their reputed circulation are these:- Chambers' Journal, 30,000; Eliza Cook's Journal, 15,000; Leigh Hunt's Journal, 6,000; London Labour and Poor, 18,000 ; Household Words, 80,000; Holyoake's and Watson's publications, most of which are sold for two-pence, nearly 12,000.
A century ago, the amount expended in books, periodicals, and newspapers, did not exceed £100,000 a year, whereas the sum now so expended annually is calculated at £2,100,000.
Discovery of a Beautiful Cave in Manchester, V1.-We learn from the Vermont Union Whig, that a party of hunters discovered a beantiful cave in Manchester in that state, on the 7th inst. The cave is situated upon the southern extremity of the equinox mountain, about half way from the base of the summit. The entrance is by a gradual descent of about 30 feet, into a spacious apartment, measuring 36 feet in length, 27 feet in breadth, and 13 in height, and having a bottom as level and almost as smooth as a floor. From this room a narrow passage leads into an apartment far exceeding the former, both in extent and magnificence, and in which were found three colossal pillars, 20 feet in height and 15 in eircumference, of spectral whiteness, and smooth as polished marble. In the third room were found considerable quantities of iron and lead, together with a kind of ore resembling silver. The exploration was continued until after passing through no less than nine apartments the party found themselves upon the brink of a precipice. On throwing down a large stone, a faint splash was returned after a few seconds, from which was inferred the existence of a pond of water at the bottom of the abyss. The whole of the cavern, with the exception of this pond, was perfectly dry.
New Wingless Bird.–At the meeting of the Linnean Society, Dec. 17th, Mr. Westwood called the attention of the Society to a wingless bird on Lord Howe's island-an island situte between New Holland and Norfold Island. This spot has been accidentally visited by Captain Poole, of the East India Company's Service, who, considering it a favourable spot for colonization, has induced six Irishmen and their wives and families to settle on it. The place is now one of constant resort for the supply of water and provisions to the South Sea whalers. As no Government has owned it, this island is at present the property of Captain Poole. It is of considerable extent, and has on it two high hills which can be seenfat a distance of sixteen leagues at sea. On this Island Captain Poole has discovered the bird in question. It is about the size of a rail-and is considered by the settlers as good eating. Mr. Westwood thought the announcement of the existence of this, bird--which was not previously known to exist in those regions--would be received with interest in connection witn the discovery of the extinct wingless birds of New Zealand, No specimen has yet arrived in England, but some are on their way.-Atheneum.
Wonders of Chemistry.—Aquafortis and the air we breathe are made of the same materials. Liner, and sugar, and spirits of wine, are so much alike in their chemical composition that an old shirt can be converted into its own weight in sugar, and the sugar into spirits of wine. Wine is made of two substances--one of which is the cause of almost all combinations of burning, and the other will burn with more rapidity than any thing in nature. The famous Peruvian bark, so much used to strengthen stomachs, and the poisonous principles of opium, are formed of the same materials.- Scientific American.
Geological Discovery.--The following interesting geological discovery has just been made by General Cullen at Cochin :- A question having been raised as to the relative positions of that most mysterious of rocks, laterite, and the shell limestone on which in this quarter it was said to rest, General Cullen caused a well to be dug from the top of the cliff, about 40 feet above the level of the sea, downwards to this depth; it was about 80 feet inland. At the depth of 37% feet he came to shell of limestone
-a well sunk near sea 84 miles to the south-west, gives precisely the same results. The limestone is one of the most modern of our formations. The shells contained in it seem all recent-the lignite and fossil remains are close by. The supposition that laterite is nothing else than decomposed granite, or trap in situ, is thus completely and at once disposed of; by knowing what it is not, we may by-and-by be led to infer what it is. Gen. Cullen has now led a career in India of honour and usefulness, exceeding 40 years in duration; and, with all the ardour of true philosophy and alacrity of youth, he pursues his favourite science with an energy which at his age is in India as rare as it is admirable. It is not every one who is in a position to dig
a well 40 feet deep through solid rock to ascertain the relation of two sets · of strata.
V. A sumn not exceeding Five Shillings per week, towards defraying the expenses of board and lodging, shall be allowed, for the present, to Teachers-in-training requiring assistance, on condition that they will engage to remain for a period of not less than one Session in attendance at the Normal School.
VI. That all candidates for admission into the Normal School must present themselves during the first week of the Session, otherwise they cannot be admitted ; and their continuance in the School is conditional upon their diligence, progress, and observance of the General Regulations prescribed by this Council.
VII. That all communications be addressed to the Reverend Dr. Ryerson, Chief Superintendent of Schools, Toronto. By Order of the Council of Public Instruction for Upper Canada.
J. GEORGE HODGINS, EDUCATION OFFICE,
Recording Clerk. Toronto, 23rd July, 1851. }
Editorial and Official Notices, &c.
APPORTIONMENT OF THE School Fund, 1851.-Since the publication of the Journal of last month, replies on the subjoct of the apportionmont of the school fund for 1851 have boen received at the Education Office from several county municipalities in addition to those enumerated in the circular from the Chief Superintendent to local superintendents.
The following municipal councils have exprossed a wish that tho basis of the distribution of the school fund for 1851, should be that of school population, as reported for 1850, viz.:
1. The County of Norfolk. 2. The United Counties of Northumberland and Durham. 3. The Unitod Counties of Stormont, Dundas, and Glengarry. 4. The Unitod Counties of Frontenac, Lennox, and Addington. 5• The County of Peterborough. 6. The United Counties of Essex and Lambton. 7. The County of Prince Edward. 8. The County of Carleton. 9. The United Counties of Wentworth and Halton. 10. The County of Oxford. 11. The County of Simcoe.
The following have expressed a wish that the distribution of the school fund for 1851 be according to the average attendance of pupils as contemplated in the 1st clause of tho 31st section of the school Act, viz. :
1. The United Counties of Huron, Perth, and Bruco.
The remaining seven county municipalities havo either expressed no opinion at all, or else have not yet transmitted their opinion on the subject to the Education Office.
MAPS AND SCHOOL APPARATUS.-Specimen copies of the maps and library books, selected by the Chief Superintendent of Schools while
in Europe, have been received at the Depository connected with the | Education Office. They can be seen by any person desirous of inspecting them during the usual office hours each day.
A few extra copies of the national maps of the world have also been received ; but not of the others. An order for a large supply of school maps of all sizes and prices has, however, been transmitted to England, and it is hoped, that by the middle or end of September, they will reach Toronto, viâ New York. Previous to that time a catalogue will probably appear in this Journal, containing a list of the maps and school requisites, which may be obtained at the Depository connected with the Education Office. - It is important that all orders for these maps and requisites should be accompanied with the money, and directions as to the mode of transmission to the parties ordering them.
The following articles may bo now obtained at the Depository at the net prices annexed to each. It will be observed that the prices of the maps, &c., are considerably lower than formerly, owing to the advantageous arrangements made by the Chief Superintendent whilo in England :National Map of the World, ......
£0 17 6 Other National Maps (when they arrive) each, ..
0 15 0 Coloured Object Lessons, per set of 150, ..
1 15 0 Plain
do 40 for ..................
0 12 6 Page's Theory and Practice of Teaching, ..
0 5 0 Barnard's School Architecture, .........
0 7 6 Common School Act, with forms, circulars, &c., ........ 0 1 3 do. do. per doz., ....
0 10 0
encampment, &c., &c., (22 by 30 inches) ........... 0 1
O 5 0 National School Books at various prices, .........
0 0 0 Superior Brass Mounted Orrery, (3 feet in diameter) ...... £2 10 Superior Brass Mounted Tellurian (for explaining change
of Season, Tides, Eclipses, &c.) .................... 1 0
bs. 3d.) ...................:::....:::
illustrate the extraction of the cube root. ..
....... 010 0
lic with ease.......
REVISED TERMS OF ADMISSION INTO THE
NORMAL SCHOOL, TORONTO. Adopted by the Council of Public Instruction for Upper Canada, on
the 23rd day of July, 1851. The Council of Public Instruction anxious to adopt such measures as appear best calculated to render the training of the Normal School as thorough as possible, and to diffuse its advantages over every county in Upper Canada as equally and as widely as possible, adopts the following regulations in regard to the duration of the future Sessions of the Normal School, and the mode and terms of admitting and facilitating the attendance of Students at that Institution.
ORDERED, I. That the next Session of the Normal School commence on the 19th day of August next, and terminate on the 15th day of April, 1852; and that hereafter the Semiannual Sessions of the Normal School shall commence on the 15th day of May, and the 15th day of November, of each year, (and if those fall upon Sunday, the day following, and continue for a period of five months each--to be concluded by a Public Examination, and followed by a vacation of one month.
II. That no male Student shall be admitted under eighteen years of age, nor a female Sudent under the age of sixteen years. (2)-Those admitted must produce a certificate of good moral character, signed by the clergyman or minister of the religious persuasion with which they are connected;
cted; (3)-they must be able to read and write intelligibly,
with the simple rules of Arithmetic, and with the elements of Geography and English Grammar; -must sign a declaration of their intention to devote themselves to the profession of School-teaching, and that their object in coming to the Norinal School is to qualify themselves better for the important duties of that profession.
III. Upon these conditions, candidates for School-teaching shall be admitted to the advantages of the Institution without any charge, either for tuition, the use of the Library, or for the books which they may be required to use in the School. Other professional Students to be admitted upon paying £1 58. for attendance at an entire course of lectures during one Session.
IV. The Teachers-in-training shall board and lodge in the city, in such houses and under such regulations as are approved of by the Council of Public Instruction.
W ANTED, by the Trustees of Vienna, section No. 4, in the
Township of Bayham, a Teacher for their Common School, with good abilities for teaching and governing, to whom a salary of £75, per annum, will be given.
Vienna, 11th July, 1851.
TORONTO : Printed and Published by Tuomas Hugh BENTLEY. TERMS : For a single copy, 5s. per annum ; not less than 8 copics, 43. 4]d, each, or $7 for the 8; not less than 12 copies, 4s. 21. each, or $10 for the 12 ; 20 copies and upwards, 38, 9d. each. Back Vols. neatly stitched supplied on the same terms. AR subscriptions to commence with the January number, and payment in advance must is all cases accompany the order. Single hunliers, 744. each. * All cominunications to be addressed to Mr. J. GEORGE Hopoins,
Education Office, Toronto.
III. MISCELLANEOUS.-1. Universal Education. 2. School Supervision. 3.
Teacher's Qualifications. 4. Normal School Teachers-School should be supported by the Rich. 5. Punctuality. 6. Birds of Passage (Poetry). 7. The True Principles of Government, both in Fanilies and Schools.
School. 10. Partia Systenis of Education. il. Parents and Teachers. 12. Parental Responsibility. 13. Essentials of Self-Education. 14.
3. New-York an Example. 4. Female Teachers i France. 5. Free Schools. 6. Normal Schools. 7. Massachusetts new School Laws.
CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER.
tions to the Council, almost invariably defeat the Trustees. The
effect was loss to the Teacher, mortification, defeat and contumely 1. Powers and Responsibilities of School Trustees,- by the Editor, ....... 11. Education for an Agricultural People......................... 115
to the Trustees. .
4. Such was the case in numbers of school sections where the
Trustees were intelligent, activgrand public spirited. In those sec8. Small Children in School. 9. Hints on the Daily Exercises of the
tions whero the: Trustees themselves were indifferent to their
duties and obligations, the state of things was still worse in respect Mental Exciteineni. 15. Beautiful Signification; and two short articles, IV. EDITORIAL.--1. School Maps and Apparatus. 2. Erection of School-houses.
both to children and the Teachers, especially as Teachers had no 120
remedy against the Trustees personally, V. EDUCATIONAL INTELLIGENCE.-1. Canada. 2. British and Foreign. 3.
5. The consequence of all this was, that the office of School United States, ....................................... VI. LITERARY AND SCIENTIFTO INTELLIGENCE.......
125 Trustee was burdensome and vexatious ; and being powerless, it VII. Depository of Maps, Books, Apparatus, &c., for Public Schools,..... 126 fell into contempt. Intelligent and active Trustees frequently beVIII. EDITORIAL NOTICES, ....................
came discouraged and disgusted, and refused to serve, as did other
competent persons, and incompetent persons were elected. Thus POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF SCHOOL
the office of School Trustee was regarded, to a great extent, if not der TRUSTEES.
generally, as one of the least respectable and most undesirable of (BY THB EDITOR.)
all the elective offices in the gift of the people. · As considerable correspondence has taken place in the depart 6. Now, the objects contemplated by the provisions of the present ment of Publio Instruction respecting the authority of School Trus- | School Act were, as far as possible, to remedy this accumulation tees, especially in cities, towns, and, incorporated villages, and of evils by rendering the office of School Trustee one of the most as the discussion of the question has been introduced into some of powerful for good, and therefore one of the most honourable in the public papers, we deem it proper to explain the objects and town or country ; and thus to induce the utmost care and vigilance nature of the provisions of the School Act on this important subject. on the part of the electors to choose propor persons for that office,
2. From the correspondence on the subject of the School Law, 1 and to induce such persons to accept it and becomo candidates for which was printed by order of the Legislative Assembly last year,
it, as they do in regard to other responsiblo and honourable offices, it appears that in each of four reports which the Chief Superinten the occupancy of which deponds upon popular election. dent made to the Governor General, between March 1846 and 7. The principle on which these provisions of the School Act are May 1850, he adverted to the radical defects of the School law founded, is in harmony with that which lies at the foundation of our in reference to the office of School Trustees, and the necessity of general system of government. It is that of representation. In increasing their powers, in order to improve the Schools, as well as our representative system of government, a town or township tax is improve the character of the Trustee Corporations. The provisions imposed by the elected representatives of that town or township. of the present Act were, therefore, intended to remedy the evils So a county or provincial tax is imposed by the elected representhus repeatedly pointed out and very generally felt.
tatives of the people in a County Council or in the Provincial Legis3. The evils were two fold ;-the powerlessness of Trustees lature. Those representatives possess the largest discretionary when elected, and deficiency in the qualifications of persons elected powers to raise moneys to erect public buildings, and make or autho-the latter being, to a great extent, the consequence of the for- | rize contracts and provide for their fulfilment. No surprise or doubt mer. Trustees could not establish or maintain a good school with is expressed or entertained in regard to such representative powers, out employing a good Teacher ; and they could not procure such a because thoy are familiar to all, and known by all to be necessary Teacher without securing to him a fair salary. This they could not
for the interests and improvements of the country, however objecdo, as they had not power to secure the payment of such salary.
tionable or unwisely they may be exercised in particular cases. On They depended upon two uncertain resources for means to meet the same principle are based the enlarged powers of School Trustheir engagements. The one was a rate-bill, the amount of which
tees, whose numbers are much larger in proportion to the respective was as uncertain as the varying feelings of the persons having chil
constituencies they represent than members of Township or County dren to send to the school. If that resource failed, or was insuffi Councils, or of the Provincial Legislature. cient, as was very commonly the case, the only remaining resource 8. The principle of the School Act, thorefore, is, that the Trus(except voluntary subscription) was to petition the Municipal Coun tees, or elected School Representatives, of each school division, cil to imposo a tax to make up deficiencies ; and one or two persons whether section, village, town or city, shall determine the amount in a school section opposed to such tax could, by their representa- 1 of every description of school expenditure, of contracts, appointments and management in all school matters, in such section, vil and affords to the rate payers in each school section ample security lage, town or city, and have the power to give effect to their esti for the faithful expenditure of moneys. mates, engagements and plans of proceeding. These powers and 12. ln cities, towns and incorporated villages, these Boards of duties appertain to all Trustee Corporations, whether in town or Trustees, varying from six to sixteen members in each, are country. It is not the office of a public meeting, in the country, invested with larger powers than the Trustees of School Secany more than in town, to determine what sum or sums shall be tions. Each Board has the charge of all the Common Schools in raised and expended for school purposes ; that is, in all cases, the the municipality, determines their number and kind, whether priright and duty of the Trustees, as may be seen by referring to the mary, intermediate, or high schools, whether classical or English, 12th section of the School Act, 4th and 5th clauses, and the 3rd, whether denominational or mixed, whether many or few, the amount 4th and 6th clauses of the 24th section.
and manner of their support. Each Board appoints its own local 9. In the country, a public meeting called in each School Section Superintendent of Schools, and a local Committee for the immediate decides upon the manner in which such sum or sums shall be raised, oversight of the schools under its charge. The Board of Trustees but nothing as to the amount ; and if the means thus provided are in each city, town or incorporvted village, is not required, as in rural insufficient to defray the expenses estimated and incurred by the school sections, to call a public meeting to consider the manner of Trustees, they are authorized by the 12th section, latter part of the
supporting one or nore of the schools in such municipality ; in most 7th clause of the Act, to assess, and cause to be collected, any addi cases this would be impossible ; in no case is it required. The tional rate on the property of the School Section that may be neces only public meetings which Boards of Trustees in cities, towns, and Bary to pay the balance of such expenses. By the 9th clause of
incorporated villages are required to call, are for the election of the same section, Trustees can exercise their own discretion and
Trustees. If they choose, they can call meetings for any school convenience, either to assess and collect all their school rates them
purpose whatever, Ike the Mayor of a city, or the Reeve of a town selves or by their Collector, or apply to the Township Council to do
or village ; and in any case of their thinking it advisable to call a 80, and the Council is required to give effect to their application, school meeting, the Act provides for enabling them to do so, and relating as it does to the constituents of whom they are the school directs their mode of proceeding, so that it may be done under the representatives, the same as the members of the council or the muni authority and protection of law. In some instances, objections have cipal ropresentatives of the township. In such case, the Council been made to the lawfulness of the proceedings of Boards of Trushas not to consider the amount required ; (that is with the Trustees tees, because public meetings had not been convened to consider to determine;) nor any representations which may be made by any the school estimates and plans of such Boards. As well might the parties for or against such amount required ; but simply the manner lawfulness of any financial proceedings of the Municipal Council of in which an annual meeting, or other public meeting called for the a county, town, township, or village, be objected to upon the same purpose, in the school section concerned, has agreed to defray the | ground. expenses of the school. Should the Trustees determine not to apply 13. The Municipal Council of each city, town or incorporated to the Township Council, but collect by their own authority all village, is required to levy and collect whatever sum or sums of moneys they require for school purposes, the 2nd, 8th and 9th clauses money may be required by the Board of Trustees for School purof the 12th section of the Act give them all the necessary powers poses. The Board of Trustees (elected by all the tax payers,) and to do so.
not the Municipal Council, represents such city, town, or incorpo10. The object of leaving the manner of providing for all school rated village in all school matters ; but as the Council has assessment expenses to the decision, in the first instance, of a public meeting in rolls and employs collectors for other purposes, it is more economical each school section, was not to limit the Trustees as to the amount and convenient to bave the school rates levied and collected by the of such expenses, or to cripple thom as to the means of raising such Council than for the Board of Trustees to employ a separate class of amount, since they are specially empowered to do so by rate, if the officers for that purpose. In the city of New York, and various means agreed upon at the public meeting are insufficient for that towns in the neighbouring States, Trustees are clected in each purpose ; but the object was to make the question of provision for Ward of the city or town, as in Canada, and constitute collectively the education of youth a subject of public discussion and decision a Board of Education or School Trustees for such city or town; and annually in each School Section, and thus to diffuse useful knowledge the Municipal Council of the city or town is required to levy and and make the people acquainted with and alive totheir own interests collect whatever sum or sums are required from time to time by and dụties--to enable them to provide for the support of their school the Board of Education or School Trustees. in their own way, either by voluntary subscription or by self-imposed 14. The members of the Board of School Trustees in our cities, tax--and above all, to decide whether their school should be a free towns, and incorporated villages, are not personally responsible for or a rate-bill school.
school moneys, because the law is so constructed that all school 11. But while the Trustees of each School Section are clothed moneys, even the rate-bills, of each city, town, or village, must be with enlarged powers for the fulfilment of their important trust, paid into the hands of the Treasurer. But each Board of Trustees they are also subject to additional responsibilities. They are required must prepare and publish annually, an account of the receipts and to account to their constituents at each annual meeting, by present | expenditure of all school moneys subject to their order, ing “a full and detailed account of the receipts and expenditures of | 15. Objections have been made in some instances to the erection all school moneys received and expended in behalf of the School | of large central School llouses in cities, towns, and villages ; and Section for any purpose whatsoever, during the year then terminat the authority of the Boards of Trustees has been called in question, ing ;" and if the account is not satisfactory to the majority of the because exception has been taken to their proceedings. The Goymeeting, arbitrators are chosen by each party to decide, and are ernment itself may err in its proceedings, but that is no disproof of invested with power to make each of the Trustees or any other its authority. The Boards of Trustees in cities, towns, and villages, person account for and pay all the money due by him to the School and the Trustees in many country places, are but commencing the Section. This is a responsibility to which members of the Legis | greatest work connected with the welfare of their country; and lature, of county, city, town or township councils are not subject, they must expect opposition from mistakon ignorance, sectional