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duties of civil life upon terms of perfect civil and religious equality the Council of Public Instruction, a Silver Trowel, addressing

-I say it gives me pleasure to hear and to know that they are His ExcELLENCY as follows :receiving an education which is fitted so well to qualify them for the

• MONSEIGNEUR,--Je suis très heureux et trés honoré d'avoir, ète discharge of those important duties, and that while their hearls are

choisi par le Conseil de l'Instruction Publique, dont votre Excellence yet tender, and their affections green and young, they are associated a daignè me faire membre, pour lui présenter cette truelle d'argent, under conditions which are likely to promote among them the growth

aux industrieuses emblèmes du blazon des Bruces. of those truly Christian graces--mutual respect, forbearance and

“L'établissement dont votre Excellence va poser la pierre angucharity. [Loud applause).

laire, Monseigneur, sera un des plus glorieux monuments de tout ce At the close of His ExcELLENCY's remarks, the Right Rev. Dr. | que son libéral Gouvernement aura fait pour la prospérité, de ce DE CHARBONNEL presented to the GOVERNOR GENERAL, on behalf of pays : ad ædificationem."

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The Trowel was beautifully carved, having the armorial bearings The Council of Public Instruction, for Upper Canada : of the Earl or Elgin—the handle of ivory, being ornamented with The Reverend EGERTON RYERSON, D. D., Chief Superintendent of Schools,

The Honorable Samuel BEALY HARRISON, Q. C., Chairman. a Coronet wrought in Silver. The following is the inscription on

The Rt. Reverend A. F. M. DE CHARBONNEL, D. D., Roman Catholic Bishop of Toronto the Trowel :



Hugh SCOBIE, Esq.

James Scott HOWARD, Esq.

The Reverend John JENNINGS.
Wednesday, the Second day of July, 1851,

The Reverend ADAM Lillie.

Jonn George HODGINS, Esq., Recording Clerk.
FREDERIC W. CUMBERLAND, and Thomas RIDOUT, Esquires, Architects.

Messrs. METCALFE, WILSON & FORBES, Contractors.

A Bottle containing the following:
THE RIGHT HONORABLE THE EARL OF ELGIN AND KINCARDINE, K.T., 1. Report on a systein of Public Elementary Instruction for Upper Canada, 1846.

2. Journal of Education for August, 1849, containing the Annual Report of the Normal, GOVEROR GENERAL OF BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.

Model and Common Schools'in Upper Canada, for 1847, containing an account On the reverse was:

of the opening of the Normal School in November, 1847. PRESENTED

3. Common School Act, 7th Victoria, chapter 29.

4. Cominon School Act, 9th Victoria, chapter 20. ΤΟ

5. Common School Act, 10th and 11th Victoria, chapter 19. THE RIGHT HION. THE EARL OF ELGIN AND KINCARDINE, K.T., 6. Cominon School Act, 13th and 14th Victoria, chapter 48, with Forms, Regulations,

Instructions, and Circulars.

7. Parchment copy of the Inscription on the Plate deposited in the cavity of the Corner


8. Journal of Education for May, 1848, containing an account of the first Examination

of the Normal School. TORONTO, 2xD or July, 1851.

9. Programme of the last Examination of the Normal and Model Schools, ending 31st

May, 1851. His Excellency and the Council of Public Instruction then de

10. Journal of Education for May, 1851, containing an account of the last Examination. scended to the stone, where the inscription on the plate was read

11. Scobie's Almanac for 1851.

12. Programme of the ceremony observed at laying the Chief Corner Stone of the Norby Joseph C. MORRISON, Esq., M. P. P., as follows :

mal School, and Engraving of Building. 13. Sundry silver and copper coins.

14. Different denominations of Canadian postage stamps. THE CHIEF CORNER STONE

was handed by Hugh Scobie, Esq., to His Excellency, who depoOF

sited it in the cavity of the stone prepared for it ; the Inscription THE NORMAL AND MODEL SCHOOLS FOR UPPER CANADA,

Plate was placed ; and His ExceLLENCY having spread the mortar
Wednesday, the Second day of July, 1851,

with his 1rowel, the stone was then formally lowered to its bed-His IN THE FIFTEENTH YEAR OF THE REIGN

ExcellENCY saying, “I declare this Stone to be the Chief Corner OP

Stone of the Normal and Model Schools for Upper Canada.” Mr. HER MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY, QUEEN VICTORIA,

CUMBERLAND, the Architect, then handed His ExcELLENCY the BY

Square and Mallet, which he applied to the stone in the usual way THE RIGHT HONORABLE THE EARL OF ELGIN AND KINCARDINE, K.T.,

on such occasions.

Cheers were given for the Queen, for the Governor General,

and for the Council of Public Instruction; in the midst of which His The SPEAKER AND MEMBERS OF THE LEGISLATIVE COC NCIL,


of Public Instruction, retired, followed by the principal visitors. THE CHAIRMAN AND MEMBERS OF THE COUNCIL OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION,


After the ceremony, Mr. CUMBERLAND, the Architect, entertained THIS INSTITUTION.

the Council of Public Instruction and a large number of distinguished ERECTED BY THE ENLIGHTENED LIBERALITY OF PARLIAMENT,

guests, including Clergymen, Members of the Government, and both IS DESIGNED FOR THE INSTRUCTION AND TRAINING OY SCHOOL TEACHERS UPON CHRISTIAN PRINCIPLES. branches of the Legislature, &c., &c., at luncheon.

Fig ..


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and girls' entrances (like those for the students of the Normal School The Normal and Model Schools for Upper Canada - now in pro

already described) are at the east and west ends of the buildinggress of erection—are situated upon the centre of an open square, such entrances having each a liat and cloak room and master's (or bounded on the north by Gerrard Street, on the east by Church Street, mistress') room on either side. These schools therefore will togeon the south by Goold Street, and on the west by Victoria Street, ther accommodate 600 children. in the City of Toronto. The distance from the Bay is about three Returning to the Normal School, and passing to the upper floor : quarters of a mile. The situation is a very beautiful ono, being on the landing of the staircases A, A, are entrances to the gallery considerably elevated above the business parts of the City, and com- of the Theatre, which is designed to accommodate 150 persons. manding a fine view of the Bay, Island, and Lake. The Square,

On the upper floor is the Central Hall, with its gallery B, connectwhich contains seven acres and a half of ground, was purchased in

ing the east and west corridors, communicating with the following August, 1850, from the Hon. PETER McGill, of Montreal, by the

rooms : Council of Public Instruction, for £4,500, in cash. The estimated

Class Room, No. 1, ..... 56' : 0" x 36' : 0" value of the property is about £1,000 per acre. The amount of the

Class Room, No. 2, ..... 56 : 0 X 36 : 0 Legislative Grant for the purchase of the site and the erection of

Class Room, No. 3, ..... 45 : 2 x 28 : 0 the buildings, was £15,000. The amount of the contract for the

Class Room, No. 4, .. 32 : 8 x 28 :0 erection and completion of the building, is £8,790, exclusive of

1st Master's Room, ..... 22 : 0 x 19 : 52 extras, Architects' commission, warming, &c. It is estimated

2nd Master's Room, .. 22 : 0 x 19 : 51 that the furniture, &c., for the building, will cost about £1,000 or

Musoum, ........... 42 : 0 X 22 : 0 £1,200.

Library, ........... 39 : 5 x 22 : 0 In a building of so great an extent, it appeared to bo neither desi

Laboratory, ......... 21 : 6 rable or expedient to adopt a rich or highly finished style of embel

x 12 : 0 lishment. The whole has been designed with a view rather to In addition to the accommodation thus enumerated, there are, in utility than for effect, care being taken however to maintain that fit- the Basement, rooms for the residence of the Janitor, together with ness of decoration by which the purpose and importance of the furnace rooms, from whence warm air will be served to the whole Institution may be characterised and upheld.

building. Great attention has been bestowed upon the efficiency The principal Normal School Building, as seen in the perspective, of the warming and ventilating, and it is confidently anticipated fig. 1, will be 184 feet 4 inches frontage, by a depth on the flanks, that the system adopted will be highly successful. east and west, of 85 feet 4 inches. The front will be in the Roman Doric order of Palladian charac

LAYING FOUNDATIONS—THE TEACHER. ter, having for its centre, four pilasters of the full height of the building, with pediment, surrounded by an open doric cupola, of the

Men are wisely careful in laying the foundations of their dwelextreme height of 95 feet. The principal entrance (to the Offices

lings. They dig deep because they have learned that there is a of the Educational Department, &c.) will be in this front; thoso

disturbing agent which upheaves the surface of the earth. They for the male and female students being placed on the east and west

do not throw together cobble-stones, but rist the massy rock, and sides respectively, C and D. In the centre of the building will be

pack its fragments in cementing mortar. All this costs money and a large central hall, (open to the roof, and lighted by a lantern,) with

takes time ; yet men who build at all, almost universally lay such a gallery around it, at the level of the upper floor, at B, in fig. 3,

foundations. This is excellent economy. He who builds his house approached on each floor by three corridors--south, cast, and west

upon the sand, has been called a foolish man by the highest authoand opening on the north to the Theatre or Examination Hall,

rity. The wise man builds on a rock.

The teacher is a mind-builder. To lay foundations is his great On the East side, the accommodation on the ground floor will be

work. If he is an honest and skilful workman, much of his work as follows:

will be underground and out of sight. No man will do this work School of Art and Design, No. 1, ..... 36' : 0" x 28' : 0"

well, but an honest and independent man. Temptations to neglect School of Art and Design, No. 2, ... 36 : 5 x 28 : 0

it will assail him from every side. Like other men, he loves to Male Students' Retiring Room, ...... 36 : 0 x 30 : 0

see immediate and brilliant results, and grows weary under drudgery Council Room, .............. 39 :0 x 22 : 0

and toil, to produce what no eye sees and no lips praise. Besides, Male Students' Staircase A, ........ 17 : 6 x 11 :0

circumstances generally combine with this desire to lead bim to On the West side :

seek such results. Many of his patrons never look below the surWaiting Room, . ........... 22' : 8" x 14' : 8"

face, but measure both his capacity and success by what appears Ante-Room, ............. 22 : 0 x 14 : 3

above. His very bread may depend on his doing his work superChief Superintendent's Room, . .... 28 : 0 x 21 : 0 ficially. The multitude applaud him who raises a showy intellecDepository for Books, Maps, &c., ..... 28 :0 x 21 : 0

tual structure, while they condemn him who spends years in laying Depository for Apparatus, &c., .... 22 : 8 x 14 massive foundations. They talk well. They mean to give their Female Students' Retiring Room, ..... 36 : 0 x 26 :10

children a good education, but they insist upon two things-it must Recording Clerk's Office, with fire proof vault, 37 :11 x 22 : 0 be done with despatch, and cheap. As a consequence, which they Second Clerk's Office, ........... 22 : 0 x 14 : 3

seem not to perceive, it must be wretchedly done. We find many Female Students' Staircase A, ....... 17 : 6 x 11 : 0

men in every community who talk finely about the education of their

children, and still by indulgence or avarice cheat them out of it. North of the Central Hall is the Theatre, with Lecturer's entrance

They cannot spare them to study more than three months, although in the centre, and side entrances east and west, d, d, for male and

they can spare them to labor for trages, or to amuse themselves female students respectively. Here the aisles are marked a, b, and

at home and abroad, month after month and year aster year. The c, with seats arranged between them : the Lecturer's platform being

child that would not be taken from the mill or shop a day in six placed between B and e. This portion of the Theatre is designed

months, would be taken from school twenty days in half that time, to accommodate 470 persons, and including the galleries, 620.

for the most trivial reasons. Men feel the loss of silver much Around the Theatre, and beneath its gallery, are east and west

quicker than the loss of sense. With all their fine talk, they do corridors, by which the students will reach the Model School.

not afford the time and means to their children, for that solid mindBy this arrangement it will be seen, that except when actually in building which is true education. These hindrances meet every the presence of the Masters, the male and female students will be teacher ; still, if he be a true mau, he will not heed them. He entirely separated.

must lay foundations. Passing (by the corridors last named) to the Model School, which Let us consider more definitely the application of our subject to is 175 feet 6 inches frontage, by 59 feet 6 inches, the students enter the operation of the school-room. the boys and girls' schools by doors to the east and west, each of 1st. The discipline of the school should be such as to impla which has a large school room at its centre, 56 feet 6 inches x 33 in the mind right principles of action, and accustom the pupils to feet, capable of accommodating 300 children, with four smaller class habitual self-control. Such discipline will lay a good foundation for rooms adjoining it, about 17 feet x 15 feet 6 inches each. The boys | a correct moral character. The reign of the school-room should

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not be a “reign of terror," or trickish cunning, or imbecile softness. accurate scholarship during the succeeding three years, even under It should be a kind, but inflexible reign of righteousness,

the best training. Nowhere more than in our primary schools do If you strike a blow, it may secure a sullen submission for a we need thorough, accurate and judicious teachers.-Massachumoment ; but if you implant a principle, it will be a guardian angel selts Teacher. for a lifetime. More than this, the blow will very likely arouse an evil passion which will poison, ever after, the finer teelings of the IGNORANCE OF GREAT PHYSICAL TRUTHS. heart. O teacher ! beware that thou cast no such bitter drop into

How few men really believe that they sojourn on a whirling the pure fountain of a young pupil's affections.

globe, and that each day and year of life is measured by its revoluThe school is a miniature community. Its discipline should se

tions, regulating the labour and the repose of every race of being. cure a sacred regard to right, and habitual self-control. The regu

How few believe that the great luminary of the firmament, whose lator of the conduct of the young, should be within and not without.

restless activity they daily witness, in an immoveable star, controlIt should be a part of their being, ever present and inseparable.

ling, by its solid mass, the primary planets which compose our We wish then to become good citizens and true men, when they

system, and forming the gnomon of the great diai which measures feel no longer the curb of the master or the parent. What can we

the thread of life, the tenure of empires, and the great cycles of the expect but rash and disorderly action in mature life from those

worlu's change. How few believe that each of the millions of stars whose early years have felt no influence but the tight rein and curb

-those atoms of light which the telescope can scarcely descry-are bit? There must be obedience in the school-rocm, but it should

the centre of planetary systems that may equal, if not surpass, our not be mere brute submission to superior power. Men are not own ? And how very few believe that the solid pavement of the brriles, though sometimes the dividing line between the territory of

globe, upon which they nightly slumber, is an elastic crust, imthe two becomes extremely attenuated. That teacher who only

prisoning fires and forces which have often burst forth in tremendous secures submission is a sorry disciplinarian, although the affairs of

energy, and are at this very instant struggling to escape-now his school-roon move on as noiselessly and systematically as the

finding their way in volcanie fires-now heaving and shaking the heavenly orbs. If he is not continually implanting right principles

earth-now upraising islands and continents, and gathering strength of action in the minds of his pupils, he ought to change his profes for that final outburst which is to usher in the new heavens and the

new earth, " wherein dwelleth righteousness." Were these great 2nd. The intellectual training of the schoo:-room should be

physical truths objects of faith as well as deductions of reason, we such as to lay a broad and firm foundation for extensive acquisitions

should lead a better life than we do, and make a quicker preparation in future. To impart information is not the greatest part of the for its close.-North British Review. teacher's work. This is an old truth, but it needs repetition, and will need it, I fear, so long as the world stands. It is a slow process THE END OF PRUDENCE.—The great end of prudence is to give for the young mind, to take, digest and assimilate mental food ; so

cheerfulness to those hours which splendour cannot gild, and acclain this age of "top speed," the process of stuffing has been substi

mation cannot exhilirate-those sost intervals of unbended amusetuted. Its immediate results are often astounding, and therefore it

ment, in which a man shrinks to his natural dimensions, and throws takes. You see development at once. This practice of developing

aside the ornaments or disguises which he feels in privacy to be miod as you would develop a bladder, has lately been much denoun useless incumbrances, and tu lose all effect when they become ced, and after having been pierced by many a sharp shot, has shown

familiar. To be happy at home is the ultimate result of all some symptoms of yielding to treatment ; still it exists widely, be

ambition, the end to which every enterprise and labour tends, and cause there is a demand for it. There is a loud call for showy of which every desire prompts the prosecution. It is, indeed, at outside work. The multitude look at the surface, and investigate

home that every man must be known by those who would make a no further. The old adage is still true—“ more people see than

just estimate of his virtue or felicity; for smiles and embroidery are weigh: polished brass will pass with more men than rough gold.” alike occasional, and the mind is often dressed for show in painted

The faithful teacher must not and will not yield to this demand. honour and fictitious benevolence. The best artists are slow workmen. The noblest productions of every art and profession have received their perfection from pro How to ADMONISH. - We must consult the gentlest manner and tracted toil and painstaking. It takes a thousand years for the softest seasons of address ; our advice must not fall, like a violent gnarled oak of the mountain to acquire its firm texture and lofty storm, bearing down and making those to droop, whom it is meant proportions. It is the gourd that grows up in a pight.

to cherish and refresh. It must descend, as the dew upon the tender So a strong and vigorous intellect is a thing of slow growth. herb, or like melting flakes of snow; the soster it falls, the longer This ought to be a “fixed fact" in every teacher's mind. His bu it dwells upon, and the deeper it sinks into the mind. If there are siness is to encourage its growth, by removing obstructions, and few who have the humility to receive advice as they ought, it is supplying the most favorable aliment in right quantities,—and he often because there are few who have discretion to convey it in a can do no more. He cannot grow for it. He cannot jerk his pu proper vehicle, and can qualify the harshness and bitterness of pil up the hill of science any more than he can jerk the sapling into reproof, against which corrupt nature is apt to revolt, by an artful an oak. There is no such thing as manufacturing at once a ma mixture of sweetening and agreeable ingredients. To probe the ture mind, and he who attempts it will make a miserable failure. wound to the bottom with all the boldness and resolution of a good

Those lofty edifices whose immense size strikes the beholder with spiritual surgeon, and yet with all the delicacy and tenderness of a awe and astonishment, were built brick by brick, one at a time. In friend, requires a very dexterous and masterly band. An affable all such edifices the foundation is the most massive part, and requires deportment and a complacency of behaviour will disarm the most more time and material than any other part.

obstinate, whereas, if instead of calmly pointing out their mistake, I have sometimes thought that the first year in a primary school we break out into unseemly sallies of passion, we cease to have any has more to do with future scholarship than many succeeding years. influence. If there is negligence or misdirection then, it leaves a great work to be undone. The poor foundation must be removed to make room He who commands himself, commands the world 100; and the for a better. The tones which the child imitates there, the man more authority you have over others, the more command you must agement of voice which it acquires, the distinctness of its articula bave over yourself. tion, will tell powerfully on the future reader and orator. The clearness and fulness of its first apprehension of numbers and of exten I will hazard the assertion, that no man did or ever will become sion and directions, will determine to a great extent its future profi truly elequent, without being a constant reader of the Bible, and an ciency in arithmetic and geography. In this stage of education let admirer of the purity and sublimity of its language.--Fisher Ames. no word be half spoken, no fact half learned, and no thought half comprehended. Aim at completeness. That word completeness Enjoyment is more durable than pain. The one is the immortal. should ever stand before every teacher's eye and mind from the firmament, the other the transient clouds which darken it for a time. primary school to the university. The pupil who has done and learned every thing imperfectly during the first three years of his How much more might people accomplish, if they would but life in school, cannot be a very hopeful candidate for the honors of I make it a point to carry out whatever they undertake.


tute, but at the discretion and by the action, froin year to year, of the inhabitants in each school muncipality-thus avoiding the objection

which might be made against an uniform coercive law on this point, TORONTO, JULY, 1851.

and the possible indifference which might in some instances be

induced by the provisions of such a law-independent of local SKETCH OF THE SYSTEM OF PUBLIC ELEMENTARY

choice and action. 3. That the series of elementary text-books, preINSTRUCTION IN UPPER CANADA.

pared by experienced teachers, and rovised and published under the

sanction of the National Board of Education in Ireland, were, as a The description and illustrations given in this number of the

whole, the best adapted to schools in Upper Canada-having long buildings for the Normal and Model Schools for Upper Canada, been tested, having been translated into several languages of the contogether with the account of the imposing ceremony of laying the | tinent of Europe, and having been introduced more extensively than chief corner stono, suggests the propriety of presenting a brief

any other series of text-books into the schools of England and Scot

land. 4. That the system of Normal School training of teachers, outline of that system of public elementary instruction, with which

and the principles and modes of teaching which were found to exist those schools are now so essentially connected.

in Germany, and which have been largely introduced into other The origin of the common school system of Upper Canada, as countries, were incomparably the best—the system which makes now established, is as follows :-Annual parliamentary grants were school-teaching a profession, wbich, at every stage, and in every made in aid of common schools for more than thirty years, but

branch of knowledge, teaches things and not merely words, which

unfolds and illustrates the principles of rules, rather than assuming expended without system, and with but little advantage to the country.

and resting upon their verbal authority, which develops all the In 1841, the first law was passed (introduced and conducted through

mental faculties instead of only cultivating and loading the memory the Legislative Assembly by the Hon. S. B. HARRISON, then Secre

-a system which is solid rather than showy, practical rather than tary of the Province) embodying the great principle of granting

ostentatious, which prompts to independent thinking and action money to each county, upon the condition of such county raising an

rather that servile imitation. equal amount by local assessment. Considerable opposition was

Such are the sources from which the principal features of the made at first in many parts of the Province to the principlo of that

school system in Upper Canada have been derived, though the appliAct; and it is said that when the Hon. R. BALDWIN was engaged,

cation of each of them has been modified by the local circumstances in 1841, in an election contest in the county of Hastings, and was

of our country. There is another feature, or rather cardinal principle informed of the opposition against him, even among many of his own

of it, which is rather indigenous than exotic, which is wanting in the friends, on account of his supporting such a principle of school

educational systems of some countries, and which is made the taxation, he answered in effect that he would rather loose his elec

occasion and instrument of invidious distinctions and unnatural protion than givo up that principle. The machinery of that law

scriptions in other countries—we mean the principle of not only requiring modification; the Hon. F. Hincks brought in another Bill

making Christianity the basis of the system, and the pervading elein 1843, which became a law, and which very much simplified and

ment of all its parts, but of recognizing and combining, in their official improved the details of the Act of 1841. By that law, the Secretary

character, all the clergy of the land, with their people in its practical of the Province was ex-officio Chief Superintendent of Schools, with

operations-maintaining absolute parental supremacy in the religious an assistant. In 1844, the office of assistant superintendent was

instruction of their children, and upon this principle providing for it offered to the present incumbent ; and after having received the

according to the circumstances, and under the auspices of the elected sanction of the authorities of his Church, ho accepted it in the

trustee-representatives of each school municipality. The clergy of autumn of that year, upon the understanding that the administration

the country have access to each of its schools ; and we know of no of the school system should constitute a distinct non-political depart

instance in which the school has been made the place of religious ment, and that he should be permitted to provide for the performance

discord, but many instances, especially on occasions of quarterly of his duties for a year by a deputy, and have a year's leave of

public examinations, in which the school has witnessed the assemabsence to visit and examine the educational systems of other coun

blage and friendly intercourse of clergy of various religious pertries, both in Europe and America, before attempting to lay tho

suasions, and thus become the radiating centre of a spirit of Christian foundations of a system in Upper Canada. The whole of 1845 was

charity and potent co-operation in the primary work of a people's employed in theso preliminary enquiries, and the results were

civilization and happiness. embodied, in March 1846, in a "Report on a System of Public

The system of public instruction is engrafted upon the municipal Elementary Instruction for Upper Canada," and a draft of Bill which

institutions of the country. We have municipal councils of counties, was introduced into the Legislative Assembly by the Hon. W. H.

of townships, of cities, of towns, and of incorporated villages. The DRAPER, (then Attorney General,) and became a law in June, 1846.

members of county councils are elected by the councils of townships In a few months afterwards, a draft of Bill was prepared for estab

and towns-one or two for each. The members of township, city, lishing a system of schools in cities and incorporated towns, which

town, and village councils are elected by the resident freebolders was introduced into the Legislative Assembly by the Hon. J. H.

and householders of each municipality. CAMERON, (then Solicitor General,) and became a law in June 1847.

The municipal council of each township divides such townsbip These two Acts, with the modifications and improvements which

into school sections of a suitable extent for one school in each, experience has suggested and the progress of the system required,

or for both a male and female school. The affairs of each school have been incorporated into ono Act, which was introduced into the

section are managed by three trustees, who hold their offices for Legislative Assembly by the Hon. F. HINCKS, (Inspector General,)

three years, and one of whom is elected annually by the freeholders and became a law in 1850—the first Act to which His Excellency

and householders of such section. The powers of trustees are the Earl of Elgin gave the royal assent after the removal of the

ample to enable them to do all that the interests of a good school seat of Government to Upper Canada.

require-they are the legal representatives and guardians of their Our system of public elementary instruction is eclectic, and is to

section in school matters. They determine whatever sum or sums a considerable extent derived from four sources. The conclusions

are necessary for the furnishing, &c., of their school and the salaries at which the present Head of the Department arrived during his

of teachers, but account for its expenditure annually to their conobservations and investigations of 1845, were, 1. That the machinery

stituents, and report fully to the local superintendent by filling up or law part of the system in the State of New York was the best,

blank forms of annual reports which are furnished to them by the upon the whole-appearing, however, defective in the intricacy of

Chief Superintendent of Schools from year to year. The township some of its details, in the absence of an efficient provision for the

council imposes assessments for the erection of school houses, or for visitation and inspection of schools, the examination of teachers,

any other school purpose desired by the inhabitants of school secreligious instruction, and uniform text-books for the schools. 2. That

tions through their trusteos. The inhabitants of each school the principle of supporting schools in the State of Massachusetts was section decide as to the manner in which they will support their the best-supporting them all according to property, and opening school according to the estimates and engagements made by the them to all without distinetion ; but that the application of this princi trustees, whether by voluntary subscription, by rate-bills on parents ple should not be made by the requirements of state or provincial sta- | sending children to the schools, or by rates on the property of all

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