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Upper Canada.


Vol. IV.


No. 1.

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careful consideration, and embody them in actual recommendations

PADE. 1. Third Annual Address of the Chief Superintendent of Schools....... 1-3

and measures, and administrative policy. In New York and other II. History of the English Language-Edinburgh Review............. 3-5

States, the succession of temporary State School officers has been III. MISCELLANEOUS. 1. Touch us gently, Time. 2. Old Letters. 3. Free

accompanied with an almost corresponding succession of school School Historical Facts. 4. The two Schools. 6. The Crusades,

laws; and every confident and adventurous theorist in the Legis6. Power of Kindness. 7. British Constitution; and various inte

lature, who had perhaps never been out of the limits of his native resting items ... items....................................

State, or read balf a dozen school laws, or never studied a school IV. EDITORIAL. Encouraging symptoms for the Future. 2. Education in the

system, in his life, was ready with some new project in which he City of Hamilton-Report of a Committee of the Board of Trustees.

imagined and insisted was embodied the sum of all human perfection, 3. Progress of Education in Canada. 4. Free Education by the

but which was no sooner tried than abandoned. In the State of State .........


New York, after almost annual legislation for nearly forty years, V. Popular Science-illustrated-(continued)...................... 12-14

the general provisions of the last amended school law of that State, VI. EDUCATIONAL INTELLIGENCE. 1. Canada. 2. British and Foreign. 3.

are, I have been informed, a roënactment substantially and almost United States ...................

... 14-15

verbatim of the general provisions of the school law of 1811, which VII. LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE ...................... 15-16

was adopted on the recommendation of an able Committee that had VIJI. EDITORIAL NOTICES—to Local Superintendents-of Books, Pamphlets, &c. 16

devoted a year to the examination and consideration of the subject

thus coming back to the place of beginning, after having made the Third Annual adrress

whole circle in school legislation. But in Upper Canada, our ab

normal state of legislative experiment and change has been less TO THE PEOPLE OF UPPER CANADA.

protracted and tedious. We have had the great advantage of our BY THE

neighbours' experiments and experience, and have reached (and I CHIEF SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS.

hope have exceeded) their results in legislation, without the draw

backs of their many trials and disappointments ; and some of the Mr Fellow-COUNTRYMEN :

material changes in our school law have been required by the introIn presenting to you my annual address at the commencement of | duction of a new system of Municipal Councils; and other portions 1851, I am not in a position to enter into statistical details in re- of our recent school legislation have consisted in the introduction spect to past educational progress; nor is it necessary that I should

of new and necessary provisions, rather than the repeal of existing

ones. The careful inquiry which has been instituted into the do so, as my last annual School Report has just been printed by

whole subject during the last five years, the many consultations order of the Legislative Assembly, and placed in the hands of each which have been held in the several counties throughout the counMunicipal Council and School Corporation throughout Upper Ca try, tbe minute and anxious attention whieh was bestowed upon it nada. I will, therefore, on the present occasion confine myself to a

by the Government and the Legislature during the last session, all

warrant the assurance in the public mind, that no future legislation few general remarks and practical suggestions.

on the subject of our Common Schools will take place, except as My first remark relates to the settlement of the general princi

| new wants may suggest, and the experience and convictions of the ples and great organic provisions of our school system. It has country shall require. I am the more convinced of the correctness been a common and not unfounded complaint, that there wås nothing of this conclusion from the fact, that every suggestion, whether abiding, nothing settled in the principles and provisions of our

friendly or hostile, which I have seen in newspapers proposing

substitutes for certain provisions of our present school law, has School Law. Perpetual change in a school law is perpetual in

been tried and found unsuccessful in some one of the neighbouring fancy in a public school system. Permanence and stability are States--a fact of which the projectors might have satisfied themessential conditions of growth, whether in an oak of the forest, or in selves, had they investigated the history of school legistation in a system of national education. But the works of man are not

those States, before undertaking to give lessons on the subject for like the works of God, perfect at the beginning. The history of

Upper Canada. It cannot fail to be satisfactory and encouraging

to every practical man and friend of education, to enter upon the all science teaches us, that experiments must precede the principles

school duties and interests of a new year with the conviction, that which they establish; and the period of experiment in any thing his labours will not be in vain, and that the system to which he is likely to be a period of change as well as of infancy. In no branch

shall endeavour to give efficiency will be an abiding agency for the of political economy have more experiments been made, and with

educational development and elevation of his country. less progress towards the definiteness and dignity of a science, than My second general remark refers to the position which our in the department of public education. The chief reason I appre school system and its administration occupy in respect to parties hend to be, not that it is more difficult than any other, but that it and party interests, has received less attention than any other in proportion to its mag The virus of party spirit is poisonous to the interests of educanitude and importance-that in very few instances has any one

tion in any country or neighbourhood, and the clangour and jostling man, with zeal and ca pacity for the task, been permanently set a part of party conflicts are its funeral knell. It perishes in the social to investigate the subject in all its aspects and applications, and to storm, but grows and blooms and bears fruit in the serenity and bring definitely and practically before the authorities, and legislators, sunshine of social peace and harmony. It has, therefore, been the and citizens of his country, the results of general experience and policy of the enemies of general education, in any country and of

whatever party, as it prompted by a malevolent instinct, to seek to government. To the most potent developments of the latter, orgainvest the agency for its extension with a party character, and then | nization is essential; and such organization as combines the strangle it as a party monster. And even unintentionally and inci- whole community for all public purposes, and within convenient dentally, the interests of education have largely suffered from the geographical limits. In our system of municipalities, and in same upas influence. Among our American neighbours, I have been our school system which is engrafted upon the municipalities. assured, that party selfishness and contests have proved one of the these objects are carefully studied, and effectually provided for, and most serious obstacles to the progress of their educational systems provided for to an extent that I have not witnessed or read of in and interests. The working of their machinery of government in any other country. In the neighbouring States, there are excellent volving countless elections and endless party conflicts, the local, if | town and city municipalities with ample powers, and in some States not higher, admivistration of their school systems has often been there are municipalities of townships and counties for certain obperverted and pressed into degrading service as an engine of partyjects; but these are isolated from, and independent of, each other,

-to the grief of the earnest and patriotic friends of education ; and are far from possessing powers commensurate with the developand it has been alleged, that to the intrigues of party aspirants maym ent of the resources and meeting all the public wants of the combe traced the origin of no inconsiderable number of their projects | munity within their respective limits. It is in Upper Canada alone of school laws and school reforms. It is bighly honourable to the that we have a complete and uniform system of municipal organizadiscernment and patriotism of our neighbours, that under a system tion, from the smallest incorporated village to the largest city, and of polity which to so high a degree lives and moves and breathes in from the feeblest school section and remotest township to the largest an atmosphere of almost theatrical excitement, the interests of county or union of counties—the one rising above the other, but education have been so nobly sustained and its progress has been not superseding it—the one connected with the other, but not conso rapid and extensive. I regard it as an interesting incident in travening it—the one merging into the other for purposes of wider our Canadian history, and a brilliant sign and certain augury of expansion and more extensive combination. By their constitution, educational progress, that our system of popular instruction stands these municipal and school corporations are reflections of the sentiforth by common consent and suffrage, the crclusive property of no ments and feelings of the people within their respective circles of party, and the equal friend of all parties. If one party introduced i jurisdictions, and their powers are adequate to meet all the econolegislative enactments laying the foundation and delineating the inic exigences of each municipality, whether of schools or roads, of general outlines of the system in 1841 and 1843, and if another the diffusion of knowledge or the development of wealth. Around introduced a legislative measure to modify and essentially to in-| the fire-sides and in the primary meetings, all matters of local interprove it in 1846, both parties have united to mature and consoli est are freely examined and discussed; the people feel that these date it in 1850. I think there was a moral sublimity in the spec- affairs are their own, and that the wise disposal and managetacle presented by our Legislature at its last session, when the ment of them depend upon their own energy and discretion. In leading minds of both parties, (with only subordinate exceptions this development of individual self-reliance, intelligence, and action unworthy of formal notice, and reflecting just Harkness enough to in local affairs of common interest, we have one of the primary elegive stronger expression and greater majesty to the general outlines ments of a people's social advancement; whilst in the municipal of the picture forgetting the rivalships and alieni tions of party, organizations we have the aggregate intelligence and resources of and uniting as one man to provide the best system they could de the whole community on every material question and interest of comvise for the universal education of their common country--the spirit | mon concern. What the individual cannot do, in respect to a school, of sect being merged in the spirit of Christianity, and the spirit of a library, a road, or a railway, can be easily accomplished by the partizanship absorbed in that of patriotism. I have stated the fact municipality; and the concentration of individual feeling and sentito several distinguished public men, as well in the United States as ment gives character and direction to municipal action. The laws in England, and in every instance the comment has been one of ad- constituting municipalities and schools are the charters of their miration of such a spirit in the public men of Canada, and congra government, and the forms and regulations for executing them are tulation on the educational and social prospects of the Canadian aids to strengthen their hands and charts to direct the course of people under such circumstances. As a practical development of those who are selected to administer them. the same spirit in administration, which had been thus illustrated in

The application of this simple but comprehensive machinery to legislation, the same persons have been reäppointed, in 1850, to

the interests of schools and general knowledge opens up for Upper perpetuate and extend the work of education under the law, who

Canada the prospect of a glorious future. One of the most formiwere first appointed in 1846 to devise and establish it. The ex

dable obstacles to the universal diffusion of education and knowledge, ample and spirit of these acts should thrill the heart of every man is class isolation and class exclusiveness—where the higher grades of every party in Canada, and tell him that in the education of youth

of society are wholly severed from the lower in responsibility, obligahe should forget sect and party, and only know Christianity and his

tions, and sympathy, where sect wraps itself up in the cloak of its country.

own pride, and sees nothing of knowledge, or virtue, or patriotism I have a third general remark to make, and it is this-that our beyond its own enclosures, and where the men of liberal education system of municipalities affords unprecedented and unparalleled fa regard the education of the masses as an encroachment upon their. cilities for the education and social advancement of our country. own domains, or beneath their care or notice. The feeble and most Since I came to England, a member of the Canadian Legislature needy, as also the most numerous classes, are thus rendered still now in this country, an able political opponent of the author of our feebler by neglect, while the educated and more wealthy are renpresent municipal law, but deeply interested in the financial and dered still stronger by monopoly. Our municipal and school system, general advancement of Upper Canada, and who has to do with on the contrary, is of the largest comprehension-it embraces in its matters affected by that law, has expressed to me his conviction provisions all classes and all sects, and places the property of all, withthat our Municipal Law is the grandest, the most comprehensive, out exception, under contribution for the education of all without and most complete measure of which he has any knowledge, for respect of persons. Thus every man, whether rich or poor, is made developing the resources and promoting the improvement of a equal before the law, and is laid under obligation, according to his country, especially a young country. But what is thus stated by means, of educating the whole community. And our law provides, an impartial and competent judge to be true of this law in respect for the application of this great principle, not only for the establishto the general resources and interests of the country is I think, pre ment of schools and all requisites for their support and efficient eminently true in respect to its educational interests. Among the operation, but also for the establishment and maintenance of libraries conditions essential to the advancement and greatness of a of general knowledge and reading ; nor does it leave each municipeople, are individual development and social coöperation—to add pality, unassisted, to collect books where and how it can, and at whatas much as possible to the intellectual and moral value and power

ever prices, but calls in the position and assistance of government to of each individual man, and to collect and combine individual effort

arrange for procuring, at the lowest prices, a selection of books and resources in what appertains to the well-being of the whole ample in number and variety, and suitable in character, to meet the community. That system of polity is best which best provides for wants and wishes of every municipality in Upper Canada. The the widest and most judicious operation of these two principles--the Department of Public Instruction having to do in respect to books individual and the social. Now, to the development of the former, with no private parties, but with school and municipal corporations self reliance is requisite ; and in order to that there must be self-| only, the legitimate field of private trade cannot be entrenched upon,

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-- - nor the ordinary channels of private business in the least interfered than a century had conquered nearly as much of the island as they with ; but they will rather be onlarged by the cultivation of public ever conquered at all. They retained their language uncorruptedtaste, and the increased demand for books of instruction and enter by no means always the case with conquerors. As Gibbon extainment.

presses it, “a largo army is but a small nation ;" the progress of Such are the educational circumstances under which the people conquest is slow: and the victors, in time, are apt to adopt, with of Upper Canada commence the year 1851. Several practical sug some modifications, the language of the vanquished. gestions have been made in connexion with the preceding remarks ; The Anglo-Saxon continued to be spoken, nearly in its purity, till others are so obvious, as inferences, that I need not repeat them in the Conquest (1066). It may be reckoned to have reached its highthis place. All that I will, therefore, add is, that if the year 1850 has est state of development in the age of Alfred,-a natural consebeen signalized by laying the foundations of our system of public in- quence of the encouragement given to literature and every species struction deeper and broader, should not the year 1851 be charac of culture by that truly enlightened and patriotic prince. terized by rearing the superstructure higher upon those foundations? About the time of the Conquest, or rather a little before, comIf during the last few years Upper Canada has advanced beyond menced those changes, which terminated in the formation of what the State of New York in three great elements of popular education we must call a new language-the English. Yet it is nyt till two

-the average time of keeping open the schools during the year, the centuries after that event (1258), that we possess a document which amount of money raised by the people at large for the support of shows us the transformation almost complete. education in proportion to the population, and the proportional num The specimens which we possess of the earliest English, though ber of teachers trained in the Normal School -- why may nct scanty, are sufficient to show that the change in the language was Upper Canada, with its improved school law and its municipal sys nearly complete about the cpoch fixed upon above, namely, 1258. tem, become the best educated and the most intelligent country in Probably the first extant specimen of modern English, is a proNorth America ? Upon ourselves will be the responsibility and clamation addressed to the people of Huntingdonshire by Henry III. shame if it be not so.

in 1258.* A song of triumph (probably composed in London), on In the course of the year I hope to be able to visit each county or the victory of the confederate barons, in 1264, at Lewes, is someunion of counties in Upper Canada, to bring before you at public what less obsoleto in its style ; which is what one would expect. meetings those parts of our school system which are yet to be Robert of Gloucester (about 1300) made a metrical version of brought into operation, and to confer with you upon the best means Geoffrey of Monmouth. By this time it appears a considerable of perfecting what has been commenced. In devising these means, number of French words had been received into the English lanI try to conceive of the children in each municipality and school guage—but still in no such quantity as to justify the representation section, even the most remote and feeble, as my own children, and of Dr. Johnson, who says rather vaguely, that he seems to have to provide for them educationally, as far as in my power, in the way “used a kind of intermediato diction, neither Saxon nor English.” that I would wish my own children to be provided for under like Vaguely, we say, for the passage might suggest the notion that circumstances. However far I may come short of my own wishes | French was found in a very large proportion: this, however, he does and of your necessities, I trust you will be satisfied with my liumble not mean ; for, he is evidently referring principally to the change in endeavours when they come to be practically developed ; and I am the grammatical character of the language. Warton, speaking of sure your cordial coöperation will not be wanting in what is best the same author, calls him “full of Saxonisms.” Hallam says, for our children and patriotic for our country. I earnestly implore “On comparing him with Layamon, a native of the same county, the Divine blessing to crown our united exertions with the most and a writer on the same subject, it will appear that a great quanabundant success!

tity of French had flowed into the language since the loss of NorYour faithful servant,

mandy." The historian must be supposed to be speaking compara

E. RYERSON. tively with the French previously existing. The style of Robert of London, December, 1850.

Gloucester may be easily estimated by any ono curious enough to

look into the accessible and copious extracts in Warton and Ellis ; HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.

it will at once be seen that, relatively to the Saxon, the French is

still a very subordinate element. From an elaborate and carefully written article in the last Number It was not till the middle and towards the close of the fourteenth of the Edinburgh Review, we have selected the following Sketch century, that English became, to any considerable extent, the lanof the History of the English Language. The subject is treated guage of literature. The first prose work was Sir John Mandewith much ability, and displays minute research. Wo have been

ville's Travels, which appeared in 1356. Wickliffe's translation of

the Bible-alas! still existing only in manuscript-is referred to obliged to omit many striking illustrations and interesting episodes

1383: Trevisa's translation of Hygden's Poly chronicon to 1385; in endeavouring to compress the contribution to the quarterly within and Chaucer's immortal works were all produced in the latter half the limits of our monthly. The article, although compressed, will of the same century. The statute of 1362, which decreed that the prove eminently instructive and valuable.

pleadings in'courts of justice should be conducted in English, in con

sequence of the general ignorance of French, had been just preIt is hardly necessary to inform any of our readers that the Anglo

coded (1354) by an order that no ecclesiastical preferment should Saxon was one of the numerous offshoots from the prolific stock of

be given in England to any person not conversant with the English Gothic languages. Like the modern German, it had far more various language, and resident there, cardinals alone excepted. Shortly and complicated infections of its articles, pronouns, and adjectives,

after it appears to have become the common language of the court than the modern English : and in the verbs more inflectional forms

and nobility, as well as of the people. than the latter at present exhibits. Like the modern German, it

The higher classes exclusively spoke French, from the Conquest also admitted what appears to us an inverted and unnaturrl order in

to the reign of Edward III. Brompton relates that as Henry II. was construction ; and lastly, it possessed a similar power of combining

returning from Ireland, through Pembrokeshire, and was addressed its elements, and of forming new compounds at its pleasure. This last is the singular advantage of a homogeneous language ; for by a

as the gode olde Kynge, he was obliged to ask his squire the meanspecies of elasticity, it can thus accommodate itself to any condition

* Since this document is highly curious, and usually cited as the first authentic speciof the pational mind. Contracted during the period of barbarism,

men of modern English, it may be as well to state that it may be consulted in Henry's

History of Great Britain, vol. viii. Appendix No. 4, or in Latham's English Language, it readily expands in proportion to the demands of knowledge and pp. 77, 78. For a catalowe of specimeds of early English, scc Latham, p. 78. It is sin

gular that the reign of llenry III. should thus present us, within less than ten years of civilization. By far the most momentous part of the change which

cach other, with hoth the first ertant Act of State in modern English (1258, as in the has converted Anglo-Saxon into modern English, consists in the loss text), and also with the first Statute (1266, de Scaccario.) in French. And it is not

lese dificult to account for the first statutory appearance of the French language at that of many of the abovementioned grammatical peculiarites, and in time, than for its having continued to be the ordinary language of the Statutes until 1 mere changes of form and orthography. The vocabulary of the older

Richard III., 1483: especially after its abolition from Pleadings, 36 Edward Ill., on the

popular rensons set forth in the preamble: “Reasonably the said laws and custoins the language has been to a vast extent transferred to the new. Five rather shall be perceived and known and better understood in the Tongue used in the

said Realm, and hy so much every man may the better govern bimself without oflending eighths at least of the language spoken by Alfred still circulates in

the Law, and better defend his Heritage : and in divers countries where the King and the veins of the modern English.

Nobles have been, good governance and just right is done to every person, because that

the Laws and Custoins are used in the Tongue of the Country." The Anglo-Saxons invaded Britain in 449, and in something less t southey's Common-Place Book, third series. Page 391.

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ing of the words; and Hovden mentions that Longchamp, Bishop ever, that polish and refinement which it was destined ultimately to of Ely and Chancellor to Richard I., did not know a word of Eng- | reach, another cause still more powerful was to come into operation lish: though, as Hallam remarks," it seems probable that the higher | contemporaneously with the above causes; we mean the revival of classes were generally acquainted with English, at least in the latter classical literature. part of that period.” All letters, including those of a merely private A favourable instance of this influence operating on a mind of the nature, were written in Latin till 1270, after which French was first order may be found in the writings of the bosom friend of used. There is in Rymer a despatch in French as late as Hen. V., Erasmus, Sir Thomas More. Ben Jonson tells us that “his works while Prince, addressed to his father; notwithstanding Thierry's were considered as models of pure and elegant style ;" and Hallam criticism upon it, the fair Katharine would have understood it better is of opinion that his history of Richard III. " is the first example than, according to Shakspeare, she afterwards understood his Eng of good English language ; pure and conspicuous, well chosen, lish. The fact that French was long the language of power, rank, without vulgarisms or pedantry.” wealth, and fashion, had naturally led to its more sedulous cultiva Not only was the first effect of the revival of classical literature tion, and as naturally to the neglect of the vernacular,—which on language and style simply beneficial, but it continued to be so though the language of the mass, must have been subject during all till Elizabeth had ascended the throne. The critical cultivation of that period to manifold depravations from its not being critically the language proceeded for some time on right principles and by a studied.

safe method. Nay, some of the learned men of the century might Since, however, up to the reign of Edward III., French was the be considered almost purists in their views upon this subject. Thus language of the sovereign and the nobility, and the courts of law, we are told that Sir John Cheke (1514–1557), the famous Professor since it was the universal practice up to that time (clearly shown in of Greek at Cambridge, under whom studied Roger Ascham, the the extract above referred to), to construe Latin into French, and celebrated tutor of Elizabeth herself, projected a plan of reforming since, as we learn from the statutes of Oriel College, Oxford, so late the English language by eradicating all words except those derived as 1328, students were ordered to converse either in French or from Saxon roois ! Latin, of course as being the two polite languages, --we may be sure “From the authors," says Dr. Johnson, “ which rose in the time of that the new language, if we must call it so, which had been form Elizabeth a speech might be formed adequate to all the purposes of ing in silence and obscurity, could have been little written ; and the use and elegance. If the language of theology were extracted from revolution, therefore, is in no degree to be ascribed to any such Hooker and the translators of the Bible, the terms of natural knowledge cause. Even in the reign of Henry VIII., when Leland had the from Bacon, the phrases of policy, war, and navigation from Raleigh, pillaging of all the great libraries in the kingdom, he found only the dialect of poetry from Spenser and Sydney, and the diction of two or three books in English.

common life from Shakspeare, few ideas would be lost to mankind The writer, however, who at this earliest epoch of our literature for want of English words in which they might be expressed." exerted the greatest influence on the language, was unquestionably Up to Elizabeth's reign there was, perhaps, no great reason to Chaucer; and he certainly introduced a large number of words from complain of the extent of classical importations ; after that period, the French, as might be expected from his early familiarity with the however, we certainly find the Latin element making undue enmetrical romances, and his extensive translations from them. He croachments; and those encroachments continued for nearly half a also endeavoared, though unsuccessfully, to introduce innovations of century onward, producing a very perceptible difference for the acoent and pronunciation in his attempt at a more unexceptionable worse in diction, and introducing a species of construction utterly harmony,

unsuited to the genius of the English language. The first English printer, the celebrated Caxton, died in 1491. So extensive were these importations, that there are comparatively Southey's friend, Burnett, in his “Specimens of English Prose few terms of classical origin now in use (if we except the additions Writers" (which may be called almost their joint production), no to the nomenclature of modern science), which are not to be met tices, as remarkable, what Caxton says of Trevisa's Translation with in some shape or other in the writers who flourished from the We should like to compare the Translation, as Caxton altered it on accession of Elizabeth to the Restoration. From the writings of printing it, with the Cottonian or some other MS., so as to judge for Sir Thomas Browne, Jeremy Taylor, Donne, and about a score more ourselves by the difference between the two of the effect of the in of our authors of this period, might probably be collected two or termediate hundred years:"I, William Caxton, a simple person, three thousand Latin derivatives, which have since become obsolete ; have endeavoured me to write first over all the said book of Poly many of them among the anag asyoueva, as critics would say, of the chronicon,-somewhat have changed the rude and olde English, that authors themselves. Some such audacities were ventured on among is to wit, certain words, which in these days we neither used ne his “native wood notes wild" even by Shakspeare,-at least some understood.” And again: “Some gentlemen blamed me, saying pass under his name. that in my translations, I have over curious terms, which could not Of the writers of this cpoch who so largely imported Latinisms be understood of common people, and desired me to use olde homely into the language, Jeremy Taylor is perhaps the one who, as little terms in my translations. As I fain would satisfy every man, so to as any, affects the periodic style. Though his sentences are often do, I took an old book and read therein: but certainly the English long, inordinately long, his connectives are usually extremely simple. was so rude and broad that I could not well understand it. Also One favourite and much abused conjunction is his general link. the Lord Abbot of Westminster did show to me late certain evidences How exquisite is the harmony, as well as the conception of the folwritten in old English, for to reduce it into our English then used: lowing sentence! The close is music itself :-“So much as mobut it was written in such wise, that it was more like Dutch than ments are exceeded by eternity, and the sighing of a man by the English ; so that I could not reduce, ne bring it to be understonden. joys of an angel, and a salutary frown by the light of God's counAnd certainly, our language now used, varyeth far from that which tenance, a few frowns by the iufinite and eternal hallelujahs, so much was spoken when I was born; for wo Englishmen ben born under | are the sorrows of the godly to be undervalued in respect of what the domination of the moon, which is never stedfast, but ever wa is deposited for them in the treasures of eternity. Their sorrows vering : waxing one season and waneth and decreaseth another I can die, but so cannot their joys. And if the blessed martyrs and season; and common English that is spoken in one shire, varyeth confessors were asked concerning their past sufferings and their from another." Of the magical power of the instrument, which had present rest, and the joys of their certain expectation, you should now come into Caxton's hands, there can, at all events, be no doubt. hear them glory in nothing but in the mercies of God, and in the With it, he himself probably exercised a greater influence on the cross of the Lord Jesus. Every chain is a ray of light, and every language than any other man between Chaucer and tho Reforma prison is a palace, and every loss is the purchase of a kingdom, and tion; and the changes wrought in it by his wondrous art were every affront in the cause of God is an eternal honour, and every almost immediately conspicuous.

day of sorrow is a thousand years of comfort, multiplied with a Owing partly to the more general writing, and still more to the never ceasing numeration,-days without night, joys without sosprinting of the language, a sensible improvement took place be- row, sanctity without sin, charity without stain, possession without tween the age of Caxton and the death of Henry VIII. The com fear, society without envying, communication of joys without lespositions which remain to us exhibit progressively greater brevity sening; and they shall dwe!l in a blessed country, where an enemy of expression, as well as compactness of construction, and even never entered, and from whence a friend never went away." some degree of occasional elegance. To give the language, how With the Restoration (1660) commenced å striking series of

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