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Lawrence Scicntitic School 170.
Normal School in Upper Canada, 10, 20, 32, Railways, Steel, 15.

Telescope, Lord Rosse's, 79.
Layard, Dr., 79, 159.
36, 54, 57, 64, 73, 127 ; in the United Randali, s. s., Esq., 19, 129, 152.

Telegragh, Llectric, 177.
Leeds and Grenville Schools 29, 174.
States, 13, 19, 45, 62, 73, 75, 91, 137 ; Reading, Fictitious, &6.

Tenptation to Young Men 51.
Legal Education, England 26.

in England 157 ; in Irelaud 14 141.
Reciprocity with the United States 9.

Terms of Admission to Normal School, Legislative Library, Upper Canada 30 Nova Scotia Schools 25, 26, 29, 93, 185. Recollection of School Days 38.

United States 57,127 ; Massachusetts 75. Legislators, Duty of, 31.

Refuriner, Dumfries, 11,

Terra Cotta 139. Lely, s.r l'eter, 2.5

{Regents of the University, New York, 43, {Text Books, Uniformity of, in Upper Canada, Lever of Canadian Greatness, Patriotisms

45, 59, 89.

defended 152. the, 40.

Registers, School, Upper Canada, 168, 1 Thebes, Ancient, 63. Libraries, School, U. C., 11, 81, E8, 155 ; in Ocean, Depth of the, 47.

Religion, an essential Element of Greatness > Theory and Practice of Teaching 146. England 79, 139, 102 ; in Ireland 14, 102 ; Ochlenschlager, the Poet, 79.

3 53.

Thiers, M., 31, 65. in the United States 13.

Oicial Journal of Education, Upper Cana- Report. School Upper Canada. 127. 129. Think Again 39. Libraries, British and Continental, 162; va

da, 112, 125, 184.

om - 176 ; New-York 12, 4, 123 ; Irish 14. 186. Thoughts of Jean Paul Richter,, 7. rious public 30, 31, 62, 94, 162, 174, Old School House 139.

Representatives, Selection of, 69.

Thracians, Ancient, 39.
187 ; public 11, 82, 147, 162.
Oratory, Compression in, 180.
Respect for Age 23, 66.

Temes, London, England 30, 95, 187.
Life, What is, 23.
Orrery, An admirable, 17.

Responsibility of Teachers, 35 ; of mothers Toronto University 2, 9, 44, 63, 72, 77, 126, Light, Velocity of, tested 63. Oshawa, Lecture at, 28. 1 39.

103, 170, 174, 15).
Lightning Conductors, 177.
Ottonian Empire, 62,

Review, Edinburgh, 46, 175; Quarterly 79; } Touching Incident 165
Lind, Jenny, 142, 158, 174.
Owens' ('ollege, Manchester 78.

158, 175; North British 185; Methodist 16, Townreeves, Circular to, 11.
Oxford, Upper Canada, Schools 28, 41, 13
Literature, Chinese, 79.

80 ; Eclectic 161.

Towns and Cities in Upper Canada, CircuLiterary, Intelligence 15, 30, 46 Oxford University 62, 94, 95, 140, 162, 1

Rich, The, in favour of Free Schools, New- lar to School Trustees ol, 115, 124, 188; 143, 154, 174, 186 ; characters, aid, to, by

York 4.

school regulations for 163. Sir Robert Peel 143.

Richter, Jean Paul, 7. 37, 85.

Township Libraries SI, 88, 155. Local Supervision of Schools 8.

River St. Lawrence, 90, 92,

Training, Normal School, 57. Logic, Study of, 150.

Rochester, New-York, College at, 158.

Trustees, Circular to, 119.
Page's School Keeping 146, 170.
London, U.C., Schools 12, 29, 44, 76, 77,

Turkish Public Instruction 139.
Rosse's, Lord, Telescope 79.
Parents, Facts for, 36, 71.
94, 1-10, 174.
Parker, Theodore, 34, 33

Royal, Comnission, English Universities,
Louisiana Schools 62, 158.
Parr, Dr., 47.

95, 140, 156; polytechnic institution 150. Love, A Mother's, 6, 37.

Patriotisun and Greatness. Canadian. 40. Rugby School, England, 13, 140.
Lower Canada Schools 29. 157, 174.
Peaceful Age, Discoveries of, 85.

Russia, Periodicals in, 175; universities in "L." 's Correspondence 165.


United States Educational Intellimine 19 Peel, Sir Robert, 143, 170, 175. Lunar Daguerreotype 63.

26, 4.5, 62, 73, 94, 141, 158, 196. Pennsylvania Schools 158.

University, of Toronto 11, 29, 44, 65, 72, 76,
Pension, Literary, 30, 94.
People, Enlightened and Progressive, Co

126, 163, 170, 174; of Oxford 52, 62, 94, M

95, 140, 162; of Cambridge 5:2, 62, 95, duct and Advantages of, 69; inconsistency of, the 147. Salaries, National Teachers, 110.

140, 162; of Dublin 62, 163; Harvard 40,

129, 169 ; church, Upper Canada, 45, 173; McGill College 77, 173. Peoples' Colleges 23. Saint Catharines Schools 60, 78.

New South Wales 45 ; College (London) Macauley, Ri. Hon. T. B., 31, 159. 3 Perseverance 3, 71, Saint Lawrence River 90, 92.

62; of London 26 ; of Bologna 27 ; AberMagnetisın, 'Terrestrial, 30. 3 Phantascope, The, 3).

Searboro' School 12.
Philadelphia, Convention 141; schools 166.

deen 62, 78; the first free, 65 ; of Paris Maine school Fund 158.

Science, Practical, Discoveries in 6; govern- . 63 of Victoria College. 11. 77. 127. 1571 Majorities, Sinal), 37. Philosophy of Railroads 48. ment aid to 30 : advantages of 69 ; curiosi

of Queen's College, Upper Canada, 11, 77. Man, Incombustible, 30. Photography 30

ties of 95 ; popolar, illustrated 172, 180. 157: of McGill College 11.77, 173; AmeManchester, College at, 7B. Phrases, Foreign 70.

Scientific, Prizes 94 ; new, institution 143; rican 43, 143, 168 ; Queen's, in Ireland 156, Maun, Hon. A., 24, 37, 38, 49, 50, 51, 67, 71. Picture of Time 5.

wonders 175; intelligence 15, 30, 46, 60, 157, 175; of Padua 175. Manufactures, Canadian and Hoine Mar Pilot, Montreal, 21, 75, 127, 175.

79, 94, 142, 158, 174. 196. Pine Grove School 12. ket, 90.

{ University, froin the Common School up to Seribble, Dr. Parr's, 47.

the, May not all be Free 72.
Marriage defined 7.
Plea for Free Schools 21.
Sears, Rev. Dr., 73, 169.

University Magazine, Dublin, 15, 178,
Martineau, Miss, 31, 186.'
Poet Laureate 94, 187.

Sense vs. Wit 85.
Massachusetts Schools, &c., 16, 26, 27, 45,
Poetry 6, 21, 39, 51, 70, 86, 139, 190.

{ University, New-York, Regents of 16, 43, 45, Shakspeare in Germany 31.

} 59, 89. 73, 75, 96, 136, 159, 169. Politics, 7, 23. Shiel, Rt. Hon. R. L., 141.

* Unsectarian Colleges 139,
Matilda Schools, G1, 64.
Polytechnic Institution 159.

Ship defined 7: stopping fire in a 31.
Mayors of Cities, Circular to, 115.
{ Popular Government, Perfect, 38.
Silence on the Prairies 159.

Upper Canada College 20, 127, 140, 174.
Port Colborne School 77, 93.
Mechanical Talent, Canadian, 8, 59.

Simcoe Schools 157.
Medical Female College 78, 94.
Port Hope Schools 60, 185.

Slander 37.
Poverty an aid to Success 2.
Men, Great, 7; duty of educated, 36 ; hints

Slave defied 7.
Power of Knowledge 51.
to young, 38, 50.1

Slipper, Glass 15. ,
Mental Adaptation 7.
Prairies, Silence on the, 159.
Smith, Rev. Sidney, 37, 46.

Vatican, Library of the, 62.
Methodist Quarterly Review, N. Y., 16, 80.
Praise 85.

Smithsonian Institution 142, 143, 160, { Velocity of Light 03.
Michelet 47.
Prescott Schools 62, 157.

Social tendency of School Libraries, 82. Verbeyst, M., 30.
Michigan Schools 62,
Prescott and Russell Schools 29.
Sorbonne, The, 137.

* Vermont School Fund 158.
Microscope, Canadian, 175.
Presidential Veto, American, 37.
Soul, Education of the, 37.

Veto, American Presidential 37.
Middleser Schools &c. 48. 60. 61. 77. 78. Press, Canadian, 10, 20, 36, 74, 155; LON- Southey, Dr.. 37. 46. 143.

Vieissitude and Change j. 123, 140, 18.

don 30, 95, 187.
Spider, Water, 143.”

Vicissitudes of Watt 63
Millions of Pages 159.
} Prince Edward Schools 76, 157.
Spindle Statistics 30.

Victoria, Queen, 39, 141.
Mind, Human, 139.
} Printing Statistics 95.
Starting in the World 87.

Victoria College 77, 127, 157.
Minerre, La, 16.
Private Schools, New-York, 12.
State, Prosperity of a, 84.

Virgilii P. Maronis Aneidos 48.
Miser detined 7.

Privy Council Committee on Education 26, Statue, of Frederick the Great 63 ; of Sir R. Visitation of Schools 45. Mississippi, School Fund 158; survey of, 159.}


Peel, Milton, Columnbus, Newton, and Visits to the British Museum 94
Model, School, Upper Canada, 36, 54, 64;
Prize, Essay, Keefer's, 89; Lalor's 87";} Shakespeare 175 ; of others, 186.

Vocal Music in Germapy, how taught, 22. Connecticut 130. agricultural schools 14.

Statuette of Napoleon 31.

Vowels, English, 37. Money defined 7.

Prizes, in Normal Schoul, Upper Canada, 58; Steam Engine 63, 177. Montreal Schools 29, 157.

foreign scientific 94.

Steel Railways 15.
Moon. The. Examined. 15. 63
Professional Education 26.
Sun, Rotation of the, 15.

Moore, Thomas, 31, 46.

Professorships in Colleges, Competition for, Students at the British Universities 62. Moral, Virtue, Sublimity of the, 37 ; educa

in France 137.

Studies of Pupils 146. tion 71, 83, 165.

Programme for the Examination of Teachers Success 2 ; a teacher's 83. Morning Song of Birds, 159. in Upper Canada. 150; in Ireland 151.

3 Watt's Vicissitudes 03.

Superintendent, Chief, Address by, 1 ; refer- 'Wavland. Rev. Dr.. 169. Mother, 6, 37, 39.

Progress, Canadian, 11.

B ence to 25, 41, 51, 74, 137, 141, 142, 152, Weakness, A Country's, 23. ** Mr.," in Ausin Colleges, Ediet against, 20. Prospectus, Vol. IV., Journal of E

155 ; appointment of 105, 126 ; lectures by Week. Child's Hymn for the close of the, 70. Municipal Councils, Circular to, 98, 99, 116,


28, 49, 61, 74 ; circulars from 56, 113, 115, weighing Prosperity of a State determined by th

5, Weighing Deparunent of the Bank of En124 ; manual 80.

116, 117, 119, 121, 122, 124, 148, 149, 184.

124, 148, 149, 104. cation of its Youth 84. Museum, British, 94, 159, 163.

land 47.

Superintendents, Local, 184 ; circular to 117 ; Welland Canal 91 Music, Vocal, in Gerinany 22.

Providence Schools 168.

§ notice to 149, 176 ; county of York 146. Public Libraries 147 ; free 11; in Englan Supervision of Schools 8, 17.

Wellington, Duke of, 39. 79, 139, 161; in Europe 139, 161.

{ Wesleyan Schools in England, 186.
Surinam Bible 47.
Public Mind, Influence of Teachers' Insti- Survey, of Canada, Geological 175; of Mis- { Wit vs. Sense 85.

Wisconsin Schools, 16, 62, 158.

tutes upon the, 68.
(Public Addresses, Lectures, &c., 6, 11, 19, Suspension Bridge, Niagara, 46 ; England Wonders, Scientific 175.

sissippi 159.

Women, Chinese, 79, education of 139. Names, Change of, 95.

22, 23, 28, 33, 34, 35, 41, 54, 61, 66, 73, and France 175. Naptha Gas 33 83, 84, 87, 93, 94, 120, 14 , 141, 147, 157, System, of Education, Upper Canada, 72; } Wordsworth 21. 79, 143,

Woodstock Schools 29, 93. Napoleon, Bust of, 31, 79.


of schools not dependent on a large fund World's Exhibition 30, 159, 175, 187. National, Characteristics. 71 : enlightenment Pyramids, Purpose of the, 187.


World, Starting in the, 87.
171 : schools, Dublin, 14, 26, 140, 141, 158. ?
Native Laud, Our, 38.
Natural History, Curious Facts in 93.
Navigation, Arctic, 63,

Quaint Definitions 7.
Neander, Dr., 143, 187.

> Qualifications 1: teachers' certificate of Talent, Canadian 30.
New Brunswick Schools 25.
> Upper Canada, 150.

Teachers, Law against Socialist, 26 ; re- "X," Correspondence 172.
Newfoundland Schools 45.
Quicksilver 173.

sponsibility of 35; facts for 36 ; aim of 41; }
New Jersey Schools 27.
Quebec, nearness of England via 92.

associations 44 ; 61, 78, 140, 141, 185 ; in
Newmarket School 78.
Queen's College, Upper Canada 77, 157.

France 26, 45 ; institutes, Upper Canada ]
New South Wales, Schools in 62; univer-
Queen's Colleges Ireland, 15, 26, 155, 157,

53, 56, 80, 93 ; ditto, in the United States
sity in 45.
169, 186.

68, 87; calling 67 ; ingenuity in 75 ; selfNew-York Schools, &c., 3, 4, 8, 12, 27, 41, buce ? Queen Victoria, 30, 39, 141.

bred 83 ; circular to 121 ; and educational } Yale College 143. 42, 45, 48, 59, 66, 67, 136, 141, 152."

journals 123 ; salaries of, in Ireland 140 ; Young Men in Cities and Towns, Hints to Niagnra, Suspension Bridge, 46 ; schools 27, }

duty of 146 ; examination of, Upper Ca-3 39 ; question for 50 ; temptation for 51. 28, 61.

nada 150 ; grudging pay to 156.

Young for the Old, Respect of the, e6. Nicaragua, Ancient Mongments in 63.

Teaching of Experience 4; thoroughness in Youth 7 ; of Upper Canada, may not all the Railroads, Philosophy of, 48.

22; parental 71 ; the true system of 83. be blest with free education 12.

Water: Preserved 79.

ef, Address by, live

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adopted, and more forms and obstacles are interposed by the new

School Act in the way of establishing the free-school system in any TO THE INHABITANTS OF UPPER CANADA.

section than existed under the Act of last year. But notwithstanding

this partial impediment in legislation (which I have reason to believe ENCOURAGEMENT TO PERSEVERE IN THE CAUSE OF

was unintentional on the part of the Government) the principle of freeCOMMON SCHOOL EDUCATION,

schools has been advancing among the people in evory County of

Upper Canada ; and we hear of the inhabitants of many sections subBY THE CHEF SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS.

mitting to all the forms and applications required by the law in order,

if possible, to obtain the establishment of free-schools; nay, more, we It appears appropriate to commence each year by addressing

are assured that the conviction is becoming very general among the those for whose interests this Journal is continued, on the great ob

people, that the free-school system is the only true one--the only one jects to which it is devoted ; that by awakening afresh the recollec

that will educate all their children--the oply one that will command tion of first principles and analyzing the criteria of Educational pro good teachers and erect good schools throughout the land. We ingress, we may be eventually animated to prosecute, with becoming

dulge the sanguine hope, that, the first year of the approaching halfenergy and zeal, the noblest work of any country--the Christian, century will witness the establishment of free-schools in many whole and universal and practical education of its youthful population,

Counties, if not throughout the whole Province of Upper Canada. The first number of last year's Journal of Education contained an Let every friend of sound and universal education be impressed Address to the people of Upper Canada on the system of FREE SCHOOLS with the fact, that that object has never been, and can never be at

system which is based upon the principle that every child in the tained except where all the people of all ranks and classes are comland has a right to such an education as will make him a useful bined for the education of all. For more than thirty years has a member of society, and that every inhabitant of the land is bound to famed system of Common Schools boen established in the neighcontribute to that national object according to his property- a sys

bouring State of New-York; and yet throughout the rural country tem the life of which is the genius of Christianity, the soul of patriot- parts of that State official reports shcy that comparatively little proism, the spirit of the highest civilization. It is my present object to gress has been made in the character and efficiency of the Schools ; present some of those grounds of encouragement, with which the while during the last few years the most astonishing advancement facts and experience of the past year furnish us, to persevere in the has been made in the schools of cities and towns. The whole circlo work of educating our own and our country's offspring.

of legislative change and amendment has been completed in tho 1. And the first encouraging omen which I shall mention is the State School Law; so that during the last year or two, the school deep hold which the principle of Free Schools has taken of the public legislators have found themselves unconsciously adopting many of mind in Upper Canada. The first public enunciation of this princi the leading provisions of the first State School law, passed more ple in 1846, was received with general surprise and and doubt, with than thirty years ago. The School Law had undergone every wide spread suspicion, and in many instances with avowed hostility. variety of modification, yet a large proportion of the country schools In some cases it was dismissed by an editorial sneer; and in other had undergone little or no change. In 1844, a State Normal School cases it met with a less courteous reception; was at one time assail was established to accomplish what legislative and ordinary exered as a public pauper, and at another time denounced as a conspir tions had failed to effect; but it was manifest that the grand fulator against individual liberty. But like many of the most important crum for intellectually uplifting the whole community was still wantreforms and improvements in the institutions of society which were ing, and the example of the Free School in cities and towns and once misunderstood, denounced and ridiculed, the principle of Free states was showing with increased clearness what that fulcrum was. Schools has risen above misconception, and therefore above misre It has at length been adopted, and on it is placed the lever of the presentation and reproach, and stands forth now as much an object of whole State education machinery, and to that is applied the concenrespect and admiration, as it was a short time since an object of sus- | trated power of public opinion, ambition and patriotism in the cause picion and contempt. The explanatory and matter-of-fact free-school of education. The result cannot be mistaken, though the power of Address of last January, called forth an approving response from sev human imagination is inadequate to picture it. eral influential members of the Canadian Press; and it is a some And why may not the goal which has been sought for during what singular coincidence, that during that same month the Super- | more than thirty years by our New York neighbours, be reached by intendent of Schools for the State of New-York called the earnest the people of Upper Canada in five years? Why may we not march attention of the Legislature and citizens of the State to the great im directly to the consummation which has cost others so many years portance of establishing Free Schools throughout the whole State. of varied experiment and earnest disputation ? In leading his army He at the same time submitted the draft of a Bill, which provided across the Alps, NAPOLEON profited by tho exporience and losses of that on the vote of a majority, every individual in the State would be HANNIBAL ; and amateur travellers now avail themselves, as a pleacompelled to adopt the system of free schools. I submitted a draft surable excursion, of the Simplon highway of NAPOLEON, constructof a bill, giving liberty and power to the inhabitants of each school- ed at the expense of so much labour and treasure. Who would think section (but not compelling them) through their Trustee-representa of crossing the Atlantic in the petty bark of COLUMBUS since the intives to adopt the free-school system without reference either to the | vention of steam-packets? We should not be less wise and less Executive Government or the Municipal Council. In the State of practical in the momentous affairs of common schools. They reNew-York, the compulsory and general free-school bill hes become quire the simple application of a fow great principles; they demand, lew; in Uppor Canada the draft of bill submittod to feoilitate the eg. | not legislativa expoziments, but çetrictio exertion-tho un od hearts tablishment of the local and voluntary free-sohool gyotem has not been and hands of all for the common interests of all.

2. A second encouraging circumstance connected with our common schools, is the incroased attention and interest which is beginning to be manifested in regard to school legislation. A school-law is the mere instrument of establishing schools on the best foundation, and of supporting and maintaining them in the best manner. The more simply and easily applied that instrument is the better ; but no schoollaw can be self-operative, any more than any other law, and its efficiency essentially depends on the skill and energy with which it is wielded, and the provisions it contains for the development and application of that skill and energy with uniform accuracy and to the best advantage. Hitherto comparatively little interest has been felt on the subject of school legislation ; it has occupied a very subordinate place in executive deliberations ; it has not commanded one thorough or serious discussion in the deliberations of Parliament; important bills have been passed into laws without being either discussed or understood. But a brighter prospect now opens. The Government has formally and publicly expressed its determination to bestow upon the subject of common school legislation that attention which its importance demands ; the public press is beginning to evince more interest ; and public interest has advanced perhaps fifty per cent. under the experience and facilities for information of the last two or three * years. The elective authorities of the several Cities and incorporated

Towns, have with unexampled unanimity evinced an earnest desire to maintain and mature the system of schools recently established among them; and the pervading spirit of the entire public mind is, to have good schools and universal education without regard to sect or party. The instances in which personal ascerbity and party feeling mingle thoir bitter waters with the discussion of the subject are marked exceptions to the general tone of the press, and clearly meet with no response from the country at large. But in whatever spirit the subjeot may be approached, the discussion of it must tend to draw public attention to it; and past experience shows that the calm and deliberate decisions of the public mind at large are generally on the side of social elevation and intellectual progress. This has been most decidedly the case, thus far, in regard to our school law and school system. Our school law, as well as that of every educational country, requires the Head of the Department not only to administer the law and to report its operations, but, from time to time, to Report also as to the efficiency or inefficiency of its provisions, and to point out their defects and suggest the proper remedies. The report of every Superintendent of Schools in the neighbouring States presents examples of the fulfilment of this duty; and the Superintendent of Schools in Upper Canada would fail in obeying the law under which he acts, and be unworthy of his position, did he not at the most suitable times plainly and fully state to the proper authorities, the conclusions of his own experience and judgment in regard to what he may think defective in the school law, and the best means of amending it. The law which imposes this responsible duty on the Superintendent of Schools, assumes, of course, that some attention will be given to the subjects of his suggestions. The appreciation of the spirit of the School Law in this respect by the leading and considerate men of all parties, affords assurance to all friends of popular education throughout the land, that our School Law and School system will soon be placed upon a firm foundation, and not be hereafter disturbed in any of its parts without due inquiry and felt necessity.

3. Another ground of encouragement in our country's educational work, is the practical proof already acquired of the possibility of not only improving our schools, but of successfully emulating our Ameriran neighbours in this respect. Often have we heard this, both privately and publicly, pronounced utopian; and often have we sought in friendly discussion, to prove that it was neither impracticablo nor extravagant to aim at rivalling our New-York neighbours in our Common Schools. In addition to general reasoning, facts may

u reasoning, facts may now be adduced to establish this position ; and these facts are as honorable to the people of Upper Canada as they are cheering to every patriotic heart. One fact is, that the average time of keeping the schools open by qualified teachers, during the last two years in the State of New York, has been eight months ; while in Upper Canada, it has been eight months and a half. A second fact is, that the amount raised by school-rate bills has been quite as largo in Upper Canada in proportion to the population, as in the State of New York. A third fact is, that the amount raised by local assessments has been as large in Upper Canada in proportion to the population, as in the Stato of New-York. A fourth fact is, that the same has been the case in rorord to the amounts raised hy local voluntary assessments over

and above what the law has required in order to secure the apportionment of the Legislative School Grant—which, by the bye, is as large in proportion to the whole population in Upper Canada as is the annual Common School Fund in the State of New-York. A fifth fact is, that the number of student-teachers attending the Normal School in Upper Canada is larger in proportion to the whole number of our schools, and of our whole population, than in the State of New-York. A sixth fact is, that considerable more progress has already been made towards introducing uniformity of text-books in the schools of our rural districts, than has ever yet been effected in the State of New-York. A seventh fact is, that salaries are offered to and obtained by good Teachers from the Normal School at least twenty-five per cent. in advance of what was offered two years ago. Now these facts of a few years' growth in Upper Canada, in comparison with kindred facts of thirty years' growth in the much older State of New-York, fully warrant the statement I have made, and indicate a noble spirit of intellectual progress and patriotism among the people, from which may be developed the indefinite improvement of our schools, and the ready application of all facilities for diffusing usefull knowledge which the wisdom of the Legislature may provide.

4. For the sake of brevity, I will pass over several other less prominent facts of an encouraging character, and conclude by two practical remarks. The first is, that no feeling of discouragement should for a moment be yielded to, in consequence of any of the unfortunate provisions of the New School Bill. These provisions will not seriously affect any of the local authorities and interests until the arrival of the period for collecting rate-bills, distributing the School Fund, and preparing the School reports for the current year; and before the arrival of that time, the Legislature will meet, and will no doubt makó such provision as will promote the best educational interests of the country. Councils, Trustees and Teachers need not entertain any apprehensions as to any loss, or diminution in the amount of the Legislative School Grant for the current year; or as to the requisite legal provisions to enable Trustees to fulfil all the engagements which they may enter into with Teachers.

The last remark is, that all friends of education should continue to guard against the admission of anything like a sectarian or party spirit in our school affairs. From whatever source it may proceed, or on whatever pretext founded, let it be frowned down as the worst enemy of yourselves and children. In every community, and in almost every locality, there will be found individuals steeped in the spirit of extreme partizanshipmen of one idea, and that idea is oommonly one of proscription or hostility against somebody or party; and to realize that idea, no sacrifice of educational and public interest seems too great in the estimation of its possessors. These partizans of one idea have broken up many a school, deprived many a child of educational instruction, and impeded the progress of many an improvement in the relations and interests of society. The history of our country affords ample evidence, that the spirit of extreme partizanship has been its greatest bane ; and in no respect is the blighting influence of that spirit so fatal as in the question and affairs of common schools, the very existence and character and advancement of which are so entirely depending on the combined feelings and mutual co-operations of the people among whom they are established. in whatever matters difference of opinion may exist among us as a people, I am sure we may all agree in loving our country, in loving our children, and in uniting to provide for them the best possible education. God grant that this one, grand, divinely originated and divinely expansive idea, may, like Aaron's rod, swallow up every serpent idea of petty partizanship, and impart to our posterity the noblest inheritance that parental wisdom and public patriotism can bequeath! EDUCATION OFFICE,

E. RYERSON. Toronto, January, 1850.

POVERTY AN AID TO SUCCESS.--An English judge being asked what contributed most to success at the bar, replied, “ Some succeed by great talent, some by a miracle, but the majority by commencing without a shilling."

Sir Peter Lely made it a rule never to look at a bad picture, having found by experience that whenever he did so, his pencil took a tint from it. Apply the same rule to bad books and bad company.

COMMON SCHOOLS IN THE STATE OF NEW-YORK, probable expense of such an institution, and a detailed account of AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION, &c.

the course of studies and plan of operations recommended.

“ The Board entered zealously into the views of the Legislature, The following remarks were made by the Covernor of the and has gratuitously devoted much time and labor to advance the State in his Message at the opening of the Legislature, the 1st in

important object contemplated in the passage of the resolution. I stant ; and we hope the subject of Common Schools will soon oc

submit herewith their report. It is eloquent, and powerfully argues

in behalf of the advancement of agricultural science. It is not imcupy an equally prominent place in similar Canadian documents :

probable that differences of opinion will exist with regard to the 6 The condition, on the 30th September last, of the three funds details, and to the extent and variety of the branches of knowledge whose revenues are applied to purposes of education, are as follows: which it is proposed to embrace within the course of instruction.

Capital Revenue. Payments. But I'most earnestly hope that no such differences, and that no Common School Fund, $2,243,533 36 $284,903 76 $244,407 14 other cause, may prevent the establishment and the endowment, Literature Fund, 265,966 68 42,089 96 43,436 64

upon a wise and comprehensive system, of an institution so benefiU. S. Deposit Fund, 4,014,520 71 256,934 92 264,602 58 “The adoption by the People at the last annual election, of the

cent in its design, and so promising of enduring and beneficial re

sults, as a school for instruction in practical and scientific agriculact to establish Free Schools throughout the State, will effect a

ture, and in the mechanic arts. There is a growing interest on most important change in the system of Common School education.

the part of the people in the advancement of agricultural science. Under this law, the Common Schools are to be free to all persons

The Fair of the State Society, held at Syracuse in September last, over five and under twenty-one years of age. On the 1st day of

was attended by a larger number of persons than had ever before July last, there were 11,191 organized School districts in the State;

been assembled on a similar occasion in this State. And the exbeing an increase of 570 over the number reported last year; and

hibition of the various implements and products afforded a gratify. the number of children taught in the Common Schools during the

ing evidence of the success of this Society, in the advancement of year was 778,309, being an increase of 2,586 over the preceding year. There are 1893 incorporated and private schools in the

the great objects which it aims to accomplish." State, comprising 72,785 pupils. The aggregate amount of public money received by the several Common School districts, from all

FREE SCHOOLS. sources during the year, was $846,710 45. Of this sum $625, The people of the State of New York, have adopted a system 456,69 have been apportioned for the payment of teachers' wages. of free schools. In this we rejoice. It is far better for the State In addition to which, $489,696 63 were raised in the several dis to support schools than to erect fortifications and prisons. The tricts on rate-bills for the same object, making an aggregate of schoolmaster is a more economical personage than either the soldier 81,143,401 16 expended for teachers' wages during the year end or the sheriff. ing the 1st January, 1849. “The whole number of volumes in the district Libraries is 1,

Free Schools were among the strongest elements of New Eng. 409,154 ; 70,306 volumes having been purchased during the year,

land's growth, and, we trust, are destined to promote a similar

growth throughout large portions of the earth. The early schools and 93,104 82 having been expended for district Libraries and

of New England did not owe their influence to the mere fact that School Apparatus. “Of the schools before mentioned, 35 are for colored children,

they were free, but to their combining intellectual and religious

culture. The school was as much the Pastor's charge as was the in which upwards of 4000 children have been taught, at an aggregate expense of $5,016 57 ; of which $2,149 60 were contribut

church. The teachings of the Ministry were only a fuller unfolded on rate bills by those sending the children to school. Consider

ing of the teachings of the school house. That the free school

system now about to be established in this State may prove a bles. ing the usually very limited means of our colored population, this

sing, it must secure the union of intellectual and religious training. large proportionate contribution voluntarily paid by them, shows a

-New York Observer. most commendable desire, on their part, to secure to their children the benefits of education. “The Report of the Superintendent of Common Schools, will pro

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PRESENT Age.—The present may well bably suggest some amendments to be made to the existing laws.

be called the thinking age. To study, plan, alter, improve, invent I trust that they will be such as will commend themselves to your

and develope, seems to be the prevailing passion of all classes. As favorable consideration.

a country we seem fairly and rapidly rising to greatness. The “The Normal School was removed, on the 31st of July last, to

grand secret of progression is Education, and the attention which the large and commodious edifice which the State has recently

the people begin to pay to it shows, that they have at last been erected for its use, at a cost of $25,000. The benefits resulting aroused to its importance. In the neighbouring Republic the sovfrom this institution are fully justifying the warmest anticipations of

ereigns have long been aware of the necessity of fostering and enits friends, are making themselves manifest in the improvement al.

couraging general education. The most liberal grants are made, ready effected among the teachers of Common Schools. The whole

and in that country teachers receive a good compensation for their number of pupils admitted to the institution since its organization,

arduous labors, and in fact every means is taken hold of for the prohas been 1129; of whom 428 have graduated, nearly all of whom

motion of that which is the surest safeguard of true freedom, good are now engaged in the duties of Common School Teachers. The

order and universal prosperity. Mighty are the changes the intelpresent number of pupils is 217.

lectual era is destined to accomplish in our world. Science will "A proposition will, as I am informed, be made to you to

be made to unfold her exhaustless treasures, and art will be comauthorize the instruction at this school of a limited number of

pelled to yield to ever restless inquiry a thousand means of happiIndians, in the hope, hy this means, of introducing a higher order

ess and improvement.--Niagara Mail. of education and of civilization among the small remnants of the Aboriginal race which are left within our borders. I solicit for Education does not mean going to school in your boyhood, or this proposition your attentive and favourable consideration, as a college in your youth ; but it means the power to take your mind measure not only prompted by the dictates of humanity and benevo- and make it the instrument of conveying knowledge and good imJence, but demanded alike by considerations of high policy, and upon | pressions to other minds, as well as being yourself made happy. principles of justice towards a class of our population, who, from having once been the lords of our soil, and the founders of a beau

PERSEVERANCE.--In cvery great attempt, how many unknown zifully simple and essentially Republican Government, have gradually wasted before the advances of the white race, and have

and disastrous attempts are made, before the successful effort is dwindled in energy and in numbers, and have sunk into a state of

accomplished ! Providence is prodigal of the courage, the virtues, tutelage which demands the fostering care of the Government.

the sufferings, even the life of man, in order to accomplish his "In pursuance of a concurrent resolution of the Legislature, pas

designs ; and it is only after a multitude of unnoticed labours have,

apparently, been fruitless ; after many noble minds have sink into sed on the sixth of April last, I appointed a Board of Commissioners to mature a plan for the establishment of an Agricultural Col

discouragement, believing everything to be lost, that the cause ege and Experimental Farm, and to prepare a statement of the triumphs.- Graizol.


for such taxation is, that a well instructed people afford greater se

curity to the rights of property. No one has any right to remain FREE SCHOOLS IN THE STATE OF NEW-YORK uninstructed, any more than he has to live in a dungeon. A penalTHE RICH IN FAVOUR OF THEM.

ty should be set upon obstinate ignorance the same as upon vicious It will afford pleasure to the friends of progress and education,

indulgence and overt crime.-N. Y. Journal of Education and wherever they are, to know that the State of New York, whose

Teachers' Advocate, Dec. 15. school system for twenty or thirty years past, has been the best in the Union, is still progressive. The school fund of this State, and

TEACHING OF EXPERIENCE. including the United States Deposit Fund, that may be considered Experience is an excellent teacher. Educational guide books as permanent as the original, is now about $2,000,000. This is | and papers have been so few, and so limited in their circulation, prudently invested, and yields an income for annual distribution of

until within a few years, that individual experience and common $275,000, per annum. This distributive income from the Fund sense, have been almost the sole guide of the teacher. He has is only receivable from the State, on the condition that the people, gained but little from the experience of others. A brighter day is as counties, and then again as towns, raise a like sum by taxation dawning. We trust the time will soon come, when the teacher's on property. This liberal enactment, so fully acquiesced in by the profession shall be abundantly supplied with text books fully illuspeople, as has been shown by the general concurrence in the law, :| trating the theory, the practice, and the philosophy of teaching. In manifested by the result of the November election, ought forever the mean time educational papers may do much to relieve a want to put to silence that silly demogogical cant that we have some- | which we are sure young teachers have felt at the commencement times heard, that the rich are opposed to the poor. Here is a law of their career as teachers. The following suggestions, which we likely to become enduring and fundamental, affecting a whole com have found useful in the daily routine of school teaching, may bé munity, faulty no doubt in several of its details, but on account of of service to the inexperienced. the great general principle which it embodies, of doing good to the 1. When you begin school the first time, or commence one greatest number of the rising generation, adopted by the people al

le rising generation, adopted by the people al- | among strangers, strive to make a happy impression upon the most by acclamation. But there were some votes against it! Who minds of your pupils, by some simple and timely remarks ; and by were these ? were they the rich men, or poor men ? So far as our the dispatch with which you bring your school into good order. observation goes, they are not among the heavy tax-payers in New Every thing depends upon the first impression. Children are shrewd York. A correspondent from the western part of the State writes observers, and their first impression is frequently the most enduring. that the enterprizing men of property are generally in favour of the 2. Do not go into school with a long code of rules, which law establishing Free Schools. Another from Broome County you intend to have copied by the pupils, or placarded upon the walls writes that he scarcely knew of any who opposed the law but a of the school-room for their benefit. A few general directions resfew poor and ignorant men, who had plenty of children, whom they pecting study, recitations, and the spirit which should actuate them, did not care about educating!! Thanks to the schoolmasters and will be sufficient. It will be time enough to correct all improprieschoolmistresses that are abroad, and to the liberalized voters whose ties when they occur. Act upon the principle that your pupils are balluts are canvassed in a majority of 157,000, that the misers who well disposed, and intend to do right, until you find them guilty of hug their gold, and the poor ignoramuses who despise knowledge, wrong. Numberless rules frequently tempt pupils to do what they with all the advantage of being counted in with some respectable would not think of doing, had it not been suggested by the rule. min, who disliked the details of the bill, are but an inconsiderable

3. Classify your school as soon as possible ; making as few fraction of the people. We may fairly presume that when such

classes as circumstances will allow. This will enable you to spend emendations shall have heen made as the practical workings of the

your time to the best advantage. law will indicate, our school system will challenge comparison with 4. Have a particular time for each exercise, and attend to every the best in the world. The district schools all over the State are

duty in its allotted time. . this winter, according to the law, to be Free Schools. In many 5. Teach one thing at a time. Many teachers pretend to gorof the districts, people will not be quite ready to avail themselves

ern their school, give assistance in this and that study, at the same of the benefits contemplated by the law. The machinery is new,

time they are attending to a recitation. Do one thing at a time ; a id it is not to be expected that its movements will be without hear the recitation ; then give the needed assistance; but give it friction. Some have supposed that they would have ample time to

in such a way as to lead your pupils step by step, instead of carryprepare for the execution of the law and its provisions, as it would

ing them upon your shoulders. not be enforced until next year ; but the law is explicit, and the

6. If you wish your school to be quiet,be orderly and quiet yourself. 14th section says that a majority of the votes of the State shall be

A noisy teacher will generally have a disorđerly boisterous school. cast for the new school law, then this act shall take effect imme

Set the example in the manner of speaking to your pupils, and modiately, and the 8th section says that all laws, and parts of laws, ving about the room ; and your pupils will in time, catch your contrary thereto, shall be inoperative.

spirit and imitate your example. The legal provisions proposed by the legislature have now re 7. If you wish to govern your school successfully, you must first ceived the formal sanction and approval of the people. The majority | be able to govern yourself. in favour is commanding and decisive; the property owners have 8. If you wish to gain the affection of your pupils, treat them voluntarily and generously consented to aid their poorer neighbours kindly. Teachers are very apt to be hasty in correcting their pupils. in the education of their children. While we hold that it is the

It often happens that teachers think they see a pupil doing what is duty of the citizens of our christian country to do thus, we cannot

wrong, and without stopping to enquire about it, proceed to admincease to admire the simple sublimity of such an exemplification of

ster a most cutting rebuke, or, seizing rod or ruler, chastise the social generosity and wisdom. A people who are willing to bear offender without mercy. After this the teacher ascertains that the one another's burdens, where the rich and the poor meet together pupil has not committed any crime worthy such severe treatment, as the sharers of a common blessing, prepared principally at the

which not only outrages the injured one, but creates a prejudice cost of the former, are no where better set before the world, than in

against the teacher throughout the thinking part of the schoc!, our own State. It is a proud distinction for any people to be pio

not easily outgrown, unless, he frankly confess his error to neers in the work of reforming a code of instruction, so that it may the offended pupil, and to the whole school. Many teachers thiak embrace the whole rising generation.

it will lower their dignity to mention to the school, that they are in It is one thing to make a law, and another thing to carry the wrong ; that they have been too hasty. Teachers mistake veout its provisions. If the law embraces the poor and the ignorant, ry much, the nature of children, who are quite as ready to appreciate who have no very just appreciation of the value of learning, duty | a noble act, and excuse a fault or mistake, when the proper apology requires of the wise and prudent, who have begun a good work in is made, as older persons. The high-minded teacher, who somebehalf of the children of want, that they carry it forth to the con- times acts too hastily, but afterwards frankly and cordiaily points summation contemplated in the law. When Schools are free to out to his pupils wherein he has acted unwisely, he will gain their all, then all should avail themselves of their privileges, Property highest respect and confidence ; for they see that he reverences the is laind for the support of schools, and one of the reasons assigned right in his own conduct as well as in their own.

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