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of the comet of February 6, 1847, which was visible at noonday, shortly ly darts back-not turning in the air, but with a clash reversing the action before perihelion. The motto or inscription is, “Non frustra signorum of the wings--the only known creature that possesses this faculty. His obitus speculamur et ortus." Mr. Hind has also received from the Academy sight, then both forwards, and backwards, must be proportionately rapid of Sciences at Paris a prize on the Lalande foundation, for the discovery of with hie wings, and instantaneously calculating the distance of objects, or Iris and Flora in the year 1847.
he would dash himself to pieces. But in what confirmation of his eyes Royal Commission to Inquire into the State and Revenues of the
does this consist ? No one can answer. A cloud of ten thousand gnats
dance up and down in the sun, the minutest interval between them, yet no Universities of Orford and Cambridge.—The Heads of Houses, in both one knocks another on the grass, or breaks a head or a wing, long and Universities, have objected in the strongest possible manner against the delicate as these are. Suddenly, amidst your admiration of this matchless proposed Royal Commission as illegal and unconstitutional, and not designed dance, a peculiarly high shouldered, vicious gnat, with long, pale, pendant to promote the objects contemplated.
nose, darts out of the rising and falling cloud, and settling on your cheek Printing Statistics of the London “ Times.”—From a paper
inserts a poisonous sting. What possesses the little wretch to do this? on Printing Machines, read by Mr. E. Cowper, at the Institution of Civil
Did he smell your blood in the mazy dance ? No one knows. A fourEngineers, it appears that on the 6th of May, 1850, the Times and Sup
horse coach comes suddenly upon a flock of geese on a narrow road, and plement contained 72 columns, or 17,500 lines, made up of upwards of a
drives straight through the middle of them. A goose was never yet fairly million pieces of type, of which matter about two-fifths were written,
run over; nor a duck. They are under the very wheels and hoofs, and yet, composed, and corrected after seven o'clock in the evening. The Supple
somehow, they contrive to flop and waddle safely off. Habitually stupid, ment was sent to press at 7.50 p.m., the first form of the paper 4.15 a.m.,
heavy and indolent, they are nevertheless equal to any emergency. Why and the second form at 4.45 a.m.; on this occasion, 7,000 were published
does the lonely woodpecker, when he descends his tree, and goes to drink, before 6.15 a.m., 21,000 papers before 7.30 a.m., and 34,000 before 8.45 a.m.,
stop several times on his way-listen and look round-before he takes his or in about four hours. The greatest number of copies ever printed in one
draught ? No one knows. How is it that the species of ant which is day was 54,000, and the greatest quantity of printing in one day's publica
taken in battle by other ants to be made slaves, should be the black, or tion was on the 1st of March, 1848, when the paper used weighed 7 tons,
negro ant; No one knows. A large species of the starfish ( Ludia fragil. the weight usually required being 44 tons; the surface to be printed every
issima) possesses the power of breaking itself into fragments, under the innight, including the Supplement, was 30 acres; the weight of the fount of
fluence of terror, rage or despair. “As it does not generally break up." type in constant use was 7 tons, and 110 compositors and 25 pressmen were
says Professor Forbes, "before it is raised above the surface of the sea, constantly employed.
cautiously and anxiously I sunk my bucket, and proceeded in the most
gentle manner to introduce Ludia to the purer element. Whether the cold Change of Names.—Formerly a custom prevailed with learned air was too much for him, or the sight of the bucket too terrific, I know men to change their names. They christened themselves with Latin and not; but in a moment he proceeded to dissolve his corporation, and at Greek. Desiderius Erasmus was a name formed out of his family name every mesh of the drege his fragments were seen escaping. In despair I Gerard, which in Dutch signifies amiable, or G A R all, and A ERD grasped at the largest, and brough up the extremity of an arm with its ternature. He first changed it to a Latin word of much the same signification, minating eye, the spineous eyelid of which opened and closed, with someDesiderius, which he refined into the Greek Erasmus, by which names he thing of a wink of derision.” With this exquisite specimen of natural hisis now known. The celebrated Reuchlin, which in German signifiestory wonders, for which naturalists can only vouch that "such is the fact," smoke, considered it more dignified to smoke in Greek, by the name of and admit that they know no more. You see that young crab blowing bub. Capnio. One of the most amiable of the Reformers was originally named | bles on the sea-shore !-such is the infancy of science. He waits patiently Hertz Swartz (black earth,, which he elegantly turned into the Greek for the rising tide, when all these gobules of air shall be fused in a great name of Melancthon.
discovery Beginning of the Year in Various Nations.—The Chaldeans: Curiosities of Science— Geological Changes of our own Time.and Egyptians' year was dated from the autumnal equinox. The ecclesi Lyell, Darwin, and others, have lately collected and powerfully applied a astical year of the Jews began in the spring; but in civil affairs they curious class of facts, to show the slow and continuous upheaving or deretain the epoch of the Egyptian year. The ancient Chinese reckoned pression of large tracts of land, in differenı parts of the world, in effect of from the new moon nearest the middle of Aquarius. The year of Romu. subterranean changes going on underneath. The phenomenon belongs to lus commenced in March, and that of Numa in January. The Turks and our own time, as well as to the anterior ages in the history of the globe. Arabs date their year from the 16th of July. Dremschild, or Gemschild, In Sweden, for instance, a line traverses the southern part of that kingdom king of Persia, observed, on the day of his public entry into Persepolis, from the Baltic to the Cattegat, to the north of which, even as far as the that the sun entered its Aries"; and in commemoration of this fortunate North Cape of Europe, there is evidence, scarcely disputable in kind, that event, he ordained the beginning of the year to be removed from the the land is gradually rising at the average of nearly four feet in a century; autumnal to the vernal equinox. The Brachmun begin their year with the while to the south of this axial line, there are similar proofs of a slow subnew moon in April. The Mexicans begin in February, when the leaves
sidence of surface in relation to the adjacent seas. This, and various other begin to grow green. Their year consists of eighteen months, having examples of what maby e termeil secular changes of elevation, particularly twenty days in each ; the last five are spent in mirih, and no business is in South America, amidst the great coral foundations of the Indian and suffered to be done, nor even any service in the temples. The Abyssinians Pacific Oceans, have led the eminent geologists just named to regard such have five idle days at the end of their year, which commences on the 26th slow progressive changes as the probable cause of many or most of those of August. The American Indians reckon from the first appearance of the great aspects of the earth's surface, which by others have been attributed moon at the vernal equinox. The Mohammedans begin their year the to paroxysmal actions of subterranean forces, sudden and violent in kind. minute in which the sun enters Aries. The Venetians, Florentines, and the Pisans in Italy, began the year at the vernal equinox. The French
Extraordinary Discovery of the Art of Forming Diamonds. year, during the reign of the Merovingian race, began on the day on which
- The Paris correspondent of the Atlas makes the following interesting the troops were reviewed, which was the first of March. Under the Carlo.
remarks which announce a triumph of chemical genius as much without vingians, it began on Christmas-day, and under the Capetians, on Easter
parallel as is the diamond itself peerless :-"The scientific world has been day. The ecclesiastical tegins on the first Sunday in Advent. Charles
in a state of commotion during the whole week in consequence of the pubthe IX. appointed, in 1564, that for the future the civil year should com
lication of the discovery of the long sought for secret of the fusion and crysmence on the 1st of January. The Julian Calendar, which was so called
tallization of carbon. The Sorbonne has been crowded for the last few from Julius Cæsar, and is the old account of the year, was reformed by
days to behold the result of this discovery in the shape of a tolerably-sized Pope Gregory in 1582, wiich plan was suggested by Lewis Lilio, a
diamond of great lustre, which M. Desprezt, the happy discoverer, subCalabrian Astronomer. The Dutch, and the Protestants in Germany,
mits to the examination of every chemist or savant who chooses to visit introduced the new style in 700. T'he ancient clergy reckoned from the
him. He declares that so long ago as last autumn he had succeeded in pro25th of March ; and the metiod was observed in Britain until the introduc
ducing the diamond, but in such minute particles as to be visible only tion of the new style, A. D.1752; after which our year commenced on the
through the microscope, and, fearful of raising irony and suspicion, he Ist of January.
had kept the secret until, by dint of repeated experiments and great labor,
he had completed the one he now offers to public view. Four solar lenses Singular and Curious Facts in Natural History.—The grey
1 of immense power, aided by the tremendous galvanic pile of the Sorbonne, hound runs by eye-sight only, and this we observe as a fact. The carrier have been the means of producing the result now before us. M. Desprezt pigeon flies his two bundred and fifty miles homeward, by eye-sight, viz. : holds himself ready to display the experiment whenever it may be required from point to point of objects which he has marked ; but this is only our The diamond produced is one of the quality known in the east as the black conjecture. The fierce drago1-fly, with twelve thousand lenses in his eyes, I diamond, one single specimen of which was sold by Prince Rostoff to the darts from angle to angle with the rapidity of a flashing sword, and as rapid. I late Duke of York for the enormous sum of iwclve thousand pounds."
Editorial Notices, &c.
NOTICE TO MUNICIPAL COUNCILS, LOCAL SUPERIN
TENDENTS AND TEACHERS. The notification of the apportionment of the Legislative School Grant for the current year, will be made the very week the Common School Bill, now pending before the Legislature, becomes law; and the payment of that apportionment to the Treasurers of the several Counties, Cities, and Towns, may be expected by the first of August, as in past years. The current year's apportionment of the School Grant cannot be made until the School Bill before the Legislature becomes law, without carrying embarrassment and confusion throughout every part of our School system. This is the reason why the apportionment has not been notified months since. We regret the
FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS AND FAMILIES. unexpected delays which have prevented the School Bill from passing the Legislature until the present time. We hope to be able, in the course of a short time, to notify the apportionment to the Local THIS celebrated APPARATUS (several thousand sets of which are Municipal and School authorities, and furnish the requisite sugges
now in use in the Schools of the United States) has received the
highest encomiums from every distinguished Educator to whom it has tions for giving it effect, and for entering upon a more auspicious
been shown, and is now presented for the consideration of the Friends and carcer for the improvement and efficiency of Common Schools. ratrons or Education in this Province. It has already received the appro
bation of several of the most prominent Patrons of Schools of the City of
Toronto. Among others, we publish the following from that well known CORRESPONDENCE ON THE COMMON SCHOOL LAW
friend of Common School Education, the Hon. J. ELMSLEY :OF UPPER CANADA.
“The School Apparatus of Mr. HOLBROOK, a complete set of which has been procured for City School, No. 8, closely resembles that used in the
National Schools in Ireland, and has been there found of singular efficacy A Return has just been laid before the House of Assembly and
in imparting Astronomical, Geometrical, Mathematical, and Mechanical printed,-in answer to an Address from that branch of the Legis. | knowledge to the children taught in those Schools, who are always delighted
when the Teacher proposes a lecture on any of those subjects. The set is lature to His Excellency, requesting "copies of all correspondence composed of the following articles :which have taken place between any member of the Government and An Orrery, 3 ft. diameter,
A Tellurian, (similar to the one represented above,] the Chief Superintendent of Education, on the subject of the School
0 15 0
Each of these is set in motion by simple but very ingenious mechanism. Law of Upper Canada, and Education generally, of an official cha A Terrestrial Globe, 5 in. diameter, (see cut,] -.. 050
Twenty Geométrical Forms and Solids, (see cut,l... 05 0 racter.” The Return contains thirteen principal documents, and ten An Arithmeticon, .--.--.-
0 5 0
A Cycloidean, in the Appendices—23 in all-and includes the correspondence
A Cube Root Block, admirably adapted to illustrations which has taken place on the subject of the School Law, &c., from
of the properties of the Cube, (see cut,) --.--.-.-. 0 1 3 Mareh. 1846 to April, 1850. The Return extends to 59 printed And a Book fully explanatory of the method to be pur
sued in lecturing with the Apparatus,-..... folio pages. Two or three of the principal documents refer to the
Neat Box, with lock and key, to contain all the fore. School Bill introduced into the House of Assembly last year, by the
going Apparatus, --...
050 Hon. MALCOLM CAMERON. The remainder are devoted to the expo
"No School should be without a set, and as the charge is very moderate sition of the general principles of our School system, and of the (£4 12s. 6d.), it comes within the compass of very ordinary means to prooriginal drafts of the School Act, 9th Vict., ch. 20, and 10th and 11th
cure one, and private families might derive great advantage from having a
set. Vict., ch. 19, and of the Draft of Bills to amend the School Law of
“ J. ELMSLEY, Upper Canada, and to adapt it to our new Municipal Institutions.
* One of the Trustees of Common Schools.
"J. TAAFE, Teacher, Massachusetts Board of Education. The N. Y. Observer says, “ TORONTO, June, 1850."
“ City School, No. 8, Toronto. the Rev. Edward OTHEMAN, of the Methodist Episcopal Church,
GEOLOGICAL SPECIMENS, has been appointed a member of the Massachusetts Board of Educa
AS FOLLOWS :tion, in place of the Rev. Dr. True, of the same church, who has
25 Elementary Specimens, in a neat case, with a lock and key, £0 7 6 30 Elementary Specimens, do.
0 10 0 removed to Connecticut, to assume the Professorship of Moral 50 Elementary Specimens,
0 150 Philosophy in the Middletown University.
50 Elementary Specimens, put up in Book form, (two neatly
bound vols.,) for School or Parlour, ............ £la 150 CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER.
A Brass Orrery, propelled by Electro-Magnetism, -......... 12 10 0 I. Township School Libraries--Means of Establishing them. :
A Brass Tellurian, (the same as the one represented above,) 5 0 0 "By R. Bell, Esq., M.P.P., ... II. School Libraries-their Social Tendencies, .............. 82-83 The APPARATUS, &c., may be seen at the Education Office, Toronto : III. SELECTIONS. . 1. Children should be taught to express clearly
and sets, or parts of sets, may be obtained at the usually low prices referred what they learn. 2. Teacher's Self-heed essential to suc
to by the Hon. Capt. ELMSLEY, by application to Mr. Hopains. cess. 3. Thorough Teaching. 4. Every thing should be · taught with Accuracy. 5. The Moral Element in Edu
D. HOLBROOK. cation, ..............................................
N.B. Reading and Arithmetic Tablet Lessons; Natural History and IV., Prospects of a State determined by the Education of its Youth 84
other Prints ; Maps ; National Books; Johnstons Agricultural Chemistry, V. Early Hours and Official Customs of the French Ministers of
and other School Requisites, may also be obtained upon application to Mr. State-- Various Miscellaneous Items, ........
HODGINS, Education Office, Toronto.
Daisy. 3. Respect due from the Young to the Old.
Toronto: Printed and Published by THOMAS H. BENTLEY, at 5s per
annum, and may be obtained from Ansor GREEN, HUGH SOBIE. ing Children to Observe. 8. Education and Teaching the
and A. H. ARMOUR & Co., Toronto; R. D. WADSWORTH, General First concern of Society. 9. Starting in the World,.... 86-87
Agent for Canada : J. McCoy, Montreal; ard D. M. DEWEY, Arcade VII. EDITORIAL. 1. Public School Libraries in U.C. 2. Gram
Hall, Rochester, N. Y.
T Back Numbers supplied to all neu sub:cribers.
88-93 1 * * The 1st and 2nd Vols. neatly stitched nay be obtained upon appliVIII. Educational INTELLIGENCE. 1. Canada. 2. British and
cation. Price, 5s. per Volume. Single Nos 7 d. Foreigo. 3. United States, .......................... 93-94 IX. LITERARY AND Scientific InteLLIGENCE, ................ 91-95
All Communications to be addressed to Mr Hodgins, Education Office. X. EDITORIAL NOTICES, .....................................
at each annual
not without his consent for four years.
Superintendent for such moneys shall be and remain as if this Act
had not been passed : And provided also, fifthly, that nothing in the FOR THE BETTER ESTABLISHMENT AND MAINTENANCE
said Act secondly above recited, contained, shall extend, or be conOF COMMON SCHOOLS IN UPPER CANADA,
strued to extend, to have repealed any Act of the Parliament of this 13th and 14th Victoria, chapter 9.
Province, whereby provision was made for the appropriation of INDEX.
money from the consolidated revenue fund of this Province, for or Sections.
towards the establishment and maintenance of Common Schools in 1. Election and Duties of School Trustees ................ 2 to 14
this Province, or in any part thereof. II. Common School Teachers and their Duties ............ 15 to 17 III. Dulies of Township Municipalities ........
18 to 20
I. ELECTION AND DUTIES OF SCHOOL TRUSTEES.
..... 21 to 26
meetings to be v. Duties of County Municipal Councils ..-----------...
for the elections of School Trustees, as hereinafter hield Throughout
U. C., on the VI. Constitution and Duties of County Boards of Public In
provided by this Act, shall be held in all the Villages,
Spennd Wednes struction .......... 28 to 29 Towns, Cities, and Townships of Upper Canada, on day in January at
10 o'clock, *. . VII. Duties of Local Superintendents of Schools ............ 30 to 31 the second Wednesday in January, in each year, " VIII. Duties of School Visitors.............................. 32 to 33 commencing at the hour of Ten of the cloek in the forenoon. IX. Duties of Chief Superintendent of Schools ............ 34 to 35 X. Constitution and Duties of Council of Public Instruction 36 to 38
III. And be it enacted, That in all School divi- One Truster in
each School BreXI. Miscellaneous Provisions .......
............ 39 to 48
| sions (except in Cities, Towns, and Incorporated tion to be elected [24th July, 1850.) Villages) which have been established according to
law, and which have been ealled - School Sections,"
HEREAS it is expedient to make provision for
and in which there shall be three Trustees in office at the time this YY the better establishment and maintenance of Com
Act shall come into forco, one Trustee shall be elected to office at mon Schools in the several Villages, Towns, Cities, Townships and
each ensuing annual school meeting, in place of the one who shall Counties of Upper Canada : Be it therefore enacted, by the Queen's have been three years in office : Provided always, Provisn: Same Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the
that the same individual, if willing, may be re- individual enny Legislative Council and of the Legislative Assembly of the Province
be re-elected, but
elected : And provided also, that no School Trustee of Canada, constituted and assembled by virtue of and under the
shall be re-elected, except by his own consent, during authority of an Act passed in the Parliament of the United Kingdom
the four years next after his going out of office. of Great Britain and Ireland, and intituled, An Act to re-unite the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, and for the Government
IV. And be it enacted, That whenever any school Made of calling
the first School Two Acts repeal of Canada. And it is hereby enacted by the autho
section shall be formed in any Township, as provided meeting in a new ed: Proviso
in the eighteenth seetion of this Act, the Clerk of r ity of the same, that the Act of the Parliament of this Province, passed in the seventh year of Her Majesty's reign,
the Township shall communicate to the person appointed to call the intituled “An Act for the better Establishment and Maintenance of
first school meeting for the election of Trustees, the description and Common Schools in Upper Canada," and also the Aet passed in the
number of such school section ; and such person shall, within twenty twelfth year of Her Majesty's reign, ch. 83, and intituled “ An Act
days thereafter, prepare a notice in writing, describing such section, for the better Establishment and Maintenance of Public Schools in
and appointing a time and place for the first school section meeting, Upper Canada, and for repealing the present School Act," shall be,
and shall cause copies of such notice to be posted in at least three and the same are hereby repealed : Provided always, nevertheless,
public places in such school section, at least six days before the time firstly, that no Act or part of an Act repealed by either of the Acts
of holding such meeting. hereby repealed, shall be revived by the passing of this Act : And V. And be it enacted, That at every such first Mode of proceed.
ing at the first provided also, secondly, that the repeal of the said Acts shall not school section meeting, the majority of the freehold meeting in a new extend or be construed to extend to any act done, any penalty incur- | ers or householders of such school section present,
School section. Ted, or any proceeding had under the said Acts, or either of them : shall elect one of their own number to preside over Election of Chair
man and Secrean school divi. And provided also, thirdly, that all Sehool Sections the proceedings of such meeting, and shall also apmons, elections, or other School divisions, together with all elections point a Secretary, whose duty it shall be to record all Duty of the se appointments, Sintracts, &c., and appointments to office, all agreements, contracts, the proceedings of such meeting ; and the Chair- cretary. conärmed. assessments, and rate-bills, made under the autho man of such meeting shall decide all questions of Puty of the
Chairminn. rity of the said Acts, or of any preceding Act, and not annulled by order, subject to an appeal to the meeting, and shall tho said Acts or by this Act, or by any of them, shall be valid and give the casting vote in case of an equality of votes, and shall have in full force and binding upon all parties concerned, as if made under no vote except as Chairman, and shall take the votes in such manner the authority of this Act, and shall so continue until altered, modifiod, as shall be desired by the majority of the electors present, and shall, or superseded, according to the provisions of this Act: And provided at the request of any two electors, grant a poll for Apoll in be
granied at the also, fourthly, that nothing herein contained shall affect the liability recording the names of the voters by the Secretary:
peau of any District, County, City, Town, or Township Superintendent and it shall be the duty of the electors present at wo electors. of Common Schools, to the Municipal Corporation to which he would such meoting, or a majority of them, to elect from the freeholders or otherwise be responsible for the samo, for any monoys received by householders in such section, three Trustees, who Three Truster's him under any of the said Aots ; but the liabilities of every such | shall respectively continue in office as follows : to be elected.
request of any
for the payment
office of persons
be elected School Trustees by a majority of all the taxable inbab and their appendages and grounds ; for procuring suitable apparatus Mode of retiring itants of such ward.; one of which Trustees (to be , and text-books for the schools ; for the establishment and maintefrom office. determined by lot, ai the first Trustce meeting after nance of school libraries ; and for all the necessary expenses of the their election) shall retire from office the second Wednesday of Janu schools under their charge; and it shall be the duty. The Municipal ary following his election ; and the second of whom shall continue of the Common Council or Council of such City or Couneil to pro
vide for such exPersons thus in office one year longer, and until his successor is | Town, to provide such sum or sums in such manner penges.
lected to form a elected ; and the persons thus elected shall form one as shall be desired by said Board of School Trustees.
Seventhly. To levy at their discretion, any rates To levy school
rate bilis at their One Trustee 10 XXIII. And be it enacted, That on the second upon the parents or guardians of children attending discretion. be elected in pich ward of a Wednesday in January of each year, at the time pre any school under their charge ; and to employ the same means for City or Town, scribed by the second section of this Act, one fit and collecting such rates, as Trustees of Common Schools in any Townthe second Wed. nesday in Janu- proper person shall be elected Trustee in each ward ship may do under the twelfth section of this Act : Provided ary of each year. of every City and Town, and shall continue in office always, that all moneys thus collected shall be paid
The aume tbos two years, and until his successor is elected : Provided always, that into the hands of the Chamberlain or Treasurer, of collected to be Buch election shall be held at the place where the last municipal such City or Town for the Common School purposes hands of The Mode of holding election was held for such ward, and under the di of the same, and shall be subject to the order of the
Treasurer. such election rection of the same returning officer, or, in his default, said Board of School Trustees. of such person as the electors present shall choose ; and such elec
Eighthly. To give orders to Teachers and other To give orden tion shall be conducted in the same manner as an ordinary munici
school officers and creditors upon the Chamberlain of Teachers, &e. pal election in each ward of such City or Town.
or Treasurer of such City or Town, for the sum To be a corpora XXIV. And be it enacted, That the Board of or sums which shall be due them. tion.
School Trustees for each City and Town, shall be a Duties
To call annual or of
Ninthly. To call and give notice of annual and the Bard of Truscorporation under the name of “ The Board of
special school meetings of the taxable inhabitants of meetings. jees in each City School Trustees of the City (or Town) of
such City or Town, or of any Ward in it, in the same manner and in the County of
;" (the first meeting
under the same regulations as are prescribed in the twelfth section thereof may be called in the City or Town Council room by any
of this Act, for the appointment of annual and special school meetTrustee), and it shall be the duty of such Board,
ings in the school seotions of Townships : Provided Continuance in To appoint cer - Firstly. To appoint annually or oftener, a Chair always, that any person elected at any special ward
elected to fill va. laju officers. &c. man, Secretary, Superintendent of Schools, and one school meeting, to fill a vacancy which shall have cancies. or more collectors of school rates, (if required); and to appoint the occurred in the Board of Trustees, from any cause whatever, sha)! times and places of their meetings, and the mode of calling them, of hold office only during the unexpired part of the term for which the conducting and recording their proceedings, and of keeping all their person whose place shall have become vacant, was elected to serve. School accounts.
Tenthly. To see that all the pupils in the schools To see that the To hold School Secondly. To take possession of all CommonSchool
pupils are duly
are duly supplied with an uniform series of autho- supplied with Property, &c. property, and to acoept and hold as a Corporation rized text-books; to appoint a Librarian, and take
per all property which may have been acquired or given for Common charge of the school library or libraries, whenever School purposes in such City or Town, by any title whatsoever ; to established. manage or dispose of such property, and all moneys or income for
Eleventhly. To see that all the schools under their to have their Common School purposes, until the power hereby given shall be
charge are conducted, according to the regulations according tu law. taken away or modified by law, and to apply the same, or the pro
authorized by law; and, at the close of each year, To prepare and ceeds, to the objects for which they have been given or acquired.
publish to prepare and publish, in one or more of the public
school reports, To make all. Thirdly. To do wbatever they may judge expe- papers, or otherwise, for the information of the inneedful provisjons in respect to dient with regard to purchasing or renting school habitants of such City or Town, an annual report of their proceedCommon School
chool sites and premises; building, repairing, furnishing, ings, and of the progress and state of the schools under their charge; premises, text
warming and keeping in order the school-house or of the receipts and expenditure of all school moneys; and to preschool-houses, and its or their appendages, lands, enclosures and pare and transmit annually, before the fifteenth of to prepare and movable property ; for procuring suitable apparatus and text-books; | January, to the Chief Superintendent of Schools, a transmit an anand for the establishment and maintenance of a school library or | report, signed by a majority of the Trustees, and Chier superintenschool libraries,
containing all the information required in the report dent of Schools.
of Common School Trustees, by the twelfth section of this Act, and Fourthly. To determine the number, sites, kind To determine the number and kind and description of schools which shall be established
any additional items of information which may be lawfully required, of Schools; em
and made according to a form which shall be proDloy Teachers, and maintained in such City or Town; the Teacher
Contents of such vided for that purpose by the Chief Superintendent report. or Teachers who shall be employed, the terms of employing them, the amount of their remuneration, and the duties
of Schools. which they are to perform ; the salary of the Superintendent of XXV. And be it enacted, That the Municipality
Powers of Mani
cipal Counells in Schools appointed by them and his duties; and to adopt, at their of every incorporated Village, shall possess and incorporated vildiscretion, such measures as they shall judge expedient, in concur exercise all the powers, and be subject to all the lages. rence with the Trustees of the County Grammar School, for uniting obligations with regard to the levying and raising of moneys for one or more of the Common Schools of the City or Town with such Common School purposes, and for the establishment and maintenance Grammar School.
of school libraries, within the limits of such incorporated Village, as a Fifthly. To appoint annually, or oftener, if they
are conferred and imposed by this Act upon the Municipal CorporaTo appoint a commillee of shall judge expedient, for the special charge, overtions of Cities : Provided always, that on the second tirer de
First election of three to take the special charge of sight, and management of each school within such
Wednesday in January, one thousand eight hundred trustees in sich
villages, the 2nd each school. City or Town, and under such regulations as they
and fifty-one, in each such incorporated Village, at
in shall think proper to prescribe, a committee of not
the place of the then last annual election of Council- January, 1851. more than three persons for each school.
lors, there shall be a meeting of the taxable inhabitants of such
incorporated Village, and which meeting shall be To make an es Sixthly. To prepare from time to time, and lay
How such elee.
organized and conducted in the same manner as is timate of the ex.
tions to be held penses of the before the Municipal Council of such City or Town,
prescribed in the twenty-third section of this Act and condueled. schools.
an estimate of the sum or suims which they shall judge for the conducting of annual school meetings in the wards of Cities expedient, for paying the whole or part of the salaries of Teachers; and Towns; and at such meeting, six fit and proper Six Trustees to for purchasing or renting school premises ; for building, renting, I persons, from among the resident freeholders or
be elested in each
incorporated vii repairing warming, furnishing and keeping in order the school-houses | householders, shall be elected School Trustees for age.
nes, and of the end expenditure core the fifteentea
iransmwort to the
Mode of retire- such incorporated Village ; and the persons thus always, that no such Local Superintendent shall have
Yo local Superin. ment from office.
tendent to have chosen shall be divided by lot into three classes, of the oversight of more than one hundred Schools ; charge of more
than ICO schools. two individuals each, to be numbered one, two, three ; the first class and provided also, that the County Clerk shall forth
County clerk to shall hold office one year, the second, two years, and the third, three with notify the Chief Superintendent of Schools of
notify the Chief years, and until their successors are elected; but each Trustee retiring the appointment and address of each such Local Superintendent of
schools of the from office shall be eligible to be re-elected with his own consent : Superintendent, and of the County Treasurer : ard names and ad
ciress of local SuTwo Trustees to Provided secondly, that there shall be a like school shall likewise furnish him with a copy of all pro
perintendents, albe elected at each
meeting annually in each such incorporated Village, auch
ceedings of such Council, relating to School assessensuing
So of the name annual
and address of the whool meeting. at which two persons shall be chosen Trustees, in ments and other educational matters.
county Treasurer. the place of the two retiring from office, and shall continue in office
Fourthly. To see that sufficient security be given to secure all two years, and until their successors are elected : Provided thirdly,
school moneys. by all officers of such Council to whorn School mothat the first annual school meeting in each incorpoMode of calling
neys shall be entrusted ; to see that no deduction be To see that no the first annual rated Village, shall be called by the Town-reeve of
deduction be school meeting. such Village, who shall cause notices to be posted in
made from the School Fund by the County Treasu
made from the
rer or Sub-treasurer, for the receipt and payment of county, common at least six public places of such Village, at least six days before
School moneys; to appoint, if it shall judge expethe time of holding such meeting.
dient, one or more Sub-treasurers of School moneys, for one or more The trusteesthus XXVI. And be it enacted, That the Trustees
| Townships of such County : Provided always, that To appoint a subelected in each lacorporated vil elected in each incorporated Village, according to each such Sub-treasurer shall be subject to the treasurer...... of
school moneys at lace to succeed to
| same responsibilities and obligations in respect to the the provisions of the preceding section, shall succeed al the richie, ob
its discretion. ligations &c., of to all the rights, powers, obligations and liabilities of accounting for School moneys and the payment of lawful orders for the present trus
the present Trustees of such incorporated Village, such moneys given by any Local Superintendent within the parts of
and shall be a Corporation under the title of the the County for which he is appointed Sub-treasurer, as are imposed To be a corpora tion.
“Board of School Trustees of the incorporated Vil by this Act upon each County Treasurer, in respect to the paying
lage of --, in the County of --;" and shall possess and accounting for School moneys. Thelpowers, all the powers, and be subject to all the obligations, obligations, and
Fifthly. To appoint annually, or ofteger, Auditors, to cause the duties the same within the limits of such incorporated Village, as are
whose duty it shall be to audit the accounts of the ar those of trus
to be audited, &c. conferred and imposed by the twenty-fourth section lees in cities and
County Treasurer and other officers to whom school moncys shall lowns. of this Act, upon the Trustees of Cities and Towns.
have been intrusted, and report to such Council; and the County
Clerk shall transmit to the Chief Superintendent of County clerk to V. DUTIES OF COUNTY MUNICIPAL Councils.
Schools, on or before the first day of March in each transmit to the
transmit to the year, a certified copy of the abstract of such report,
Chief Superinten. Dürfeo of county
dent an abstract XXVII. And be it enacted, That it shall be the council...
and also give any explanations relating thereto, as of such accounts,
&c. duty of the Municipal Council of each County:
far as he is able, which may be required by the To raise by as Firstly. To cause to be levied each year upon the Chie sessment in each
covoral Townships of snch County, such sum or to the Legis ative
sums of money for the payment of the salaries of | VI. CONSTITUTION AND DUTIES OF THE Courty BOARDS OF PUBLIC school grant apportioned to such legally qualified Common School Teachers as shall
at least be equal (clear of all charges of collection) to the amount of school money apportioned to the several Townships
XXVIII And be it enacted, that the Board of Trustees of the
county grammar thereof for such year, by the Chief Superintendent of Schools, as
Trustees for the County Grammar School and the school and local
superintendents notified by him to such Council, through the County Clerk : Provided
Local Superintendent or Superintendents of Schools
to constitute a
in each County, shall constitute a Board of Public county board of Such cum may be always, that the sum or sums so levied, may be
public instruction increased at the increased at the discretion of such Council, either
Instruccion for such County : Provided always, that
More than one discretion of the council; and the to increase the County School Fund, or to give spe
where there is more than one Grammar School county board may
be appointed in additional sumcial or additional aid to new or needy school sections,
in a County, the County Council shall have certain cases. raised may be disposed of at the on the recommendation of one or more Local Super
authority to divide such County into as many pleasure of the inteudents: Provided also, that the sum required to
Circuits as there are County Grammar Schools, and the Trustees of council, to aid poor school sections or be levied in such County in each year, for the salaries
each County Grammar School and the Local Superintendent or Suincrease the coun
perintendents of Schools in each circuit, shall be a Board of Public tv school fund. of legally qualified Teachers, shall be collected and paid into the hands of the County Treasurer, on or
Instruction for such circuit : Provided also, that at Three (including Time for the pay before the Fourteenth day of December; and pro
any lawful meeting of such Board, not less than three a superintendent)
to be a quorum ment of the county school assess
members, including a Local Superintendent of for the examinavided likewise, that in case of the non-payment of ment.
tion of teachers
Schools, shall constitute a quorum for examining any part of such sum into the hands of the County
fire for other pur. and giving certificates of qualification to Common Treasurer at that time, no Teacher shall, upon appliNo teacher to be
poses. refused the pay cation, be refused the payment of the sum to which
School Teachers, and not less than five members shall constitute a ment of his due,
quorum for the transaction of ary other business : on account of the he may be entitled from such year's County School
Incidental expennon-collection of
ses to be defrayed Fund, but the County Treasurer shall pay any local
dea likewise, that the incidental expenses con
by the county any part of the
nected with the meeting and proceedings of each county school as Superintendent's lawful order in behalf of such
council. Teacher, in anticipation of the payment of the
County Board of Public Instruction shall be provided County School assessment; and the County Council shall make the
for by the Municipal Council of such County. necessary provision to enable the County Treasuror to pay the
XXIX. And be it enacted, That it shall be the Duties of each amount of such lawful order..
county board of
duty of each County Board of Public Instruction : public instruction To raise money Secondly. To raise by assessment, such sum or Firstly. To meet not less than four times a year; To meet quarter. for County Com
establishment and maintenance of a County Common ings, and the order of its proceedings, and the
manner of recording them. To appoint local Thirdly. To appoint annually, a Local Superinten Secondly. To examine and give certificates of To examine and Superintendents
give certificates or Schools, and dent of Schools for the whole County, or for any qualification to Teachers of Common Schools, ar- of qualification to provide for their
one or more Townships in such County, as it shall | ranging such Teachers into three classes according teachers. salaries.
judge expedient; to fix (within the limits prescribed to their attainments and ability, as shall be pre:cribed in a proby the thirtieth section of this Act), and provide for the salary or gramme of examination and instructions to be pr vided according Malaries of such Local Superintendent or Superintendents: Provided to law; also to annul any such certificate as it shall judge expe