Page images
PDF
EPUB

Editorial Notices, &c.

Contents :-I. Wesley the Catholic.-II. John Quincy Adams.

III. Demoniacs of the New Testament.:-IV. Ancient Enclosures PROCEEDINGS OF TOWNSHIP COUNCILS IN Com. School MATTERS. and Mounds of the West.–V. Inquiry into the meaning of II. -In our last number, we adverted to the circumstance of a copy of Peter iii. 13.-Kaivous de oupavous xa ynv xain tara 50 Erayyahua the Journal of Education having been ordered for each School

AUTOU TE POO doxep.EV, sv oss Oixano ouvn xas olxl.-VI. The meaning of Section in the several Townships. Since then orders have been

017 (iom) day-VII. Sunday School Literature.— VIII. Tickreceived for a copy of the Journal for each School Section of the

nor's Spanish Literature.-IX. Life of Rev. John CollinsTownships of Wolf Island, Amherst Island, and Trafalgar. But [attributed to the pen of the Hon. Judge McLean of the Supreme in no instance have we seen more enlightened views expressed, or Court of the United States.]-X. Short Reviews and Notices, (of a more noble spirit ovinced, than in the following resolutions, (model the current literature of the day-26 in all.]-XI. Miscellaniesresolutions indeed for every Municipal Council in Upper Canada), [Theological criticisms, 5 in all.]-XII. Literary Intelligencewhich have been communicated to us by Simon NEWCOMB, Esquire, Theological, Classical and Miscellaneous-European and AmeriSchool Supeintendent for the Township of Bayham, County of can.] We can only notice two articles. Middlesex :

The article on Ancient Enclosures, founded on the first volume of At a Meeting of the Municipal Council for the Township of Bay

the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, entitled, “ Ancient ham, held on the 15th instant, the following resolutions were moved

| Monuments of the Mississippi Valley," we have read with peculiar and passed unanimously:

interest. It is profusely illustrated with wood cuts from the original 1. That this Council, regarding the cause of popular education as

work. The mounds exhibit undoubted traces of the once powerful one of the deepest interest and importance, feel it their duty to

tribes which formerly inhabited the extensive valley of the Missisemploy all proper means to elevate the character and increase the

sippi-in the Indian legend, the Father of Waters,—and upon excausefulness of our common schools.

vation are found to be monuments erected over the remains of mighty 2. That, in their opinion, this great object is to be promoted by chiefs or warriors. Some of the mounds are very singular in shape. the general diffusion of information on educational subjects, and One is constructed in the form of a se pent—five feet high and thirty by the introduction of a uniform and approved system of school

feet wide at the base, its head resting near the top of a natural hill, teaching, and of school organization and discipline.

and its body winding down for nearly 1,000 feet in graceful evolu3. That, in accordance with these views, the Superintendent of tions, terminating in a triple coil at the tail. The neck of the Schools be authorized to obtain a copy of the Journal of Education serpent is stretched out, slightly curved, and with its mouth opened, for each School Section in the Township, and that he be invited to as if in the act of swallowing an oval figure, which rests partially attend the Teachers' Institute to be held at London on the 14th and within its jaws-others are in the form of alligators, crosses, &c., 15th June next, with a view to the introduction into our Common &c. The forms of the ordinary mounds are conical and pyramidal, Schools of the principles of teaching and system of instruction adopt

and their appearance, covered with verdure, is very striking. ed in the Normal School of Upper Canada.

Though it may appear somewhat anomalous to apply the term ancient,

to any structure on the Continent of America, yet it appears from SCHOOL TEACHERS' INSTITUTES.- It is gratifying to observe the indisputable evidence that these monuments must be many hundred judicious and active preparations which are making in the several

years old, perhaps “older than the Pyramids:" and while the more counties for the Teachers' Institutes, the appointments of which imposing structures of civilized man have crumbled into shapeless were announced in the last number of this Journal. We hope | ruins, these humble mounds of the child of the forest yet remair they will be duly published and numerously attended in every County !

but slightly unchanged from their original proportions. in Upper Canada. We direct attention to an article on the “ In

de Wa diroet attention to an article on the “ In- The paper on Spanish Literature, by a learned Professor of Harfluence of Teachers' Institutes upon Teachers and the Public,ex vard University, is founded on Ticknor's “ History of Spanish Littracted from the last Annual Report of the Massachusetts Board oferature,"-an exceedingly valuable work on a subject but rarely Education, and of their Secretary, inserted on the 68th page.

treated of with the minuteness and researeh displayed by that

authæ. The review is very favourable. It presents an epitome of New School Bill.—The Honble. the INSPECTOR GENERAL, on Spanish Literature and of English and American writers on Spain Wednesday the 29th inst., introduced into the Legislative Assembly down to the present period. The sketch will prove very interesting a new School Bill for Upper Canada, according to the provisions of to students of History. which the School Moneys for the current year will be apportioned to the several counties, townships, cities, and towns as soon as

CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. the Bill becomes a law.

1. First Free University--Example for Upper Canada, ........

I. Great Economy of Free Public Education, ............... 66-67 MUNICIPAL MANUAL OF UPPER Canada for 1850, with a Map

III. Importance of the Teacher's Calling, ......

IV. Duties of Cities and Towns, in respect to Common Schools, of the Province. 8vo., pp. 132. Price ls. 104d. Toronto :

V. Chemistry, as applied to Agriculture, in Common Schools, Scobie and Balfour. We have to express our thanks to the pub VI. Influence of Teachers' Institutes, .........

VII. Advantages of Science and Knowledge, ......... lishers for a copy of this work. Under our present extended mu

VIII. Conduct of an Enlightened People-(i) in regard to Governnicipal system, nothing could be more valuable or opportune than

ment-(2) in selection of Representatives, ..... this cheap and convenient Manual. It contains complete lists of X. MISCELLANEOUS :--1. Child's Hymn (Poetry). 2. Fact with

a Moral. 3. Curious Facts in Early History, Free Schools, the various Municipal Corporations of Townships, Counties, Villa

Massachusetts. 4. Education and War. 5. Foreign Phrases. ges, Towns, and Cities, and their Ward Divisions (including

6. Perseverance. 7. Moral Education. 8. Courtesy. their officers, Superintendents of Schools, &c.); also, the boun

9. Parental Teaching. 10. Double your Money. 11. Na

tional Characteristics. 12. Educational Journals in the U.S. daries of the several Division Courts--the times and places of

13. Various School Items, ................ ............ 70–71 holding them, and the name and address of the Judge and Clerk of X. EpitoRIAL:-1. May not all the Youth of Upper Canada be each Division ; and the Municipal Corporations' Act, Road Act,

blest with Free Education from the Common School

to the University? 2. Normal School Instruction. 3. Secreand various other Acts conferring powers and imposing duties on

tary, Massachusetts Board of Education. 4. Free Schools Municipalities. We cordially recommend the Municipal Manual

in Toronto, .......................................... 72-74

XI. Canadian Press on Free Schools :--1. Toronto Patriot. to all local municipal authorities.

2. St. Catherines' Journal. 3. Barrie Magnet, and Montrcal Pilot, ..

.................. 74-75

XII. 1. New Rules, Massachusetts' Normal Schools. 2 Ingenaity METHODIST QUARTERLY Review, April, 1850. Rev. J. Mc

in Teachers, ................. Clintock, D.D., Editor. 8vo., pp. 160. 10s. per annum-New-York,

XIII. EducatIONAL'INTELLIGENCE :-). Canada. 2. British and Lane and Scott. We acknowledge with much pleasure the receipt

Foreign. 3. United States, ....... of this valuable periodical. Although the exponent of certain the

XIV. LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE, ................. 79
XV. EDITORIAL NOTICES, ..........

80 ological views and peculiarities which cannot be either so elaborately or philosophically discussed in a newspaper as in a calm and dig

Toronto: Printed and Published by Thomas H. BuxTLEY, at 5s per nified Quarterly, this publication may be regarded as the literary annum, and may be obtained from A. GREEN, SCOBIE & BALFOUR

I and A. II. ARMOUR & Co., Toronto; R. D. WADSWORTH, General organ of a very large and influential body of Christians in the

| Agent for Canada : J. McCoy, Montreal; and D. M. DEWEY, Arcade United States. The following is the very intcrcating Table of I Hall, Rochester. N. Y.'

68-69

.........

[ocr errors]

JOURNAL OF EDUCATION

Upper Canada.

FOR

VOL. III.

TORONTO, JUNE, 1850.

No. 6.

· TOWNSHIP SCHOOL LIBRARIES-MEANS OF several County or Township Municipal Corporations in the Province, ESTABLISHING THEM.

and apply it in each County or Township to the purchase of School (By R. Ball, Esq., M.P.P., for the United Counties of Lanark & Renfrew.] Libraries. If it were applied in this way for even one year, a very To the Editor of the Journal of Education :

good beginning would be made ; but set it apart for this purpose, DEAR SIR,

permanently, and in a few years, we would have the most magniMy object in addressing you, is to call your attention | ficent School Libraries to be found in any part of the world. to the subject of Libraries for the use of Common Schools in Upper | It is pretty generally admitted, that the sale of spirituous liquors Canada. I sball merely give you my ideas, with a few statistical is productive of much evil to the community ; then why not allow facts, and leave you to discuss the subject, if you think proper to do the tax on the traffic to be applied to so good a purpose as that 80, in your own usual clear and forcible manner.

proposed ? It would, to some extent, counteract the evil. But I Every person will admit the advantage, and even the necessity | must not, at present, give you my views on the licensing system. of having good school libraries ; but, few people are aware of the Then with respect to the amount of this fund. By an official scarcity of books, in many of the rural portions of the Province.

return before me, I find it averaged each year, during the three The little instruction which the children receive in many of the years ending the 1st Feb., 1849, about £10,500. For the future, Common Schools, is entirely lost for want of suitable books. They say £10,000 ; and the population is in round numbers 750,000. are taught to read as a means of acquiring knowledge, but that This would give 203. for every seventy-five inhabitants, and each knowledge is not put within their reach, and, consequently, their Township of two thousand inhabitants, which is very nearly the education, so called, ends when they have acquired a tolerable average, (there being nearly four hundred Townships in U. Canada,) knowledge of reading, writing and arithmetic. Many of our young would have £26 13 4, a sum sufficient to purchase the first year, people, after leaving the schools, seldom see a book, unless a pedler at least Two hundred and Fifty volumes. I assume that expensive happens to drop in their way some of the trash called cheap liter works, would not, in the first instance be required : indeed, it would ature, which, in many cases, is worse than useless.

be imprudent, at any time, to put expensive books into such libraReading, writing, and arithmetic, as commonly taught in the ries. Volumes about the size of those in Harper's Family Library, country schools, is no more education, than the scaffolding, set up or the Library sanctioned by the Massachuset ts’ Board of Education, by the mason or the carpenter, is the superstructure, when he is would be furnished at a price rather under what I have allowed ; about to build a house. What would we think of the mechanic, and if a large number were selected and ordered at once, by the who should so put up his scaffold, and there stop, under the impres Superintendent of Education, a liberal discount on the usual prices sion that his house was finished ? Are we much wiser, in the would probably be allowed. course we follow with respect to common schools ? For want of Can the money be spared for this purpose ? In reply, I say yes ! libraries, do we not stop when the foundation is scarcely laid ? This is an entirely new source of revenue to the municipalities.

My remarks, of course, apply more particularly to settlements It is like so much money sound. There will be no necessity for cut off by distance, bad roads and other causes, from towns or mar- retrenchment in the ordinary expenditure of the municipalities ; 10 kets where a good supply of books might be obtained.

withdrawal of funds from specific purposes to which they have The next point to which I wish to call your attention, is the hitherto been applied. scheme, by which I propose to furnish at least one good library to The money for this year is alrcady paid over to the respective each Township in the Province. To do this, a very large sum of bodies entitled to receive it, and perhaps, in many cases disposed of; money, would, of course, be required; and in the present state of | but I would suggest that an Act should be passed, declaring that for our financial affairs, it is scarcely reasonable to expect that the the future, it should be set apart for Common School Libraries ; or, Government would recommend so large a grant. Then turn to the if it is considered to be beyond the control of the Legislature, I Corporations in the several Counties and Townships, and we are would like to see the County Councils taking up the matter, and distold that they “have no sunds"; that their expenditure is equal to, posing of it in the way I suggest. and in many cases exceeds their receipts. We are also told that | This year the money was paid over to the several Townships, if an attempt were made to put on an additional assessment for according to the number of taverns, within their limits. This is this purpose, the people would resist it.

unfair, inasmuch as some 'Townships get more than their share, The plan i propose is this : To take the money arising from and other equally well settled Townships, get nothing. In proporTavern Licences, which, for several years past, has been used to. tion to population, would be the better way. liquidate a debt incurred for the payment of losses in U. C. in 1837

Yours truly, and 1838, and which, in future, is intended to be paid over to the Toronto, 24th June, 1850.

R, BELI,

SCHOOL LIBRARIES—THEIR SOCIAL TENDENCIES. to give unbridled sway to his lawless humors would become the

The Library Fund for the State, consists of $55.000 appropri- ruling passion and sole study of his life. How would it stand with ated from the income of the United States' Deposit Fund, and an

those within the immediate circle of his influence,or his arrogance? equal fund raised by tax. The object of the Legislature was to

Fear would make them cringe, and lick the feet of their haughty furnish every district in the State, with a library of good books for and capricious oppressor ; the hope of reward, or the dread of punthe instruction of adults, as well as infants. Out of the same,

ishment, would stifle the sense of justice, or pity ; despair of suc$110,000 were annually appropriated for the payment of teachers'

cess would make them cowards, habit would confirm them into wages. A sum was, therefore, devoted to the tuition of children,

slaves, and they would look up with bigoted devotion (the boasted equal to twice the sum set apart for ihe purchase of books. Be

loyalty of the good old times) to the right of the strongest as the sides this, the whole income of the Common School Fund, a like

only law. A king would only be the head of a confederation of amount raised by tax, all sums raised by towns for School purposes,

such haughty despots, and the happiness, or rights of the peoand all local funds are expended in the payment of teachers' wages. ple, would be equally disregarded by them both. Religion, Tous, it appears clear, that the amount expended for books, which are

instead of curbing this state of rapine and licentiousness, bethe silent teachers of all those who have advanced to a certain degree

came an accomplice and party in the crime ; gave absolution and in knowledge, is quite small enough in comparison with the sum

indulgence for all sorts of enormities; granting the forgiveness of expended in the wages of Teachers, whose business it is to guide

Heaven in return for a rich jewel or fat abbey lands, and setting up the toddling steps of infancy in the paths of science.

a regular (and what in the end proved an intolerable) traffic in vioThe common School is only the threshold of the temple of know

lence, cruelty and lust. As to the restraints of law, there were ledge. Bonks are its corridors, entrances, and aisles, which lead

none but what resided in the breast of the Grand Seigneur, who to its inner apartments and higher seats. A child goes to the hung up in his court-yard, without judge or jury, any one who Common School, not merely 10 learn to read, write, and cypher,

dared to utter the slightest murmur against the most flagrant but having learned reading, writing, and arithinetic, that he apply

wrong. Such must be the consequence, as long as there was no his knowledge to the business of life.

common standard or judge to appeal to ; and this could only be We are impressed, deeply, and unalterably, with the conviction found in public opinion, the offspring of books. As long as any that the policy which founded, and has built up the School Librar unjust claim or transaction was confined to the knowlege of the ies, is the wisest policy which any human government ever adopted. parties concerned, the tyrant and the slave, which is the case in If this policy be adhered to, and goes hand in hand with the com

all unlettered states of society, might must prevail over right ; for mon school system, it will be the means of enlightening and en the strongest would bully, and the weakest must submit, even in his franchising all the inhabitants of the earth. We should look upon own defence, and persuade himself that he was in the wrong, even the abandonment of this policy as the triumph of ignorance and

in his own dispute : but the instant the world, that dread jury, are parsimony.

impannelled, and called to look on and be umpires in the scene, so Our friendship for the Schoo! Libraries is based chiefly upon that nothing is done by connivance or in a corner, then reason their political tendencies. “Mugna est veritas et prævalebit,is

mounts the judgment-seat in lieu of passion or interest, and opinion an old Latin proverb, which a modern political philosopher has

becomes law instead of arbitrary will." translated into, ** Error is not to be feared when truth is left free From the moment that the press opens the eyes of the community to combat it." But before the invention of printing, and the pub beyond the active sphere in which each moves, there is from that lication of books, truth was never left free to combat error. Forms time inevitably formed tho germ of a body of opinion directly at of government, institutions, laws, religion, wero imposed upon the variance with the selfish and servile code that before reigned paramasses of the people, and upheld by brute force. All the so-called mount, and approximating more and more to the manly and disinterrepublics of antiquity were in fact oligarchies, in which a few men, ested standard of truth and justice. Hitherto, force, fraud and siyling themselves citizens, assumed all political power. The tillers fear decided any question of individual right or general reasoning; of the soil in Sparta, Athens and Rome, were, with rare exceptions, the possessor of rank and influence, in answer to any censure or slaves. Nine-tenths of all the cultivated land on the surface of the objection to his conduct, appealed to God and to his word ; now a parih is now tilled by serfs, or slaves. Why so ? Because truth new principle is brought into play, which had never been so much is not lest free to combat error. Books would teach serfs and slaves as dreamt of, and before which he must make good his pretensions, to know how base a thing it is to be a slave.

or it will shatter his strong holds of pride and prejudice to atoms, as In books, all forms and systems of government and religion, all the pent up air sbatters whatever resists its expansive force. This theories, opinions, acts and motives of men, are discussed, attacked, power is public opinion, exercised upon men, things, and general defended, praised or ridiculed; and the people sit in judgment to principles, and to which man's physical power must conform, or it weigh and deliberate, to approve or condemn. Before the invention will crumble it to powder. Books alone teach us to judge of truth of printing, there could be no tribunal of such universal jurisdiction, and good in the abstract: without a knowledge of things at a dispussessing also such irresistible power to enforce its decrees. tance from us, we judge like savages or animals from our senses

“ Before the diffusion of knowledge and inquiry,” says Hazlitt, and appetites only: but by the aid of books and of an intercourse “ governments were for the most part the growth of brute force, or with the world of ideas, we are purified, raised, ennobled from sayof barbarous superstition. Power was in the hands of a few, who ages into intellectual and rational beings. Our impressions used it only to gratify their own pride, cruelty, or avarice, and who of what is near to us are false, of what is distant, feeble ; but took every means to cement it by fear and favor. The lords of the these last gaining strength from being united in public opinion, and earth disdained to rule by the choice or for the benefit of the mass of expressed by the public voice, are like the congregated roar of the community, whom they regarded and treated as no better than a many waters, and quail the hearts of princes. Who but the tyrant herd of cattle, derived their title from the skies, pretending to be does not hate the tyrant? Who but the slave does not despise the accountable for the exercise or abuse of their authority, to God slave ? The first of these looks upon himself as a God, upon his only- the throne rested on the altar, and every species of atrocity vassal as a clod of the earth, and forces him to be of the same opinor wanton insult, having power on its side, received the sanction ion; the philosopher looks upon them both as men, and instructs of religion, which it was, thenceforth, impiety and rebellion against the world to do so. While they had to settle their pretensions by the will of Heaven to impugn. This state of things continued and themselves, and in the night of ignorance, it is no wonder no good grew worse and worse, while knowledge and power were confined was done ; while pride intoxicated the one, and fear stupified the within more local and private limits. Each petty sovereign shut other. But let them be brought out of that dark cave of despotism himself up in his castle or fortress, and scattered havoc and dismay and superstition, and let a thousand other persons, who have no inover the unresisting country around him. In an age of ignorance terest but that of truth and justice, be called on to determine beand barbarism, when force and interest decided every thing, and tween them, and the plea of the lordly oppressor to make a beast of reasop had no means of making itself heard, what was to prevent burden of his fellow man becomes as ridiculous as it is odious. this, or act as a check upon it? The lord himself had no other All that the light of philosophy, the glow of patriotism, all that the masure of right than his own will ; his pride and passions would brain wasted in midnight study, the blood poured out upon the blind him to any consideration of conscience or humanity; he would scaffold or in the field of battle can do or have done, is to take this regard every act of disobedience as a crime of the deepest dve, and I question, in all cases, from before the first gross, blind and iniquitous tribunal, where power insults our weakness, and place it would but waste the waters of wisdom, and leave the stock parched before the last more just, disinterested, and in the end more for with all evil. midable one, where each individual is tried by his peers, and Has the teacher any trouble with his scholars, let him always according to the rules and principles which have received the com recollect the advice of Salzman, and “look first for the cause mon examination and the common consent. A public sense is thus of it in himself." Let him regard his own practice as a model formed, free from slavish and other traditional assumption of inso for theirs. Must they be accurate, so let him be. Does he expect lent superiority, which the more it is exercised becomes the more them to be diligent, just, patient, benevolent, pure, he should ask if enlightened and enlarged, and more and more requires equal rights these traits will spring naturally from sympathy with his spirit? and equal laws. This new sense acquired by the people, this new This nation needs shining lights at the teacher's desk. Each who organ of opinion and feeling, is like bringing a battering train to now fills that high station should count himself called to be a reforbear upon some old Gothic castle, long the den of rapine and crime, mer. As Fellenberg, when looking on Switzerland, said of the and must finally prevail against all absurd and antiquated institu three hundred pupils training for its teachers, so let this people say tions, unless it is violently suppressed, and this engine of political of you : “ These instructors are the great engine to regenerate the reform turned by bribery and terror against itself. Who in reading land.” So estimate your office and you will each be a living code, history, when the characters are laid open, and the circumstances enlightening the minds, purifying the hearts, and, under God, fairly stated, and when he himself has no false lies to mislead him, redeeming the souls of the precious band, given by parental solicidoes not take part with the oppressed against the oppressor ? But tude and in patriotic faith to your charge, to be prepared by you for books anticipate and conform the decision of the public, of individ the solemn and illimitable future.--Ibid. uals, and even of the actors in such scenes, to that lofty and irrevocable standard, mould and fashion the heart and inmost thoughts THOROUGH TEACHING THE TRUE SYSTEM.' upon it, so that something manly, liberal, and generous grows out of “Few branches, and well," should be the teacher's motto. I the fever of passion and the palsy of law; and this is wbat is meant know one who requires his scholars to read a sentence three or four by the progress of modern civilization and modern philosophy. times over, if a single error be committed in the repetition. This

As knowledge and civilization advance, the influence and advan practice will not make rail-road readers, thoso who are praised tages of the privileged few necessarily decrease. These two present

according to their speed; but, I am confident, it will make correct an everlasting counterpoise to each other, which is as true as that

readers, though they should advance only at the humble rate of a if you enlarge one half of a right angle you diminish the other half.

man's unaided walking. Scholars, to be accurate, must roview Soldiers, prints, books, in turn govern the world ; and the last do

their lessons often and thoroughly. Each cxorciso should be bound it best, because they have no pretence to do it at all, but by making by bands of stoel to all that precede it. Be not ambitious to carry a the public good their law and rule.-N. Y. Dist. Schoot Journal.

pupil over many authors or many pages, but be perfectly certain that there is no lino or word he has passed over, which he does not now

understand. The crate is to be filled with precious wares. Let CHILDREN SHOULD BE TAUGHT TO EXPRESS

each picco be wrapt right, packed socurely for itself and in relation CLEARLY WHAT THEY LEARN.

to all the others. If one be placed wrong, in the journey of life, it Children should be educated in good habits of Expression. They may jar and crack its neighbors, and spread devastation through must not only know how a problem is solved, but must be able to the whole.-Ibid. state the method clearly and fully. Quite as much is gained by endeavors to communicate knowledge as by solitary study. This EVERY THING SHOULD BE TAUGIIT WITH ACCURACY. . habit gives a command of language, which the scholar will hardly Aim in all things to secure the utmost Accuracy. Do you teach otherwise acquire. It shows him the extent of his resources, and writing, be not satisfied with a scholar's marking over the destined where he needs fresh application. It gives him fluency of utter-, page, or half page, but see that every letter is correctly forincd, if ance, and at the same time grammatical propriety. In some schools but ten be written for an exercise. Are they spelling? Do not the teacher is content with guessing out the ideas and meaning of judge of their proficiency by the number of columns they can falter the scholars. They speak by hints, in half-formed sentences, and through. If cach pupil can spell but a single word, let that word with a tone and manner so loose, disjointed and slovenly, as to savor be first pronounced, and that distinctly, and then let cach syllable of any place rather than a school-room. It is quito as important bo given separately, and each letter with its exact sound. We are for the education of a child that we should understand him, as he a nation of mis-spellers. It is not three years since I know a gradıı. us. Thus only can we determine, whether he is really acquainted ate of a college commit such atrocities in spelling the words of hia with the subject before him, whether he has just ideas, or is only performance at commencement, as ought to have put a child of eight giving us mouthfuls of words. Mr. Muzzey's Lecture before the to the blush. To the teachers of our primary schools I would say, American Institute of Instruction.

humanity forbid that you ever send such pupils to our colleges. And of this be suro, that if you neglect their spelling, no high school,

academy, nor professor will supply the deficiency. Spelling scems TEACHER'S SELF-HEED ESSENTIAL TO HIS SUCCESS.

a small thing, a inatter that comes of course, but it is not so. If But the most infallible means of success in teaching is, that the the little gems is not set round the leaf in its morning tenderness, no teacher add to all other helps that of taking constant heed to Him

| mid-day sun will ever shed the early dew.-Ibid. self. Of all the streams he would send forth, he must be the upper spring. It is not by set speeches, that he can convey all knowledge

THE MORAL ELEMENT IN EDUCATION. to his scholars. Unless he possess the personal power to excite a thirst for learning, his efforts may only tend to their intellectual

In the Halifax (N. S.) Presbyterian Guardian of the 1st instant,

in a lengthened editorial article on the Value of a good Education, the poverty. He must gain and secure their affections. Love is the silken chord, stronger than cables of coercion, by which he must

following affecting and forcible remarks are made : draw them to the fountains of wisdom. It will be his countenance,

«The blighted reputation and untimely end of the sons of some his manner, his tones, and not his cold words alone, that will interest of our wcalthiest merchants and most industrious citizens, ought to their young hearts in him, and through him, in the studies they pur teach others that it is education and virtue, and not wealth or family sue. Let him not hope to affect anything, however, by mere appear influence that make the good man and useful member of society. ances. Children pierce every covering and sce the naked heart. A young man may be full of learning, able to spout passages of We must, therefore, subdue all unkind and unjust feelings, and Shakespeare, of Byron, of Virgil, and Horace, to solve all the cherish a parental regard for our pupils.

problems of Euclid, and understand the Principia of Newton, and The teacher should watch daily the occurrences of the school yet be a profligate and an infidel. But if a pious youth know and room, and draw thence materials to mould their characters. If the love his Bible, and make it his daily companion and constant guide plant be watered at the right hour, when the calm evening of reflec- and counsellor, then we shall have no fcars for the consequences. tion has come, its root will be nourished, and vigor, and beauty, and Such an one will be an honor to his age and to his country, a comlife will be shed through its foilage and flowers. The same service o rt to his parents in their declining years and an ornament lo the performed in the heat of mid-day, when the sun of passion is high, 1 hurrb to which he belongs,"

THE PROSPERITY OF A STATE DETERMINED BY

THE EDUCATION OF ITS YOUTH. By Science, a nation is enabled to profit by the advantages of its natural situation. It avails little that the soil of a country is rich, if the art of cultivation is unknown to the inhabitants. It avails nothing, that her shores are capable of being connected with every climate, through the medium of intervening seas or oceans, while science has never taught the construction of vessels, nor the art of directing them. Without ibis knowledge, there is comparatively little use in the rivers, by which a country is intersected ; nor can the advantages of them be fully realized, till all vincible obstacles to navigation are actually overcome, and neighboring streams are made to unite their waters.

The sciences of chemistry and mineralogy, lately introduced into our country, and now cultivated with so much ardor and success, cannot fail, by their intiuence on medicine, agriculture and the arts, to produce consequences of great national importance. The nature of nian on the one side, and of soils and climates on the other, remains the same in every age. It is kuowledgeit is cultivation that produces the change. To this are we to ascribe it, that in our own country, where, two centuries ago, wild beasts and savages were contending for the empire of an unmeasured desert, there are now civil institutions, commerce, cities, arts, letters, religion, and all the charities of social and domestic life.

Whatever civii compace they may seem fit to adopt, an enlightened people will not trust themselves to calculate, with minuteness and confidence, the greatest degree of political prosperity that may be enjiycd, nor the least degree of restraint that may be necessary. It will not escape them, that no human foresight can extend to all emergencies, which a series of years may produce ; and that time may develop, in any political constitution, traits, either more or less valuable, than were apparent to its original authors. It is a well known truth in mechanics, ihat the actual and theoretical powers of a machine will never coincide. Through the flexibility of one part, the rigidity of another, and the roughness of a third, the result may disappoint those fond hopes, which seemed to rest on the firm ground of mathematical calculation. The judicious artist will not, however, on this account, be willing to reject, as worthless, a structure of splendid and complicatrd mechanism, of solid materials, in the formation of which, much labor, experience and ingenuity have been employed.

It is a remark, not less important because frequently made, that an indifferent constitution may be so administered, as to render a nation happy, and that, without a good administration, the best political institutions will fail of accomplishing that purpose. Now, us the manner in which governmen: will be administered in any nativri, can never be foreseen, a discerning people will not confidently anticipate, as their perpetual portion, the highest degree of prosperity which their form of government seems calculated to secure. Nor will they fix their eyes so intensely on the evils which may be seit at any period, as to forget the imperfection of all human establishments, and that, under a new form of government, may be concealed important disadvantages, which experience alone can bring to light. Rejecting alike the character of inconstancy, turbulence, and despondency, they will neither tamely yield to abuses, nor subyert their political institutions on account of them.

As an enlightened people will kuow how to value their rights, they will place those in office, who, by their ability, knowledge and integrity, are entitled to such distinction. To obtain their suffrages, it will not be enough, that a man professes his attachment to order, religion, or liberty. He must have more solid ground, on which to establish his claims to public savor. In knowledge and wisdom is doubtless implied a spirit of discernment. To enjoy the confidence of a wise people, there must therefore be a consistency of character, a uniform regard to moral principle and the public good. They will clearly perceive, that the civil interests of millions cannot be secure in the hands of men, who, in the more confined circle of cominon intercourse, are selfish, rapacious, or aspiring.

An enlightened regard to self-interest and a religious sense of responsibility, will, in this case, lead to the same practical result. In exercising the right of freemen, the man of religion experiences no conflict between his duty and his inclination. Towards the dis | honest, profane, ambitious and profligate, he feels

“The strong antipathy of good 10 bad.”

He has no wish to behold, arrayed in robes of office, men, whose largest views do not extend beyond the limits of mortal life, and whose deportment and conversation indicate neither love nor reverence for the Author of their being.

In very popular governments, where the elective franchise is widely extended, it is, doubtless, impossible that candidates for public office should be personally known to all, whose suffrages they receive. How generally scever knowledge is diffused, all the members of a large State cannot be brought within the sphere of mutual observation. In this case, resort must be had to the best sources of information. But it should not be forgotten, that a portion of the same intelligence and virtue, required in rulers, is necessary in giving information concerning candidates. An honest and well informed freeman will rely on none but well-informed witnesses.

A nation distinguished by a union of wisdom, knowledge, and the fear of God, is morally certain of having its government well administered, not only for the reason just assigned, but because the tone of morals, existing in such a nation, will operate as a powerful restraint, if, by any casualty or deep dissimulation, persons of yielding virtue should be placed in office.

Public opinion constitutes a tribunal, which few men, and least of all, those who are in pursuit of popular favor, will dare to set at defiance. It is scarcely possible, that a people, truly wise and virtuous, should have a government badly administered. Whenever the majority of a community complain of their rulers, they implicitly utter reproaches against themselves, for having placed their destiny in the hands of men, with whom it is insecure. If their reproaches are long continued, it is good proof that their own morals exhibit no very striking contrast with the morals of those wbose profligacy they condemn. In popular governments, the virtues and vices of rulers must flourish or wither with those of the people.

Those intellectual and moral qualities, so essential to the permanent prosperity of a State, can be promoted extensively in no other way than by education, early begun and judiciously prosecuted. The youth in a community have, long since, been compared to the spring. The loss of these would be like striking out from the year, the vernal months. If there be no vegetation in the opening year, what shall support life during the time of autumn and winter ? Or whal, if there be a luxuriant vegetation, but no saiutary or nourishing plant ? What if “thistles grow instead of wheat, and cockles instead of barley ?

That education may do much, both for the intellectual and moral improvement of a nation, cannot be called in question. If the Sparlan disciple was found adequate to its object, during many centuries, though it counteracted some of the strongest affections of our natures ; if parental, filial, and even conjugal tenderness could be extinguished or smothered under a political constitution, which formed but one family, of a whole State, what might not be done by pursuir.g, with perseverance, a plan of education, concerted with just views of the human character, and under the influence of that glorious light, which Christianity has shed on the destiny of man !

The active powers of the soul must either be suppressed or directed. If they are suppressed, their possessor loses, in a considerable degree, his rank in the moral world. If they are not suppressed, they must be directed by knowledge and moral principle.

The importance of early instruction was felt by the wisest nations of antiquity : “ What,” says an author, * speaking in the name of the Grecian sages, and profoundly versed in their writings, “ What are the solid foundations of the tranquillity and happiness of States ? Not the laws which dispense the rewards and punishments; but the public voice, when it makes an exact retribution of contempt and esteem. The laws, in themselves impotent, borrow their power solely from manners. Hence results, in every government, the indispensable necessity of attending to the education of children, as an essential object of training them up in the spirit and love of the constitution, in the simplicity of ancient times; in a word, in the principles which ought ever after to regulate their virtues, their opinions, their sentiments, and their behaviour. All who have meditated on the art of government, have been convinced that the fate of empires, depended on the education given to youth."

This subject did not escape the notice of the Athenian legislator.

* Abbe Barthelemi. Travels of Anachareis III, 329.

« PreviousContinue »