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THE FIRST FREE UNIVERSITY-A GOOD EXAMPLE operations of the University in the highest state of efficiency, FOR UPPER CANADA.

without her resorting, as the historian expresses it, to "the unhapAmong the many noble and sublime conceptions, the origin of

py and shameful necessity of receiving wages for her labours ?"

University Education in Upper Canada has been liberally provided which may be traced to France, is the grand idea of making Uni

for by public endowment ; ought not each individual of the public versity Education free of opening to all members of the State, to have free and unrestricted access to its priceless advantages qualified and disposed to enter, the halls of a University amply en without money and without price other than intellectual and moral dowed out of the resources of the State. This conception, which qualifications ? involves the germ of the world's universal and highest civilization

In Paris, though the examinations on the subjects of the lectures are is ascribed to the Duke of Orleans, Regent of France during the private, and unrestricted to matriculated students, the lectures themselves minority of Louis XV. M. KILIAN, in his Tableau Historique de are open to the public; and many a literary travelier, on visiting Paris, L'Instruction Secondaire en France, depuis les Temps les plus recu

bas been equally surprised and delighted to find there what is not to be lés jusqu'a nos jours, states this eventful fact in the following

found in any other country, free access to any of the lectures in each of

the Faculties of the University, whether of the Sciences or Letters, or words :

Law or Medicine. These lectures are the resort, not merely of Univer"Ce fut aussi le duc d'Orléans qui proposa d'établir dans tous les colleges de Paris l'instruction gratuite. Cu arret du conseil du ler Avril 1719 affecta à cet effet, à la

sity students. but of Scholars, of practical men, of men of leisure, of Faculté des arts, le vingt-huitiéme effectif du produit des postes et messageries, évalué seekers after knowledge of all ranks and countries, of all professions and alors á environ 140.000 livres, afterwards much increased) á la condition que les employments. Men who have taken the most conspicuous part in public régents desdits colléges n'exigeraient aucuns honoraires de leurs écoliers.”

affairs, have first distinguished themselves as Professors in the University: Rollin, in a digression from his account of the establishment of

such as Guizot, THIERS, ARAGO, Cousis, Rossi, &c. &c. Posts and Couriers by the ancient Persians, under Cyrus, in men In the Faculty of the Sciences, there are Professors of physical astroptioning the introduction of the same system into France, gives the omy, differential and integral calculus, algebra, mechanics, descriptivo following interesting account of the establishment of FREE INSTRUC geometry, chemistry, mineralogy, botany, zoology, and comparativo Tion in the several Colleges of the University of Paris :

physiology. In the Faculty of Letters, there are Professors of Greek liter. * France is indebted for it to the University of Paris, which I cannot for.

ature, Latin eloquence, Latin poetry, French eloquence, French literabear observing here : I hope the reader will excuse the digression. The ture and poetry, philosophy, history of ancient philosophy, history of University of Paris, being formerly the only one in the kingdom, and having modern philosophy, ancient history, modern history, and foreign literagreat numbers of scholars resorting to her from all the provinces, and even ture. There are seventeep prosessore in the fuculty of the Law, who from the neighbouring kingdoms, did, for their sakes and conveniency, lecture on the civil code, civil and cri ninal procedure and criminal legisestablish messengers, whose business was, not only to bring clothes, silver, and gold for the students, but likewise to carry bags of law-proceedings,

lation, commercial code, administrative law, French constitutional law, informations, and inquests; to conduct all sorts of persons, indifferently,

law of nations, Roman law, Pandects, and history of law. The Faculty to or from Paris, finding them both horse and diet: as also to carry letters, of Medicine comprises professors of anatomy, pathological anatomy, phy parcels, and packets for the public, as well as the University.

siology, medical chemistry, medical physics, pharmarcy and organic "In the University registers of the Four Nations, as they are called, of the faculty of arts, these messengers are often sty messengers are often styled Nuntii volantes, to

chemistry, hygeian, medical natural history, operations and ba odages, signify the great speed and despatch they were obliged to make.

external pathology, internal pathology, .general pathology therapeutic's * The state, then, is indebted to the University of Paris for the invention and materia medica, legal medicine, obstetrics and female diseases, and establishment of these messengers and letter carriers. And it was at dinical medicine at the hospitals, clinical surgery at the hospitals, and her own charge and expense that she erected these offices; to the satisfac

clinical obstetrics. tion both of our kings and the public. She has moreover maintained and

In addition to these Faculties, there ar- twenty-seven professors of the supported them since the year 1576, against all the various attempts of the farmers, which has cost her immense sums. For there never were any

Collége de France, who give public and gratuitous lectures on the followordinary royal messengers, till Henry III first established them in the year •ing subjects : astronomy, mathematics, experimental philosophy ; medi1576, by his edict of November, appointing them in the same cities as the cine ; chemistry; natural history; natural law; history and ethics ; University had theirs in, and granting them the same rights and privileges

the Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac. Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Chinese, Malle as the kings, his predecessors, had granted the messengers of the University, " The University never had any other fund or support than the profits

chou-Tartar, and Sanscrit languages ; Greek literature; Greek and arising from the post-office. And it is upon the foundation of the same

Latin Philosophy; Latin eloquence (prose writers) ; Latin poetry : revenue, that king Louis XV, by his decree of council of state, of the 14th French literature ; political economy ; archæology ; the Sclavonic laliof April, 1719, and by bis letters patent, bearing the same date, registered guages and literature. The salaries of the professors are paid by the in parliament, and in the chamber of accompts, has ordained, that in all the Colleges of the said University the students shall be taught gratis ; and has,

state, and vary from 2,000 to 8,000 francs per annum--that is from £80 to that end. for the time to come, appropriated to the University an eight

to £320 Sterling. The professors juclude the most distinguished literali and-twentieth part of the revenue arising from the general lease or farm of in France; and the larger portion of them are engaged in their own the posts and messengers of France; which eight-and-twentieth part professional or literary pursuits, delivering two or three lectures, and amounted that year to the sum of 184,000 livres, or thereabouts. (About conducting the required examinations of students each week in the £9,450.) “It is not therefore without reason, that the University, to whom this

University. An hour and a half is prescribed by law for each lecture regulation has restored a part of her ancient lustre, reckons Louis XV as a

and examination. kind of new founder, whose bounty has at length delivered her from the Such is the magnificent provision made by (at least the late) gor. unhappy and shameful necessity of receiving wages for her labours; which ernment of France in Paris alone for gratuitous or free instruction in the in some measure dishonoured the dignity of her profession, as it was con

higher departments of science and literature. It is submitted to the trary to that noble, disinterested spirit which becomes it. And, indeed, the labours of masters and professors, who instruct others, ought not to be

serious consideration of those competent to decide and act, how far given for nothing; but neither ought it to be sold. Nec venire hac bene

corresponding facilities may be provided for Upper Canada by means of ficium oportet, nec perire.

our splendid University endowment ? In the French University in which The spirit of this University provision, and the sentiments em

the Faculties referred to are established, no part of the endowment or bodied in the statement of it, would do honour to any age, or any

appropriation is expended in providing residences for professors or boardcountry. Why may it not obtain in Upper Canada ? There can

ing halls for the students. The buildings erected are designed for pur

poses of instruction. We cannot but think that the economical and ju. be no more real difficulty in establishing an University, than a Nor

dicious management and expenditure of our University endowment may mal School system, to which no class in the community could reason provide for Upper Canada the most comprehensive and the free les dent bly object. And is not the endowment ample to maintain the l or collegiate education on the rontinent of America

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PUBLIC EDUCATION. Extract from the Address of Robert Kelly, Esquire, on his re-elec

tion as President of the Board of Education for the City of

New-York-1849. Although expenditures for public education in this city amount in the aggregate to a large sum, it may be said, with the striciest regard to truth, that the tax is moderate in proportion to the value of the property. The Secretary of State, in his report to the Legislature as, Superintendent of Common Schools, dated January 2nd, 1849, has introduced a table, showing the ratio of taxation upon property, for educational purposes, in the various towns in the State where a free school system is established. This table is based upon the exact returns of the previous year, and exhibits a fact wbich will appear surprising to many of our tax-payers, that the citizens of New York are really lighily taxed for the purpose of education. The Report of this Board furnished to the Secretary shows the amount of the expenditure for this city. It is the entire aggregate for all objects that have been taken into the account. The table shows the following results :

Dols. Cts. Mills. 1

Dols. Cts. Mills.
Flushing ........ 0 05 0 Newton ......... 0 15 6
Brooklyn ........ 0 06 7
Albany.......... 0

007 6

Buffalo......... 0 21
ew York ...... 0 . 10 4 Williamsburgh... 0 23
Poughkeepsie.... 0 12 0
Bushwick ....... 0 14

Hudson ......... 0 30 The rate of taxation for this city is somewhat larger for the year just closed, but I have not the means of showing how it com. pares with that of the other towns.

The Secretary of State makes the following remarks in relation to the expenditure for the city of New York :

“With this table, any one can tell what would be his tax for the support of schools in either of the places named.

“If he is a resident of New York, and is assessed $4,000, he pays a tax of $4 16. If assessed for $100,000, he pays $104. The sum raised in New-York for school purposes appears to be very large, but when it is proportioned among the tax payers, according to their property, it is a very light tax. And it would be light even if it were doubled. If the common schools were what they should be, and a system of high schools were engrafted among thern, every child could be educated, the poor gratuitously, and the rich at a less expense than at private schools."

Here is indicted the true solution of the question of economy. This is the consummation aimed at by the ardent friends of populor education throughout the land, to make the free schools and academies so elevated in their character, 60 complete in their proces8es, so perfect in all their arrangements, and so replete with all good influences, that they shall become the pure, the chosen, and the common fountains of knowledge for the whole people.

All citizens whether they have children or not, are immediately interested in the support of a proper educational system. Those who have children to educate, and do not choose to avail themselves of the advantages provided in the public system, voluntarily impose upon themselves the additional burden of paying for their instruction in private institutions. It is not merely the right of citizens to send their children to the common school, but they deserve commendation who do so, however able they may be to pay the most expensive charges of private school education. They are probably doing the greatest service they can render to their own children. They are lending their influence to dissipate prejudices, and are setting an example to those who are disposed to neglect and despise the privilege of a free education for their children.

The expediency of a common education is not yet universally recognized. It is, perhaps, natural, that doubts should exist in the minds of parents anxious for the safe passage of their children through the training period of life, and ignorant of the condition of our common schools and ihe character of the children who attend them. They must be satisfied as to the value of the education dispensed, its effects upon the character, and its moral influences. They must be convinced that there are no evils, no disadvantages, 10 dagers peculiar to the common schools, from which private schools are free. An intimate examination of the subjects would probably dispel any doubts that may exist upon these points.

There are dangers to which a child is exposed, whether he be educated at home or abroad, in common schools or in private schools, in society or in solitude, for there is no escape from that constant probation which is the condition of human existence. The danger of evil communications is, I suppose, the prominent one in every parent's mind It appears to m", that there, is no more risk of inmoral associations to a child, in attending a well disciplined common school, than in attending one frequented only by the children of the wealthy. The great danger to which the boy is exposed, who has been nurtured in a home of affluence, is his being contaminated by intimacy, with the spoiled children of indulgence. He will not be likely to seek the companionship of the children of neglect and vicious poverty, if such there should be in the schools ; and it is to be hope that they will always be found there, if they are in the community, for they need above all others, for their own good and that of society, the elevating and reforming influences of education. In the large numbers and miscellaneous composition of the common school, there is much less inducement to indiscriminate social intimacies, than in the closer intercourse of the private schoole.

The common school appears to offer peculiar advantages, in some particulars. The independent position of the teacher removes all temptation to a relaxation of discipline, and he cannot conduct his school at all except by maintaining rigid order, and pursuing a uniform system, that can admit no irregularities and show no respect to persons. This is the sort of restraint that is of special value to a youth. The habit of obedience and self-control, acquired in his subjection, in the society of his fellows, to an inexorable rule of order, or to some reasonable requisition of duty, is an important process in his preparation for self-denials, the disapointments, and the labors of life. There is something, too, of a training for the intercourse of the world, in the attendance upon a common school, made up of children from the whole people. It is a little world in itself, and “its daily lessons," to use a happy expression of Horace Mann, 6are the preludes and recitals of the great duties of life." It promotes a spirit of self-relying independence, which is the great principle of a manly character. The child soon apprehends that talent, encrgy, and virtue, are distinctions of real value, more lasting than the gifts of fortune, and, in no way connected with them, and that they constitute the true dignity of man. He sees that the heritage of wealth is of no avail in securing the honours of the school, and learns the lesson that merit and industry are the elements of success in every situation. It is a peculiarly valuable discipline to our children, in view of the extraordinary changes that occur in society with us, where every day the last in the social scale is becoming first and the first becoming last.

The habit of general intercourse and sympathy in the youth of the people, will be productive of a generous mutual confidence and harmony of all ciasses of society. The prevalence of this sentiment seems to be essential to the permanence of our institutions, and the security of society as here constituted. The absence of it is, in other countries, the great obstacle to the realization of the schemes of patriotic minds, in the visions they form of a golden age of " liberty, equality and fraternity."

There are so many considerations of advantage connected with the subject of a common education for the whole people, both as to the cominunity and as to the schools, that every effort should be made to bring about so desirable a result. Public sentiment is rapidly tending toward it. The attendance in our common schools is much more general from all classes of the community than it was a few years ago. A rapid advance in the right direction is now going on, and the advantages of higher education, recently opened in connection with the common school system, will give an important stimulus to the movement. We may all, by our influence, do something towards it-spread information as to the character of the schools--persuade parents to make the experiment of sending their children there-induce others to visit them, examine the arrangements, and condition of the buildings, observe the apprarance and behaviour of the children attending, and judge for themselves as to the inapner in which the schools are conducted, the progress made in knowledge, and the ability of the teachers. If the schools are not yet conducted in a way to satisfy such inquiries, they ought to be made so. This is the point towards which the strenuous efforts of the friends of education, of all teachers and school officers, should be directed. Let us do our part. Let us exert such powers as we

have, and the whole influence of this Board, to improve the charac stone, or stripping a piece of bark from a decayed tree, or examinter of the schools while increasing their number, and drawing | ing a weasel's back, found a living polypod, which he did not know within them, more and more the children of the city. Let us not whether to class with fleus, in the order Suctoria, or with musquitoes be satisfied with the results shown in the statistical returns of the in the order Diptera, or in some other. In all such trying einernumbers instructed, but strive to enhance, in a still more rapid pro gencies, it is said that the insect was carefully “done up in lavengression, the actual fruits-the amount and accuracy of the know der," encased in a box, sent several hundred miles to an officer in ledge communicated, the habits of discipline, love of order and one of our colleges, to have its legs scientifically counted, its industry imparted, and the moral influence which constitute's the mandibles and bronchiæ examined, its capability or incapability of accompaniment and vital principle of education in its true accepta metamorphosis determined and its name, its species, and its order tion, its crown of honor and its abiding blessing.

ascertained ; and then to be returned, as carefully as were the It will be a grand era in the history of public education in our remains of Napoleon from St. Helena ; and, at last, to be pinned city, when our free schools and academies shall become an object up, in a cabinet immortality, at the capitol of the state. For exof universal favor, when every father shall feel a warm interest in amining these specimens, naming them, and assigning them them because his children are educated there, and the whole intel place among their kindred, it is said that a dollar was paid for each ligence of the community shall be enlisted in the cause.—There decision,-not by the bug, but by the State of New York. will be no deficieucy then in the care and vigilance exercised in But, in the meantime, what measures are taken, what eminent their managemeni, and the best citizens will be anxious to perform professional talent is employed, what generous emoluments are public duty as school officers.

bestowed, for investigating and expounding the laws of growth and The success and growth of our common school system, looking influence, by which thousands of children are developed into the at the effect it must be exerting upon our youthful population, is a order, Beelzebub ; into the genus, atheist or bigot ; and into the most cheering indication to every one that feels an interest in the species drunkard, thief, robber, murderer, lyncher. In our streets, character that shall attach to the city of New-York hereafter. Its in our bar-rooms, at some of our firesides, and in some of our position in reference to the Union, as the point towards which so schools, there are metamorphoses going on every day, by which much of its business and intercourse converges, a radiating centre innocent and guileless children are turned into Ishmaelites, and of influence for good or for evil, that extends over the whole land, Cains, and Judases. Is a gnat, or grub, or larva, worth more than the mighty heart, whose pulsations are felt in the very extremity a human soul ? Are bugs the principals, and sons and daughters of the republic, and its destiny to become one of the great capitals incidents! Shall the resources of science be exhausted upon the of the world, wbile they increase our responsibilities, increase our 1 former, while chance and accident, darkness and chaos, reign over gratification at all the evidences we can perceive leading us to the latter ? And yet throughout the scientific word, Goes not hope that its greatness shall not be merely the greatness of power, Ehrenberg stand higher than Feilenberg ; and while in the great and extent, and riches, and splendor, but a moral and intellectual i wars of Europe, the merest bloodhound courage made its possessors greatness.

the envy of mankind, was not Pestalozzi repaid with poverty, and IMPORTANCE OF THE TEACHER'S CALLING.

persecution, and obloquy, for all his knowledge, and his devotion, The importance of any man's work is to be determined by the

and his divine spirit of love ? value of the materials on which he works. Judged by this slan

Would it then, be any mistake ; would it be a degradation of

talent from noble to ignoble uses, to employ some of the mighty dard, let us compare the calling of the teacher with some of the

minds that adorn the profession of law, or some of the men who fill other a vocations or professions among men.

the chairs of our colleges, or are gathered among statesmen at the To ascertain the infinite difference which exists between different

capitol of the nation, to invest the laws and devise the means, by created substances, we must classify and compare them. First,

which mankind can be saved from poverty and wretchedness and there is the unorganized and insentient. Rising in the scale, we

crime, and made inherritors of the blessings which God bestows come to the organized and animate, but unconscious. Higher still,

upcn all who love and obey Him ?- Horace Mann--Boston Commun we find the conscious, but irrational and ephemeral. Last, and

School Journal. unsurpassable, there is the animate, sentient, conscious, rational and immortal.

DUTIES OF THE INHABITANTS IN CITIES AND TOWNS And yet we affirm, there is not one of the subordinate depart

IN RESPECT TO COMMON SCHOOLS. ment of nature, whether the conscious but irrational, the organic but unconscious, or even the inorganic and insensate, for whose

The following extract from an address of the Mayor of Clevestudy and mastership greater emoluments are not paid, more social

land, Ohio, to the City Council, contains remarks worthy of conconsideration awarded, and a higher grade of dignity universally

sideration, and presents an example worthy of imitation by Mayors conceded, than to that Art of Arts and Sciences of Sciences, by of Cities and Towns in Canada : which the youthful mind is fashioned and trained for life and for " It is with feelings of pride und satisfaction that I refer your futurity. Our colleges have professorships for teaching all the attention to our system of Common Schools, and the gratifying sciences that relate to animals, to metals and to minerals, but no progress they have made during the past year. Much credit is professorship for expounding the science of education. All Chris due the acting manager and his associates for the able manner and tendom cannot show a school where the plants of immortal growth faithful zeal with which they have discharged the duties incumbent are as carefully tended, where the times and seasons for supplying upon them. It would be desirable that they should be seconded in nourishment and protection are as heedfully observed, where weeds their efforts by the more frequent and familiar visits to the schools, and noxious influences are as industriously extirpated, as from those of parents and friends interested, stimulating both teacher and pupil botanical gardens where no conscious life exists. Would that to increased exertion. I need not urge upon you the wisdom of there were, somewhere upon the earth, one conservatory of chil pursuing a liberal policy towards these institutions. The best dren, as interesting to the possessors of wealth and the lovers of houses and neatest accomodations are invariably accompanied by a beauty, as a conservatory of flowers.

corresponding elevation of character, increase of application, and Scientific men devote themselves to studying the instincts and improved habits on the part of the pupils. A knowledge, too, that habits of the winged tribes. When will they deem it as honora a city possesses liberal facilities for education would contribute ble to devote themselves to the education of a race of beings, who largely to its growth and increase , for, attracted by its delightful will soon unfold a wing by which they will sweep through the situation and healthy climate, many would be enduced to settle upper or nether worlds ? To show how much more precious is a in order to avail themselves of the advantages thus afforded to their bug than a child, let us advert to a fact which has recently hap children. Society for its own benefit, owes to every child a good. pened within the knowledge of the whole scientific community. education free of charge ; with that for his portion he may take hs Doubtless our readers generally know, that an entomological survey fortune in his hands, and going forth into the world, aspire to and of the State of New-York was made a few years ago by order of reach the highest station in the land--for the experience of our its Legislature. Whether represented at the seat of government country demonstrates ihat wealth is oftener an obstacle than ail or noi, a law provided that all the tribes of insects should be record. aid in the path of ambition and progress. Then cherish and fuster ed as carefully as the twelve tribes of Israel. But it sometimes well our common schools, for upon their success depends the further happened that the scientific insect-commissioner, in turning up a hope of safety for our free Gopprnment."

CHEMISTRY AS APPLIED TO AGRICULTURE TAUGHT the importance of introducing the study of Agricultural Chemistry IN COMMON SCHOOLS.

into the schools under their charge. From the Oficial School Journal, State of N. Y.

CHRISTOPHER MORGAN. We are glad to see that the subject of Chemistry as applied to

Chairman of the Executive Committee. Agriculture, is receiving encourgement at the N. Y. State Institution.

GIDEON HAWLEY, Tho following circular will show the interest felt in this matter by

Wm. H. CAMPBELL, { Committee.

Ch. L. AUSTIN, the officers of the Normal School : To the Graduates of the State Normal School:

Albany, March, 1850.

i In pursuance of the request of the Executive Committee of the Normal School, I have prepared the following Circular.


Its object is to bring before each of you, the claims which the Agricultural

ERS AND THE PUBLIC MIND. interest of New York have upon you, for your co-operation in aiding, From the last Annual Report of the Boston Board of Education. so far as you can consistently with your duties as common school

It will be seen by the Secretary's report, that, within the past year, teachers, in making known the true principles of Farming. The

six Teachers' Institutes have been held in as many different parts of science of Agriculture is not only of great utility, but is the founda

the Commonwealth, each of six days' duration. The attendance tion of the wealth of all nations, and consequently should receive, to

upon them has been considerably larger than in former years, and a a certain extent, the fostering care of government.

very general interest in them has been manifested among the teachers It is believed that you, who have, in part, been educated by the

of those portions of the State selected for holding them. Gentlemen liberality of this State, will respond cheerfully to any reasonable demands which may be made for the advancement of her interests

of experience and reputation as teachers have been employed to aid

in conducting them, and the Secretary has himself attended them in this respect. It is also believed, that your attention being once called to this subject, you will readily see that you have it in your

personally, and contributed much, by his advice and active participa

tion in their proceedings, to the measure of success they have attained. power to do much good in this direction ; and that you will not only feel a willingness, but a desire, thus to extend the knowledge of this

It is believed they have already accomplished much good, and that.

much more will result from them hereafter, as they shall be better important branch of education.

understood, and more generally held and resorted to in all the differThose who shall hereafter receive a Diploma of this Institution, will be required to understand, to a certain extent, the elementary

ent sections of the Commonwealth. So well satisfied are the Board

of their utility that it is their intention to make provision for holding principles of Agriculture, and for this reason they, as teachers, will

twelve in the course of the next year. They occupy a position for be better prepared than yourselves to diffuse this knowledge through

the instruction and improvement of teachers much below that of the the community, by means of the common schools. To supply in part

Normal Schools, where all the requisite time may be devoted to the the deficiencies under which you will labor in the advancement of

object, with all the means and appliances which the largest experiof this knowledge, our Executive Committee have directed me to

ence and most practised skill, aided by the most approved apparatus, transmit to each of you a copy of Prof. Johnston's Catechism of Agri

can supply; but the opportunity they offer to the teacher, who has cultural Chemistry and Geology, which work has been recently

neither the time nor the pecuniary ability to attend the latter, is of adoptod as an elementary text book for this school. They are ena

great value, and it is hoped will hereafter be embraced. Very visiblod to do this by the liberality of James S. Wadsworth, Esq., of

ble improvement has been manifested in those who have attended Geneseo, acting as the representative of his late father.

them. New notions concerning the methods of teaching are suggestThe earnestness which the Committee feel in this matter will be

ed, and greater skill in the prosecution of them imparted. But what seon from the following extract, taken from their last annual report

is of more value still, a generous emulation is excited, and a new made, through the Regents of the University, to the Legislature,

impulse in the right direction given to a large body of teachers, at Feb. 11, 1850.

every institute held ; and in this way, when the whole Common“ The Committee, appreciating the great and growing importance

wealth shall be systematically reached by them, a spirit of improveof agricultural science, and considering it, in its elementary princi

ment will be infused into the mass of the teachers throughout the ples, an appropriate subject for common school instruction; and con

State, which cannot fail to produce highly favorable results. The sidering also, that with the aid of suitable text books now, or soon to

Board regard them among the most efficient means of improving our be altainable, the subject, always appropriate, has at length become

Common Schools, and recommend them to the continued patronage feasible for such instruction ; have recently assigned it to a more

of the Legislature. prominent place than it had before held in the Normal School, by making it a separate and independent branch, and requiring it to be

From the last Annual Report of the Secretary of the Board. taught as an essential or constituent part of the course of study pur | The experience of the present year goes to confirm that of past sued in the school. The committee, impressed, as they themselves years, that no means employed by the State for the improvement of are, with the great importance of this new subject of study, hope to the schools have an immediate efficiency equal to that of the Instibe able, through their normal graduates, acting under a like impres tutes. They perform the office of light-armed troops, and by the sion, to cause it to be introduced into all the schools taught by such celerity of their movements accomplish much that lies quite beyond graduates, and through their influence and that of such schools, to the reach of the Normal Schools. They interfere neither with the cause it to be finally adopted as part of the regular course of study latter nor with Teachers' Associations, but constitute the connecting in all the common schools, at least in the rural or agricultural part link between them, and thus complete a well-arranged system of of the State.

organizations. While those associations answer all the ends of The Committee have learned, with much satisfaction, from the pro similar associations among other professions, securing the pleasures ceedings of the State Agricultural Society at its last annual meeting, of intercourse, the benefits of sympathy, and the information derived that a treatise on the subject above referred to, has been recently from mutual conference, discussions and lectures, the Institutes are, prepared by Profossor Norton and submitted to the society, who, after during the day. Normal Schools in miniature, and, at evening, duo examination, have recommended it as a very valuable production, popular meetings for enlisting the conimunity at large in the work specially appropriate for the use of common schools, and have directed of education. * * * In two instances during the present year, it to be published with a view, as is understood, to such a use. Such those of the Institutes held at Hyannis and at Sandwich,—the inhabia treatise at this time, together with the text books already published tants of the place entertained the teachers during the whole time and in practical use, will, in the opinion of the committee, furnish all without charge; an example of public spirit which, it is believed, needful facilities for common school instruction on the subject above others will emulate. referred to."

As a proof that the influence of such meetings upon the towns GEORGE R. PERKINS, Principal, N. S. where they are held is regarded as valuable, it may be mentioned Normal School, Albany, March, 1850.

that the people of Hyannis and Sandwich expressed the conviction The Executive Committee are happy to express their commenda- that they had themselves received a greater favor than they had tion of the above circular, prepared by Prof. Perkins : and would res. | conferred. And if we rightly estimate the value of an improved powtfully and earnestly urge upon the graduates of the Normal School | public sentiment in respect to the importance of education, of more

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correct views on the part of committees and others as to what con the manner in which government will be administered in any nation, stitutes a good teacher, and of a fresh and vigorous impulse given can never be foreseen, a discerning peoplo will not confidently antito all the schools in the vicinity of a Teachers' Institute, we shall, cipate, as their perpetual portion, the highest degree of prosperity no doubt, be inclined to coincide in that view.

which their form of government seems calculated to secure. Nor It should be constantly kept in mind that a training in the branches

will they fix their eyes so intensely on the evils which may be felt of study taught in the Common Schools cannot be given in one week,

at any period, as to forget the imperfection of all human establishnor in two ; and that Teachers' Institutes are not established with

ments, and that, under a new form of government, may be concealed reference to such a design. Their object is rather to give to the

important advantages, which experience alone can bring to light.

Rejecting alike the character of inconstancy, turbulence, and desponwhole body of teachers a new impulse to improvement; to direct their attention to the importance of ascertaining the best methods of in

dency, they will neither tamely yield to abuses, nor subvert their

political institutions on account of them.--Ibid. struction; to lead them, through the influence of eminent and experienced teachers, to task their own invention, judgment and skill to the utmost for perfecting themselves in the art of teaching. Much instruction is indeed incidentally given. Improved processes of CONDUCT OF AN ENLIGIITENED PEOPLE IN THE training the mind and of teaching the elements of knowledge are

SELECTION OF THEIR REPRESENTATIVES. exhibited. But the ulterior object, to which all other things are made subservient, is to awaken an enthusiasm for self-improvement.

As an enlightened people will know how to value their rights, they The tone and spirit of an Institute is therefore a matter of much

will place those in office, who, by their ability, knowledge, and integreater moment than the amount of time given to a mere review of grity, are entitled to such distinction. To obtain their suffrages, it studies.

will not be enough, that a man professes his attachment to order,

religion, or liberty. He must have more solid ground, on which to THE ADVANTAGES OF SCIENCE AND KNOWLEDGE

establish his claims to public favor, In knowledge and wisdom is

doubtless implied a spirit of discernment. To enjoy the confidence TO A PROGRESSIVE PEOPLE.

of a wise people, there must therefore be a consistency of character, By science, a nation is enabled to profit by the advantages of its a uniform regard to moral principle and the public good. They will natural situation. It avails little, that the soil of a country is rich, clearly perceive, that the civil interests of millions cannot be securo if the art of cultivation is unknown to the inhabitants. It avails in the hands of men, who, in the more confined circle of common nothing, that her shores are capable of being connected with every intercourse, are selfish, rapacious, or aspiring. climate, through the medium of intervening seas or oceans, while | An enlightened regard to self-interest and a religious sense of science has never taught the construction of vessels, nor the art of

responsibility, will in this case, lead to the same practical result. In directing them. Without this knowledge, there is comparatively exercising the right of freemen, the man of religion experiences no little use in the rivers, by which a country is intersected ; nor can

conflict between his duty and his inclination. Towards the disthe advantages of them be fully realized, till all vincible obstacles to

honest, profane, ambitious and profligate, he'fcelsnavigation are actually overcome, and neighboring streams are made

“ Thę strong antipathy of good to bad.” to unite their waters. The sciences of chemistry and mineralogy, lately introduced into

He has no wish to behold, arrayed in robes of office, men, whose our country, and now cultivated with so much ardor and success,

largest views do not extend beyond the limits of mortal life, and cannot fail, by their influence on medicine, agriculture and the arts,

whose deportment and conversation indicate neither love nor roveto produce consequences of great national importance. The nature

rence for the Author of their being. of man on the one side, and of soils and climates on the other, remains In very popular governments, where the clective franchise is the same in every age. It is knowledge-it is cultivation that pro widely extended, it is, doubtless, impossible that candidates for pubduces the change. To this are we to ascribe it, that in our own | lic office should be porsonally known to all, whose suffrages they country, where, two centuries ago, wild beasts and savages were receive. How generally soever knowledge is diffused, all the memcontending for the empire of an unmeasured desert, there are now bers of a large State cannot be brought within the sphere of mutual civil institutions, commerce, cities, arts, letters, religion, and all the observation. In this case, resort must be had to the best sources of charities of social and domestic life.---Late PRESIDENT APPLETON

information. But it should not be forgotten, that a portion of the (of Boudoin College, Maine,) on the Sources of National Pros same intelligence and virtue, required in rulers, is necessary in perity.

giving information concerning candidates, An honest and wellinformed freeman will rely on none but honest and well-informed


· A nation distinguished by a union of wisdom, knowledge, and the

fear of God, is morally certain of having its government well adminTO THEIR CONSTITUTION OF GOVERNMENT.

istered, not only for the reason just assigned, but because the tone

of morals, existing in such a nation, will operate as a powerful Whatever civil compact they may see fit to adopt, an enlightened people will not trust themselves to calculate, with minuteness and

restraint, if, by any casualty, or deep dissimulation, persons of yieldconfidence, the greatest degree of political prosperity that may be

ing virtue should be placed in office. enjoyed, nor the least degree of restraint that may be necessary. It Public opinion constitutes a tribunal, which few men, and least of will not escape them, that no human foresight can extend to all all, those who are in pursuit of popular favour, will dare to set at emergencies, which a series of years may produce; and that time

defiance. It is scarcely possible, that a people, truly wise and virtumay develop, in any political constitution, traits, either more or less ous, should have a government badly administered. Whenever the valuable, than were apparent to its original authors. It is a well majority of a community complain of their rulers, they implicitly known truth in mechanics, that the actual and theoretical powers of utter reproaches against themselves, for having placed their destiny a machine will never coincide. Through the flexibility of one part, in the hands of men, with whom it is insecure. If their reproaches the rigidity of another, and the roughness of a third, the result may I are long continued, it is good proof that their own morals exhibit no disappoint those fond hopes, which seemed to rest on the firm | very striking contrast with the morals of those whose profligacy they ground of mathematical calculation. The judicious artist will not, condemn. In popular governments, the virtues and vices of rulers however, on this account, be willing to reject, as worthless, a struc must flourish or wither with those of the people.--Ibid. ture of splendid and complicated mechanism, of solid materials, in the formation of which, much labour, experience and ingenuity have The moment a pupil understands the truth and the spirit of his been employed.

lesson, he feels a lively pleasure in the knowledge acquired. The It is a remark, not less important because frequently made, that intellectual effort is his own; the satisfaction experienced is the an indifferent constitution may be so administered, as to render a reward given by nature for the effort. He has done his work and nation happy, and that, without a good administration, the best poli got his pay. No one else can pay so well as nature. Hence no tical institutions will fail of accomplishing that purpose. Now, as | adventitious rewards are so good as her real ones.

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