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buildings. The Professors are also to receive the fees from the students, an arrangement which, it is believed, will operate as a useful stimulus to exertion.—[Colonist.

100

UNITED STATES.

99

Average Attendance of Pupils in the Cities, Towns and Districts, omitted last month :

In Summer.

In Winter. Pupils. Boys Girls. Pupils. Boys. Girls. City of Kingston. 753 447 306 581 311 270 City of Hamilton, 356 248 108 361 261 Town of Belleville, 229 129 100 227 128 Town of Cobourg, 248 172 76 246 178

68 Town of Brantford, 105 63

42

105 70 35 Talbot District, 2,374 1,213 1,167 2,504 1,442 1,062 Johnstown District. 4,724 2,489 2,235 5,161 2,989 2,172 Ottawa District, 984 528 456 1,095 613 482 Dalhousie District, 1,808 925 883 2,237 1,254 983 Bathurst District, 2,306 1,399 1,107 2,670 1,563 1,107

Church University.–Up to the 23rd inst. the subscriptions to this proposed Institution, in Money, Land, and Building Society Stock, amounted to £15,212 78. 6d., and 2,201 acres of Land not valued.

Common Schools, Newfoundland.—The Lieut. Governor in his speech, at the recent opening of the Legislature remarks : "As the Education Act will expire at the close of the present Session, the state of Education in the Colony will necessarily engage your attention. From the reports received of the condition of many of the Schools, a more efficient system of instruction is urgently required. Although our financial condition will not, I regret to say, admit of any increase being made to the present grant, yet the system is susceptible of much improvement; and I hope the Session will not be allowed to pass without the adoption of some measure that will secure a more effective superintendence of the Schools generally throughout the Colony."

Colleges, Academies and Schools in the United States.—There are 120 Colleges, containing 917 teachers and 10,672 Students; theological seminaries, with 118 teachers and 1,315 students ; 12 law schools, with 23 teachers and 434 students ; 35 medical schools with 230 teachers, and 1,554 students ; making a total of 209 colleges and professional schools, 1,288 teachers, and 16,965 students; that is supposing the population of the U. S. to be 24,000,000, one student in the higher institutions to every 1,413 inhabitants. Of these higher institutions 32 are in New England, and 3,296 of the students; which is about one student to every 791 inhabitants. In Massachusetts alone there are 1,163 academies, with 21,078 students, and supported at an annual expense of $307,157. In New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York and Pennsylvania, there are 31,222 Common Schools, containing 1,652,347 scholars, out of a population (in 1840) of 5,777,153, and supported at an annual expense of $2,257,448 97. - Boston Correspondent of the Montreal Witness, 8th March, 1850.

N. Y. State Normal School.—The Annual Report of the Executive Committee of the State Normal School is an interesting document. It is the first since the completion of the new building, which, besides the dwell. ing of the principal, contains 17 large rooms. It is the most spacious and best arranged establishment in the Union.-It cost $28,500. The following table will show the number of pupils in each term, and also the number and sex of the graduates :

Term.
.

Students. Male. Female. Total. First 1st term

............ 98 Year 2nd do Second 3rd do

197 Year 4th do

..205 Third 5th do

178 Year 6th do

221 Fourth 7th do

.198 Year 8th do

.208 Fifth 9th do Year 10th do

...196

......185

...........221

.

......175

BRITISH AND FOREIGN. Education in England. There are now in England alone 260 mechanics' institutions in active operation, besides about 400 which were in abeyance on account of the state of trade in some districts. In these 260 institutions, the average number of members is 2227-the total aumber of persons receiving education from them being 58,106. There are also about fifty smaller institutions, furnishing some lectures and libraries, averaging about 150 members each, the total number altogether being 65,609.-(Liverpool Albion.

· Neo Law Regulating Common Schools in France. The following are its principal provisions :

Art. 1. Primary instruction in each department is specially placed under the surveillance of the perfects.

Art. 2. The communal teachers shall be named by the Committee d'Ar. rondisement, and chosen by it, either among the laity, or among the members of religious associations devoted to instruction, and recognized by the State, the Committee conforming itself, relative to that choice, to the wishes expressed by the Municipal Council who may indicate its candidates; but the committee can make its choice among others than the candidates so proposed by the Council. The Teachers may also be chosen for Schools not beloaging to the recognized catholic worship, from the lists presented by the Protestant and Israelite Consistories.

Art. 3. In the case provided for by Art. 23 of the law of June 22, 1833, the perfect may reprimand, suspend, or dismiss teachers. He may dismiss them in a council of Prefecture, after having taken the opinion of the Committee of Arrondisement, the Teacher so dismissed having a right to appeal to the Minister of Public Instruction in the Council of the University. The Committee must give its opinion within ten days.

Art. 4. A teacher who is dismissed cannot continue to exercise his fanctions during the proceedings of his appeal. Suspension can be pronounced by the Perfect with or without privation. The duration of the suspension cannot exceed six months.

Art. 5. No Teacher, when dismissed, can open a private school in the commune in which he had exercised the function from which he has been removed, nor can he be a communal teacher in the same department.

The operation of the Bill is limited to six months.

1,861 245 183 428 The whole number of pupils who have enjoyed the advantages of the school, for a longer or shorter period, is, 1,180.-[Albany Journal.

Regents of the University of the State of New York. The Regents have appropriated $2,385 95 to sundry Academies for the purchase of books, and $40,000 of the income of the literature fund to the sev. eral Academies entitled to participate therein. Among the number are the following :Amenia Seminary.......... $498 941 Newburg. do.........$152 61 Deaf and Dumb in N. Y.... 537 69 New York Free do.........469 90 Erasmus Hall.............. 128 39| Oneida Conference Semin'y 634 58 Genesee Wesleyan Semin.. 959 14 Ontario Female School....: 448 10 Genesee and Wyoming Sem. 314 88 Poughkeepsie Female do.... 208 31 Governeur Wesleyan Sem'y 452 95 Rhinebeck School.......... 205 89 Grammar School of Columbia Rutgers' Female Institution 653 96 College.................. 477

477 18 Sag Harbor Institute ....... 26 67 Grammar School University

Schenectady Lyceum and College of New York..... 261 601 Academy ................ 518 32 Hobart Hall Institute....... 247 06 Troy Female Seminary ..... 540 11 Le Roy Female Seminary.. 501 36 Utica Female do.......... 387 55 Mount Pleasant School..... 101 73

Education in Syracuse, N. Y.-The resources of the Syracuse Board of Education for the year were $15,628; the expenditures $10,631 ; the remaining indebtedness, $2.181. The average attendance of scholars during the last month has been 1,573, the school houses being inconveniently crowded. There are 2,011 children in the city for whom no school accommodation is provided.

Governmental Visitation of Schools in Massachusetts.—The following resolution was recently passed by the Massachusetts House of Representatives :-Resolved,- That the Board of Education be, and they are, hereby authorized to appoint two or more suitable agents to visit the Town and School districts, in such parts of the Commonwealth as may seem expedient to the Board, for the purpose of inquiring into the condition of the Schools, lecturing upon subjects connected with education, and in general of giving and receiving insormation, in the same manner as the secretary of the Board would do if he were present ; and that to defray the expenses of the same, His Excellency the Governor, with the advice of

the Council, is authorized to draw his warrant for a sum notexceeding two 1. thousand dollars, to be charged upon the income of the school fund.

Another Colonial University.Measures are in progress for the es:ablishment of a University at Sydney, New South Wales. The Legislature have resolved to appropriate £5000 a year to this object, and £30,000 for buildings. The Principal is to be Professor of Classics and Mathematics, with a salary of £800 a year. There will also be Professors of Chemistry (salary, £400,) Natural History (salary, £400,) Experimental Philosophy and Civil Engineering (salary, £400,) and Anatomy, Physiology, aud Medicine, salary, €300. This is for a beginning : Professor in History and other departments will be hereafter appointed. Each Professor is to have an allowance of £100 for his passage from England and £100 a year for his house rent, till accommodations are provided in the University

Literary and Scientific kntelligence. been tested al several of the leading iron furnaces of Maryland and Virginia,

with the most satisfactory results. It is said electricity will revive persons mns

who have taken too much chloroform. Construction of the Niagara Suspension Bridge.—The follow

Death of Lord Jeffrey-Edinburgh Review.-The following ing interesting account of the first steps taken for the construction of the

interesting sketch is taken from the European correspondence of the N. Y. temporary bridge across the Falls of Niagara is given in the Rochester

Christian Advocate and Journal, March 7th : The last week has borno Daily Advertiser :-

beyond the breath of fame one who for many years has soared loftily among “Early in the spring of 1847, while at dinner in the Eagle Hotel, in the

the celebrities of literature. Just about the opening of the present century village of Niagara Falls, there were present Charles Ellet, Jr., the engi

the beautiful capital of North Britain, (the modern Athens, as its sons deneer of the bridge, the writer, and several other gentlemen, when the sub light to call it,) contained a group of remarkable young men. Of these ject came up how the first wire was to be got over the river. One proposed

three, were Henry Brougham, Sydney Smith, and Francis Jeffrey. They a steamboat-another a small boat to take a line across; another would resolved on establishing a periodical which would outpeer all its forerunthrow a bombshell over, with a cord attached to it, and several other ners. Not rushing on with the diurnal or even hebdomedal haste of the equally practicable projects were advanced : when Mr. Ellet himself sug.

newspaper, nor even with the monthly despatch of the magazine, but progested the use of a rocket, by which he suggested to throw his first line ducing itself at stately and solemn intervals of three months, it was to across the gulf. This seeming to be the end of propositions, a gentleman advance into the arena of politics and letters with an awe and puissance not named Fisk, addressing Mr. Ellet, said, 'with your leave, and a promise before attempted. The Edinburgh Revier well answered the ambition of not to ridicule the idea, if it would prove a failure, I will, in a more simple its originators. It soon fixed the eye of the first politicians, and made the and cheaper mode, attempt to get a line across the gulf.' This being most noted literati stand respectfully awaiting its judgment. It fascinated agreed to, those present desired to know what method he should pursue to the drawing-room, stimulated the club, abbreviated the path to knowledge get a line across. Well, gentlemen, I have not the leas! objection to tell for many a general student, and wielded a notable influence on the great you all about it, provided you adhere to the promised condition, not to parties of the nation. For the first year its editor was Sydney Smith, an laugh at me. Now, gentlemen, says Mr. Fisk, my plan, and the instru. Englishman and a clergyman. but one little bound by ecclesiastical tastes, ment used, will be the same kind used by Franklin to draw lightning from and less by strict religious scruples. But after the first year it passed into the clouds : an instrument that any ingenious schoolboy can make in an the hands of Francis Jeffrey, a Scot, and a lawyer. For nearly thirty years hour-a kite.' Mr. Ellet remarked he did not see why it would not succeed, he held the potent sceptre of that literary dominion, and then, after having and gave his consent to have it tried. Mr. Fisk then called upon an intel held all literary Europe before his tribunal, he passed to the bench of the ligent boy named Walsh, who soon had a kite constructed, and on a

judges, and awarded decisions of more importance doubtless to individuals ; - second trial threw a line across, making it fast on the opposite side, by

but less cared for by the world at large. Lord Jeffrey never attained a rank doubling which a small rope was drawn over, and in six or seven doubles

at the bar proportioned to his fame as a writer and a critic. He sat in Passtrength sufficient was acquired to take over the first small cable of thirty

liament for some four years, but there was almost obscure. As a judge he six wires. This was the one used to pass Mr. Ellet over in his little iron

was never considered very able. That, therefore, by which he has been car, and next, himself and lady, and many others passed over on this slight

distinguished is his masterly writing as a reviewer. Here he sparkled, fixture. Since which the present structure has been reared, resting on flogged, instructed, fascinated, and made men wonder how one pen could wooden towers, 50 feet high, over which pass 14 cables, of the following with such ease and effect deal with subjects varying from the deepest phildimensions, viz.; five of 36 wires each, five of 72, one of 125, and three osophy to the airiest fiction, and yet be on all equally masterly. His casti. of 150 wires-1,115 in all. From these is the bridge suspended, which is ca.

gations were sometimes more severe than just, and in one noted instance, pable of sustaining a weight of nearly 1,000 tons; and so slight in its ap his criticism of Byron, he paid a heavy penalty for his choler. But really pearance to strangers, that some will not pass it, through fear of its insta

when one reads the vague, fulsome commendation by which volumes of bility, yet heavy teams pass it; five at one time were on it, and many the most plebeian talent are introduced to the world one does sigh for some droves of cattle also have passed it. It is now perfectly safe as a common master hand to cut keenly, even though now and then he might wound too thoroughfare ; but will all give way to one of the grandest structures in the deeply, or strike fire from some sound breastplate he had thought to pierce. world, as soon as it is required for railroad purposes, for which, from the Well, Francis Jeffery is gone!-Byron, whom he flagellated; Scott, whom exertions now made by the directors and people on both sides, it seems he extolled; Southey and Coleridge, whom he corrected ; Sydney Smith likely to be required within a year or two. The railroad structure will with whom he laboured, having all gone before. Their poet passions, their require 16 cables of 600 wires each, all laid straight-not twisted, as some critic studies are quenched and ended. And what influence has poetry or have it-but wound with small wire, and when completed, with its massive criticism on that life which these late wrestlers on the arena of letters have stone towers, will sustain a weight of more than 6,000 tons beyond its own now begun? What is the precise value of stanza, or hexameter, of sonnet weight ; a structure worthy, as one of art, to stand by the side of nature's or of epic, in the psalmody of the skies? What the precise office of rhetograndest-the Falls of Niagara. For this, and other improvements, con ric and logic, of concord, trope, alliteration, antithesis, simile, metaphor, templated or finished, are the public indebted to the Hon. Chas. B. Stuart. and apostrophe, in that new land where things are all judged of by a medium

clearer far than the words of earth? Thomas Moore, with whom Jeffrey Origin of Literary Degrees. The practice of conferring the

fought a duel, and Henry Brougham, who was the most noted of all his honours of literary institutions on individuals of distinguished erudition,

collaborateurs yet remain. But they remain as monuments of the vanity of commenced in the twelfth century, when the Emperor Lothair, having fame. Moore has been for some time living in poverty and obscurity, and found in Italy a copy of the Roman law, ordained that it should be publicly Brougham, for some years past, has been as much an object of public ridi. expounded in the schools: and that he might give encouragement to the study dule as before he was of public admiration. Of those who build on fame he further ordered that the public professors of this law should be dignified

as a foundation of happiness, it may be said, that they are those who in the with the title of Doctors. The first person created a doctor, after this ordi words of Moore, nance of the Emperor, was Bulgarius Hugolinus, who was greatly distin

** Make guished for his learning and literary labors. Not long afterwards, the practice

Their bower upon an icy lake, of creating doctors was borrowed from the lawyers by divines also, who in their schools publicly taught divinity, and conferred degrees upon those

When thawing suns begin to shine." who had made great proficiency in science. The plan of conferring de And yet coldy as many sink under the brittle ice of fame, how greedily do grees in divinity, was first adopted in the Universities of Bologna, Oxford, others seek to build on the same foundation ! and Paris. (See Mather's Magnalia, Christi Americana, B. IV. p. 134.) It is remarkable that the celebrated Dr. Samuel Johnson when he had be.

Carbon.--When a piece of charcoal which is very clean and free come eminent in literature, could not obtain the degree of Master of Arts, from ash, is immersed in a solution of metallic salt, the metal itself is defrom Trinity College, Dublin, though powerful interests were inade in posited upon the charcoal with with its natural brilliancy. Salts of tin, his behalf for this purpose, by Mr. Pope, Lord Gower, and others. In copper, platina, silver, and gold, furnish very beautiful deposite. When stances of the failure of similar applications, inade in favour of characters

the salts are too acid these effects are not produced.--The weak salts of still inore distinguished than Johnson then was, are also on record. So

copper often yield upon the charcoal the most varied shades of colour, from cautious and reserved were literary institutions, a little more than half-a the rich azure blue to the deep copper colour. There are some parts of century ago, in bestowing their honors !

charcoal for which some metals exhibit a preference to that of others. New Uses of Electricity.Dr. Wall, of London, has discovered

The Boiling Springs of Iceland-In one part of the island, more and patented a process for manufacturing steel and iron through the agency

than fifty have been counted in the space of a few acres. Of these, some are of electricity, which promises to cheapen immensely the cost of their pro constant and others are periodical. The most magnificent are the Great duction, and at the same time improve the quality of the metal. It has | Geyser and the Strokr, which are situated about 35 miles north-west from

Hecla. The Great Geyser rises from a cylindrical pipe or pit, 8 or 10 feet in diameter, and 75 feet deep. It opens into the centre of a basin 4 feet deep, and between 46 and 50 feet in diameter. As soon as the basin is filled by the boiling water that rises thorugh the tube, explosions are heard, the ground trembles, and the water is thrown to the height of 100 or 150 feet, followed by large volumes of steam. After the basin is thus emptied, no further explosion takes place until it is replenished, when the same phenomena again occurs. The cold air condenses the steam into vapor, which is lossed about in dense clouds, tumbling one over another with singular npidity, and presenting a sight of great magnificence.

Depth of the Ocean.-On account of the irregularities existing at the bottom of the ocean, its depth varies considerably in different places. The exact depth at any place is, moreover, a matter to be attained with great difficulty, in consequence of the rapid currents that exist in the ocean, These, in many places, render it impracticable to ascertain this depth even with the heaviest sounding-lead. In the northern Ocean, Lord Mulgrave gave out 4,700 feet of Line, without finding bottom; and Mr. Scoresby could not find a bottom in one part of the Greenland Sea at the depth of 7,200 feet, Captain James Ross found bottom at a depth of 15,000 feet, at a place west of Cape of Good Hope, which is the height of Mont Blanc; but at a place west of St. Helena, he gave out 27,000 feet of line without finding bottom. Dr. Young assigns to the Atlantic Ocean, a depth of three miles, that is 13,400 feet, and to the Pacific Ocean, the depth of a league and a half, or about 18,000 feet. According to the calculations of La Place, in his “Mechanique Celeste,” founded upon the oscillations of the ocean, the mean depth of the water is a faction of the difference produced in the diameter of the earth by the flattering of the poles, and it has been estimated at between two and three miles. These calculations the above experiments seem to confirm.

Surinam Bible.—The version of the new Testament, printed by the British and Foreign Bible Society for the English negroes of Surinam, is a curiosity in its way. These negroes have no distinct language, but speak a strange lingo compounded of African words of clipped and softened English words and of violently treated Portuguese words. The Society brought upon itself smart censures and much ridicule for the seemingly irreverent and ludicrous character of the volume they had published. The whole edition, save a few copies was sent to Surinam. These copies are becoming scarce, and at the sale of the Duke of Sussex's Library, one brought £3 10s. though its original cost could not have exceeded two or three shillings. The annexed extracts literally translated, will give a specimen as little offensive as any that can be found in the book. The word virgin is rendered wan njo ensenjo, i. e. one new wench. The following verses are from Matthew v.:

"1. But when Jesus see the people, he go after one mountain top, he go sit down, then disciple for him come close by after him.

“2. And he opened him mouth and learn them and talk.

“Good is them, these the pretty in heart, because God's country is for them.

"3. Good is it for them, these the sorry in heart because heart for them so cheery."

M. Michelet.- A Paris writer states that Michelet, the celebrated Professor, has opened a course of lectures on the education of Females. He is understood to have become more Royalist.

Whimsical Benevolence of Goldsmith.--Among the anecdotes told of him while at college is one indicative of that prompt, but thoughtless and often whimsical benevolence which throughout life formed one of the most eccentric, yet endearing points of his character. He was engaged at breakfast one day with a college inmate, but failed to make his appearance. His friend repaired to his room, knocked at the door and was bidden to enter. To his surprise he found Goldsmith in his bed, immersed to his shin in feathers. A serio comic story explained the circumstance. In the course of the preceding evening's stroll he had met with a woman with five children, who implored his charity. Her husband was in the hospital ; she was just from the country, a stranger, and destitute, without food or shelter for her helpless offspring. This was too much for the kind heart of Goldsmith. He was almost as poor as herself, it is true, and had no money in his pocket : but he brought her to the college gate, gave her the blankets from his bed to cover her little brood, and part of his clothes for her to sell and purchase food ; and, finding himself cold during the night, had cut open his bed and buried himselt among the feathers.-- Washington Irving's Life of Goldsmith.

Illegible Scribble.-Dr. Parr, whose hand was the very abstraction of incomprehensibility, visiting the reading-room of the watering-place, happened to find among the subscribers a name which he could decipher, though sew others would have been equally successful. It was that of a friend whom he had not seen for some time. Anxious to renew early impression, he inquired of the proprieter of the rooms his friend's address

This, however, was not known; accordingly the doctor was obliged to leave his card, with his own address, thereon written, or intended to be written, in that peculiar vehicle of thought which his pen was wont to employ. On the next appearance of the person for whom the card was designed, it was duly put into his hand. Delighted at the proximity of his early friend, the recipient proceeded to inquire at the talisman where its owner was to be found, but it pertinaciously refused to declare : not a letter was decipherable. Whether crescent, street or square, was undiscoverable. Thus foiled, the reader, if we may so designate the unsuccessful attempter, had no resource save to leave his own card, with his address, as he imagined, written therein. But, alas ! he and his friend were similar in their ideas of penmanship as well as of other things; and when Parr, surprised that he had not seen his old companion, heard the history and received the card, he was equally at fault, and the result was, that two friends anxious to meet, and living in the same town, actually lost the opportunity of intercourse through the enigmatical character of their writing.--[Sharpe's London Magazine.

Weighing Department in the Bank of England. ---One of the most interesting and astonishing departments within the whole compass of the bank of England, is the weighing department, in which, with the rapidity of thought, and a precision approaching to the hundredth part of a grain, the weight of the gold coins are determined. There are six weighing machines, kept working by the same agency which supplies all the mechanical power in the bank, and three weighers attend to these. Rolls of sovereigns, or half-sovereigns, are placed in grooves, and are shaken, one at a time by the motion of the machine, into the weights. If they are of standard weight they are thrown by the same mechanical intelligence into a box at the right-hand side of the person who watches the operation : if they have lost the hundredth part of a grain they are cast into a box on the left. Those which stand the test are put into bags of one thousand sovereigns each, and those below par are cut by a machine, and sent back to miut. Between one and two thousand light sovereigns are thus daily sent out of circulation. The silver is put up into bags, each of one hundred pounds value, and the gold into bags of a thousand, and then those bagsful of bullion are sent through a strongly-guarded door, or rather window, into the treasury. The treasury is a dark gloomy appartment, fitted up with iron presses, which are supplied with huge locks and bolts, and which are perfectly fire-proof. Gold silver, and paper money ready for circulation, to the amount of twenty-two millions sterling, were in the treasury when we visited it. One of the gentlemen in that department placed one thousand sovereigns in our hand, and at the same time pointed to seventy bags full of gold in the little recess which he had thrown open, making in all the modest sum of seventy thousand pounds. He placed notes to the amount of a half million also upon our palm, which no doubt had its own sensations as the precious deposit trembled on its top. The heads of departments meet in the treasury every evening, and there all the accounts are balanced.--[Hogg's Weekly Instructor.

An Admirable Orrery.--Some general impression may be conveyed by placing a globe, two feet in diameter, in the centre of a plain or bowling.green. With the sun for a centre, a circle of 164 feet in diameter will represent the orbit of Mercury, the comparative size of which planet may be represented by a grain of mustard seed. Venus might be represented by a pea, moving in a circle, the diameter of which would be 284 feet; the Earth also a pea, but on a circle of 480 feet diameter; Mars a large pin's head, and the diameter of its circle 654 feet; Juno, Ceres, Vesta, and Pallas, grains of sand moving in circles from 1000 teet to 1200 feet in diameter; Jupiter a moderate-seized orange, in a circle nearly half a mile across ; Saturn, a small orange, on a circle four-fifths of a mile in diameter; Uranus, a large cherry, upon a circle more than a mile and a half in diameter; and Neptune, a good-sized plum, on a circle about two miles and a half in diameter.

Phenomena of the Brain.-One of the most inconceiveable things in the nature of the brain, says Wigan in his work on the Duality of the Mind, is, that the organ of sensation should be itself insensible. To cut the brain gives no pain, yet in the brain alone resides the power of feeling pain in any other part of the body. If the nerve which leads from it to the injured part be divided, it becomes instantly unconscious of suffering. It is only by communication with the brain that any kind of sensation is produced, yet the organ itself is insensible. But there is a circumstance more wouderful still. The brain itself may be removed, may be cut away down to the corpus calogum without destroying life. The animal lives and performs all its functions which are necessary to simple vitality, but no longer as a mind, it cannot think or feed, it requires that the food should be pushed down its stomach, once there, it is digested, and the animal will even thrive and grow fat. We infer, therefore that the part of the brain. the convolutions, is simply intended for exercise of the intellectual taculties, whether of the low degree called instinct, or exalted kind bestowed on man, the gift of reason.

Editorial Notices, &c.

EFFECTS OF FREE SCHOOLS ON THE ATTENDANCE

OF PUPILS. In a letter from one of the Trustees of a School Section in the Township of Ancaster, Gore District, dated 26th February, 1850, it is said : “The number of pupils attending the School in vur Section for the last three years has been about 27 ; but since the School was opened, after the Christmas vacation, on the Free System, the number of pupils on the Teacher's register is 47 ; and the number will soon be much larger if we continue the system. This clearly shows the effects of adopting the free school system-a system which I hope ere long will be universal."

In a letter dated Preston (Wellington District) 27th February, 1850, it is said—“The school in this village has increased from 25 to 110, on becoming free.”

CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER.
1. Importance of Common Schools, ................
II. Duty of Legislators respecting Education of the People, ..
III. Duty of the People in respect to the Common Schools, ..
IV. Duty of the Friends of Religion to promote Universal

Knowledge and Education among the People.........
V. Duty of Educated Men in regard to the Education of

the People, ................................... VI. Power and Elevation which Knowledge confers upon Man, VII. Power and Responsibility of School Teachers, ........ VIII. Results of Education in the U.S.-What is Education ?

-A Lesson from the Ancient Persians, ............ IX. CANADIAN PRESS on Schools and Education : Montreal

Pilot, Toronto Patriot, and St. Catharines Journal,..
X. MISCELLANEOUS : Facts for Parents and Teachers-Sub-

limity of the Moral Virtues-Small Majorities-U. S.
Veto Power-English vs. American Girls—Slander-
Truth-Vowele Sidney Smith-We Reap as we have
Sown-Happy Condition of Society-Education of the
Soul-Iufluence of a Mother's Love-Practical Joke
and a Sophism-The Affections-Recollections of School
Days-(Poetry)-Hints to young Men in Towns-
Real Strength of the U. S.-England-Our Country
-Most perfect Popular Government-For what is a
Mother Responsible ? —Think again- The Future-
Progress of Truth-Education under the new Prussian
Constitution-Curious Custom among the Thracians,

36–39 XI. EDITORIAL. 1. Canadian Patriotism the Lever of Cana

dian Greatness. 2. N. Y. Legislature on Common

Schools, ..................................... 40–41 XII. Report of Committee of the N. Y. Senate, with Drast of

Bill to promote the Free School System, ........... 42-43 XIII. Legislative Appropriations to Colleges and Academies

in the State of New York, ....................... XIV. EDUCATIONAL INTELLIGENCE~Upper Canada-British & Foreign-United States.........

...... 44-45 XV. LITERARY AND SCENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE, ............. 45–47 XVI. EDITORIAL NOTICES, ............................

A TEACHERS' AssociATION for the County of Middlesex has been called to meet at the new School House, London, on the 6th April next. The objects are : Mutual Improvement, the Advancement of Common School Education, and the promotion of the interests of the Teachers.

OFFICIAL SCHOOL "REPORTS, &c., RECEIVED.-We are indebted to the courtesy of several State Superintendents and others for copies of the following official documents :

Sixteenth Annual Report of the Superintendent of Schools for the State of Pennsylvania. Hon. T. HAINES, Superintendent.

Third Annual Report of the Commissioner of Schools for the State of New Hampshire. Rev. Dr. Rust, Superintendent.

Annual Report of the Superintendent of Schools for the State of NeroYork, for 1849. Hon. C. Morgan, Superintendent.

Annual Report of the Trustees of the New York State Library, for 1849. Dr. T. R. BECK, Secretary.

Report of the Chief Engineer to the Secretary of War, at the opening of the XXXIst Congress, 1849.-Washington (Hon. H. Mann.)

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P. VIRGILII MARONIS ANBIDOS—Libri I-III, 12mo. pp. 59, Price 18. 6d., Montreal : ARMOUR & RAMSAY ; Toronto : A. H. ARMOUR & Co. We beg to thank the Toronto Publishers for a copy of this neat little work. We have already expressed our admiration of the enterprize of the spirited Publishers in furnishing our Canadian Schools with 80 convenient, cheap, and neatly printed a series of Standard Classical Text Books.

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PHILOSOPHY OF RAILROADS, by Thomas C. Keefer, Esq. Civil Engineer. Montreal: ARMOUR & RAMSAY; Toronto : A. H. ARMOUR & Co., 8vo. pp. 39. This very interesting Pamphlet 18" published at the request of the Directors of the Montreal and Lachine Roilroad.” It contains a vast amount of valuable information on the subject of Railways, including an Appendix embracing numerous Statistical Tables, illustrative of the paramount interest to Canada of this great national enterprize, in promoting her future welfare and commercial prosperity.

JUST PUBLISHED, MHE LITERARY CLASS BOOK; OR, READINGS IN ENGLISH LITER

1 ATURE, to which is prefixed an introductory Treatise on the Art of Reading and the Principles of Elocution. By Professor SULLIVAN, of the Irish National Educational Board.

Dublin, CURRY & Co.; Toronto, A. GREEN.

*** Professor Sullivan's School Books were among the first that were placed on the List of Educational Works recommended by the English Committee of Council on Eeucation; and the sale of these Books to the Committee to supply the demand for them in their Schools, has been during the year just ended, as follows:NAME OF Books.

No. OF COPIES.
Introduction to Geography and History, . .
Geography Generalized, .
English Grammar, . .

. . . 4,680
Spelling. Book Superseded, .

. 3.387 English Dictionary, (a new Work)

. 442 Total . .

: : 18,747 The sale of these Books in Canada is very extensive, and is constantly increasing. They are recommended by the Board of Education for Upper Canada. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS—To the 26th of March, inclusive.

For 2nd Vol. P. Scott, C. Whittier ; for 3rd Vol. A. Allan, Esq., (2), G. W. Evans, Esq., J. Hewlett, N. Posthill, D. Sinclair, Rev. C.' Flumerfelt, J. L. Hughes, Esq., B. Hayter, Esq., (2) Rev. F. Pilote, Rey. G. Murray, Rev. A. Dick, Rev, J. Webster, Miss Cameron, J. Dickson, A. Fisher, D. Kee, G. McVittie, A. Moore, Esq., (2) Rev. Wm. Clarke, (9) H. Kropp, J. Crane, A. Campbell, D. D'Everardo, (12) J. Chambers, A. Brown, D. Wright, J. McKee. Esq., J. W. Gamble, Esq., J. F. O'Grady, Miss Weed, F. MeNab, J. Warwick, W. Keys, M. D. Blanchard, B. Bayley, Esq., H. A. Clifford, Esq., (2) Wm. Reynolds, Esq., (3) D. McDonell (6) Dr. Hope, Rev. Wm. Gregg, Rev. J. Pringle, H. Dalton, Esq., Judge Campbell, R. Hutton, W. 0. Buell, Esq., J. T. Pennock, P. Mur. tagh, N. Willson, R. Graham, Esq., (7) Rev. W. H. Poole, (3) A. Cunningham, Esq., R. D. Wadsworth, Esq.

o Back Nos supplied to all new subscribers.

** The 1st and 2nd Vols. neatly stitched may be obtained upon application. Price, 5s. per Volume. Single Nos. 7 d. All Communications to be addressed to Mr. Hongins, Education Office, Toronto.

ELEMENTS OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR, Analytical and Synthetical: arranged in Progressive Exercises: By Wm. C. KENYON, A. M., 8vo, pp. 328. Rocbester, N. Y., E. DARROW. Rather an Elaborate work for one professing simply to teach the “ Elements of English Grammar." The mode of instruction proposed, however, is admirable :-analytical and synthetical. The work is divided into four parts. First : the analysis of the simplest structures of the language. Second : an explanation of the peculiar variations of each part of speech. Third : the rules of agreement, construction and punctuation. Fourth : Prosody. We regard the work as too diffuse in these days of intelligence and vida voce instruction; though probably a very good reference Grammar for Teachers.

- GRAMMAR OF ARITHMETIC : or An Analysis of the Language of Figures and Science of Numbers : By Chas. Davies, LL. D., 12mo, pp. 144 : New-York, A. S. Barnes & Co. An original and philosophical title. This work is but the first of the Author's comprehensive “ Course of Mathematics," and appears to be an admirable little book. It is designed chiefly for the use of Teachers. Indeed its frail binding would preclude the possibility of its being for any length of time safely subjected to rude contact with the hands of pupils. It is furnished with an “ Arithmetical Diagram,” exhibiting "an cxact map of the subject.”

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JOURNAL OF EDUCATION

Upper Canada.

VOL. III.

TORONTO, APRIL, 1850.

No. 4.

AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN UPPER CANADA. the seas themselves what active energies now begin to develope

themselves. Simultaneously with political revolutions are springTo the Editor of the Journal of Education.

ing social and commercial revolutions. In every direction means SIR,—The Hon. Adam Fergusson has lately addressed a letter | of cominunication are opening up fertile farming provinces ; rail. to the Elitor of the Canadian Agriculturish, on Agricultural Eju.

roads, joining all great centres, and passing through agricultural cation. The letter of the honourable gentleman has already. re

districts, where labour is most abundant and cheap, and where the ceived extensive publicity.

staple commodity wheat, bas frequ’ntly hitherto throughout extenThe impression seems to be uniform and general that Canadian | sive provinces rotted in the sheds of the landowner, owing to some Farmers require a knowledge of the principles of Husbandry. | trilling obstruction to transportation. These increased facilities for Different opinions may, however, be supposed to exist, respecting throwing into market centres the supply to be derived from distant the amount of practical benefit likely to be derived from the mode | and hitherto stagnant provinces, are multiplying in a ratio which suggested by the honourable gentlemen to secure to Farmers the outvalues the yearly progressing demand, and resolve the probabiliadvantages of an Agricultural Education.

ty, that the price of wheat, will in a few years, average much In reviewing some of the more prominent reasons why Farmers lower than at present, almost into a certainty. In order that require at present, more than at any other previous time, a know- the farmers of Canada may sustain their position and brave ledge of the principles of their art, we obtain an indication of the

the competition which is yearly augmenting, not only must the real nature and extent of the information they should possess, and

average amount raised fiom the same extent of surface be in. the machinery best adapted to diffuse it amongst them.

creased throughout the country, but their attention turned to During a course of lectures on Agriculture, lately delivered in

the growth of those vegetables which serve to improve the the city of Albany by Professor Johnston, we learn that “the

rotation and their stock, as well as for manufacturing and other farming interests in the State of New York are in process of de

purposes. Such progress implies at the same time the elevation of terioration ; that the average of all crops is certainly diminishing" the people at large, in intelligent and virtuous industry, and a real (See published lectures also speech of Mr. Baldwin). A state advancement in the most material interests of the country. ment which applies also to many of the older settled districts in Among the various suggestions of Mr. Fergusson for meeting. Canada. When we compare these positive results, as exhibited

the requiremonts of Farmers in Canada, none see:ns so favourable by tables of produce, with the opinions we might be inclined to

to the object in view as the establishment of a Board of Agriculdeduce from the extensive displays of stock, of vegetable productions

ture. “There can be no doubt that a Board, if properly constituand of farming implements at the great agricultural fairs held in

ted, is calculated to do great good." Fariners would place confi. the neighbourhoods of Buffalo, Syracuse, Cobourg and Kingston,

dence in whatever emanated from a body of well-known and personduring the past two years, we are compelled to adopt the conclu

ally uninterested individuals ; their suggestions wouid be responded sion, that agricultural exhibitions, however magnificent and useful

to, and as Mr. Fergusson remarks, one palpable and most valuable in themselves, do not necessarily afford an illustration of the gene

result would be the annual collection and publication of the Agriral progress of Husbaodry. If the average amount of crops raised

cultural statistics of Cavada in an authentic and extended form.each year on the same extent of surface is, celeris paribus, dimin

Another valuable atlainment would probably be in the preparation ishing, we cannot congratulate ourselves on that universal progress

and distribution of a proper geological description of Canada for opon which the prosperity of an agricultural country is evidently so agricultural purposes. Nothing is more required; the geology of dependant. This yearlú diminution is no new thing in the agria the soil and subsoil of Canada offers peculiar facilities ; it is in cultural history of exporting countries. The present and past

general uniform and elementary ; it does not exhibit those anom. conditions of Virginia and other Southern States furnish illustrations | alies which characterise the geology of England. A good report on the continent of America. Experience and science both indicate

expressed in plain and familiar language, with the objects and adthat deterioration in the soil is universal wherever farming opera

vantages briefly stated, would, if issued under the authority of a tions are conducted without a regard for the future, without an

Board of Agriculture, be of the greatest use to farmers and erni. acquaintance with farming principles. We already discover its

grants, indicating in a measure the mode of culture to be adopted, approach near and around us. Thousands are complaining of the species of vegetables to be used in rotation, and the general constantly diminishing scales of produce. (See editorial, Canadi

adaptation of the soil for special purposes, which cannot possibly an Agriculturist, April No.)

suggest themselves to the unscientific husbandman. In this constructive and enterprising age, communications by

Mr. Fergusson alludes to the establishment of a Chair of Agrimeans of rivers, lakes, canals, railroads, plankroads, &c., are in

culture in the Provincial University. If such a professorship could their rapid development, bringing the more distant parts of this

be conveniently associated with a Board of Agriculture in various Province and the prairies of the west, within reach of those great

scientific capacities, the utility of both might be enhanced. I centres where their produce may be turned into money. We must

think it is very questionable, however, if the ordinary mode of comnot shut our eyes to the fact that millions of bushels of wheat,

municating instruction by means of lectures would be of any avail raised without skill and harvested almost without a care, by glut

for many years to come. An experimental farm appears to me to ting the hoine, must cheapen the foreign market, and that the

present a far more favourable field for speculation. A fatm of 500 occupant of a crop-worn farm, will most certainly ere long be

or 600 acres, embracing the two varieties of soil we meet with in brought into direct (now partially indirect competition with the

this neighbourhood, would offer many advantagos for experimental careless yet successful cultivator of a virgin soil.

purposes under suitable regulations and management. The results, Our markets in a great measure 11e beyond the gegs. Beyond ! if published annually, under the authority of u Board of Agricultura

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