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Literary and Scientific Xntelligence.
The theory is new. According to it every particle of matter at the surface of the earth, and to a certain depth below it, is endued with a magnetic
force, acting, like the magnetic force of an electric current, transversely to Literary Order of Knighthood. It is said the Queen is about
the ideal line connecting the particle with the magnetic needle, the inteuto institute a new order of Knighthood, for persons eminent in literature, sity of which is proportioned to the temperature of the particle. This science and art, to be called the “Order of Minerva,” and to consist of
theory proves to be adequate to the explanation of all the phenomena of the twenty-four knights.
general action of the earth upon the magnetic needle; and serves also with Government Contribution to Science.-A letter has been ad the computation, with a very close approximation to the truth of the direction dressed to the Council of the Royal Society of England, by Lord John
of the needle, and of the intensity of the force acting upon it over all parts Russell, offering to place at the disposal of the Society, for scientific pur
of the earth. It has also achieved the signal triumph of furnishing the first poses, this year, £1,000, and probably the same amount in successive
rational physical explanation of the daily variations that occur in the earth's
magnetic action, by tracing them to the daily variations that occur in the years.
temperature and humidity of the earth's surface. These investigations rePension to Mr. Petrie. -The Queen has conferred a pension
veal the existence of unsuspected and very interesting relations between of £100 per annum from the Civil List, upon Dr. George Petrie, one of the thermal and magnetic state of the earth's surface, and show that the the Honorary Secretaries of the Royal Irish Academy, who is well known daily changes which take place in the action of the earth upon the magnetic for his antiquarian researches.
needle proceed “pari passu” with the meteorological changes that occur African Travellers.-Government has determined to afford
in its vicinity. effectual assistance to Mr. Richardson, the African Traveller, in prosecu
"It is certainly a novel and beautiful result, that, in the disturbed moveting his travels and researches in the great desert of Sahara, Soudon and
ments and changes of force of a delicately poised magnetic needle, we can the regions of Bornou and the Lake Tshad. Mr. Richardson will be
read the story at the same time of each passing change of temperature of accompanied by Drs. Barth and Overweg, Prussian sadans, who are
the warm dew that steals noiselessly down at night, and of the rain that charged by Government to draw up a scientific report.
falls to rise again in invisible vapor at the awakening touch of the rays of
the sun. In making these discoveries, Prof. Morton throws a flood of The Exhibition of the Works of all Nations.—The Society
light upon much that has always been enveloped in the darkness of mysteof Arts has concluded contracts with Messrs. James and George Munday, ry. He reveals a field in which men of science will enter with delight; but the public works contractors, for carrying out Prince Albert's projected
we trust it will not be forgotten who unbarred the entrance gate.” exhibition of arts and industry of all nations, to take place in 1851. The Messrs Munday undertake, without any security, to carry out the exhibition
The Phantascope. A new philosophical instrumont in the deon their own responsibility, and to indemnify the Society of Arts for all parture of optics, has been invented by Professor Locke, of Cincinnati, expenses and liabilities ; to erect the necessary buildings, at a cost of some
called by him The Phantascope. It depends on principles of optics, an£50,000, and to provide £20,000 to: prizes.
nounced by him in Prof. Silliman's Journal of last winter, under the head M. Verbeyst, the most celebrated book-collector in Europe, or
of Binocular Vision. It is very simple, and has neither leases, prisms, perhaps in the world, has just died at Brussels at an advanced age. He
nor reflectors. It consists of a flat board base, about nine by seven inches, had founded a very curious establishment, consisting of a house of several
with two upright rods, one at each end, a horizontal strip connecting the stories, and as high as a church, and disposed so as to contain about 300,
upper ends of the uprights, and a screen of diaphragm, nearly as large as 000 volumes, arranged according to their subjects.
the base, interposed between the top strip and the tabular base, this screen
being adjustable to any intermediate height. The top strip has a slit oneNew Application of Photography.-One of the greatest im
fourth of an inch wide, and about three inches long from left to right. provements which have yet been made in the practice of photography is,
The observer places his eyes over this slit, looking downward. The the substitution of plates of glass for sheets of paper. The simplicity of the
moveable screen has also a slit of the same length, but about an inch wide. process on glass is one advantage; but the perfection of primary pictures
This instrument may be expected to be fully explained in Silliman's Jourthus obtained and the great beauty of the positive photographs copied from
nal for January. them are what render the discovery of the greatest value. In 1840, Sir John Herschel published in the Philosophical Transactions, (vol. 131,
Valuable Presents to the Legislative Library of Canada. — pages 11-13) a description of some processes by which he obtained pictures Upwards of one thousand seven hundred volumes of Parliamentary Works with the camera on plass plates, and produced positive copies from them
have been presented by order of the Speaker of the House of Commons, to upon paper. They were of exceeding delicacy and beautiful definition,
the Library of the Canadian Assembly; they include a complete set of the judging from a specimen which we have seen representing the great tele Commons Journals from 1547, in 110 volumes ; also a series of the Sesscope of Sir W. Herschel previous to its destruction.
sional papers from 1800 to the latest date, containing the whole of the valIncombustible Man.-M. Boutigney, the author of the experiment
uable statistical and general information which have been from time to time
laid before the House, together with Reports of Committees, Commissions of making ice in a red hot crucible, divides or cuts with his hand a jet of
of Inquiry, &c., &c. Caleb Hopkins, Esq., also has presented to the melted metal, or plunges his hand into a pot of incandescent metal. No
Library of the House of Assembly a full set of the Journals and Appendices precautions are necessary to preserve it from the disorganizing action of the incandescent matter; only have to fear, especially if the skin be humid,
of the Upper Canada Lower House. and pass the hand rapidly, but not too rapidly, through the metal in full High Life. The chamois and ibex are found on the Alps as fusion. There is no contact between the metals; the hand becomes isolated; high up as 9,000 feet; the goat of Cashmere browses at a height of 13,000 the humidity which covers it passes into the spheroidal state, reflects are feet above the level of the sea, and the Pamir sheep live at an elevation radiating caloric, and does not become heated enough to boil. M. Boutigny loftier than the granite peak of Mont Blanc. has often repeated the apparently dangerous experiment in lead, bronze,
Age of the Principal Papers in London. --The London Times &c., and always with success.
was established on the first of January, 1788, but bore the number Naptha Gas.-The streets of Parsonstown on the Earl of Rosse's 941, having previously appeared as the Universal Register. The Public Estate, Ireland, are to be lighted with Naptha, which gives a most brilliant 1. Ledger dates from 1759, the Morning Chronicle from 1769, the Morning light.
Post from 1772, the Morning Herald from 1784, and the Morning AdverTime of Building the Britannia Bridge.-Should the first line tiser from 1795. of tube be completed by March, 1850, the work will then have been nearly
Interesting Items from the Berlin Correspondence of the N. Y. four years in progress. Telford's Menai Suspension Bridge was eight years
Commercial Advertiser.-The Carnival Society of Cologne, famous in in building. The weight of its iron work, compared with that of the
poetry and prose for the splendour of its annual celebration, has resolved to Britannia Bridge, being as 644 to 10,000 tons.
have none this year. Its president, M. Raveaux, is now a political exile. Spindle Statistics.-It appears, by statistics recently published, The society has resolved that uproarious joy is not in harmony with the that there are 28,000,005 spindles at work in the world. Out of these, present unhappy condition of Germany. The magnificent wardrobe has England, including the United Kingdom, commands a force of 17,500,000; been ordered to be sold for the benefit of the political fugitives now in America, with all her competition, 2,000,000 ; Russia about the same Switzerland. number; France, 3,000,000; and Belgium considerably less than any of | The fine Library of Tieck, the poet, was sold at auction last the three.
month, for the payment of his debts. A large number of the most valuable Terrestrial Magnetism.-Some interesting investigations in works were purchased by admirers who, as a token of thetr admiration, terrestrial magnetism, made by Professor Norton, of Delaware College, have returned them to Tieck for his life time. At his decease, they are to have recently been communicated to the American Journal of Science. I be placed in the Royal Library.
Shakespeare in Germany. The Royal Theatre presents every week one or more of the plays of Shakespeare. Henry the IV, Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Coriolanus and Macbeth, have already been produced. The Germans appreciate at least as highly as the English the genius of the great dramatist, while the German translations of his plays are the best existing in any foreign language. The commentaries of the German critics on Shakespeare are richer and more profound than any in English. Among these stand pre-eminent those of Lessing, Tieck, Schlegel and Herder.
The Marble Bust of the late Professor Gesenius, so well known in America as a theologian, has been set up in the grand hall of the University of Halle.
Berlin Popular Libraries.--Four popular libraries have been organized in this city, and go into operation immediately. The object of their founders, among whom is Professor Von Raumer, is to place books within the reach of the poorest of the people.
Louis Philippe's New Work.—The politicians are looking with some anxiety for the appearance of a work in four volumes, from the pen of Louis Philippe. It is to be entitled, “ Eighteen years of Royalty," and will doubtless contain many new views of persons who have figured promiDently on the political stage in the last generation.
Lamartine and the Sultan of Turkey.—The Sultan is said to have ceded to M. Lamartine a large tract of land lying some twelve miles from Smyrna, in Asia Minor. It is about fifty miles in circumferonce and contains five, villages, whose inhabitants live on the property, paying a small rent to the Sultan, who has been the sole proprietor. The land is fertile, produces orange ond olive trees in abundance, and is suited in fact to almost any kind of cultivation. The chateau is situated in the central part of the tract, near a fine lake well stocked with fish M. Lamartine has despatched an agent to perfect the arrangement, and is said to intend visiting the property in the Spring.
The Christmas Expositions in Berlin are remarkable. One represents, in figures as large as life, Waledeck in prison, Professor Kinkel in his dimly lighted and miserable cell, with his spinning machine by his side, and Stein" watching sheep in Switzerland.” Great numbers crowd to see those idols of the people.
A Silver Statuette of Napoleon and a bust of the Emperor of Austria, made of the same metal, are now exhibited here to the public. Both were made of pieces of silver coin. The workmanship is said to be exquisite. The statuette is two feet high.
Girardin.—The Paris Presse, edited by the brilliant and eccentric Girardin, lost in the year 1849 more than twenty-eight thousand subscribers, owing to his tacking and veering so often. M. Girardin would be a great man if he would stick to one thing, but it is written “Unstable as water, thou shalt not excel."
Michael's Hebrew Library. The learned Israelite, Joseph Michael, of Hamburg, left behind him, at his decease in 1846, one of the best collections, if not quite the best, of Hebrew literature in the world, He had devoted a great part of his life and a small fortune to the building up of his library, and has succeeded in getting 862 original manuscripts, and 5322 printed works, It is probable that this represents nearly all that now remains of a once rich literature. A great number of Hebrew works perished in the persecutions of the dark ages. The beginning of the 16th century is noted for the immense numbers of them destroyed in Germany and Italy, where they were burnt by the common hangmen, on the order of the Governments. The earlier impressions yet extant are nearly all from the Jewish press in Turkey, and are very rare and dear. The Michael library contained copies of all of these. When the heirs declared it for sale, the learned men of Berlin were anxious to have it for the royal library, and negotiations were commenced for that purpose, but the bureauocracy consumed more than two years in the preliminaries, according to custom; the holders became wearied out and sold the whole to the Bodleian library at Oxford, which retains the manuscripts, but parts with the printed works to the British Museum of London. As the Bodleian library purchased in 1829 the Oppenheim Hebrew library of Hamburg, it has now the largest and only complete collection of the works in Hebrew literature.
Stopping Fire in Ships.-A practical chemist of London, in a letter to one of the journals, referring to the loss of the ship Caleb Grimshaw, says that fire in the hold of a ship can easily be choked out by keeping a barrel of chalk in the hold, connected with a two gallon bottle of sulphuric acid on deck. The acid poured on the chalk will generate carbonic acid gas, which will at once extinguish flame.-[Evening Post.
To Prevent Steam Boiler Incrustation.—We see it stated that a Mr. Williams, in England, proposes to prevent incrustations by pouring
a small quantity of coal tar into the water before the steam is to be put up! This substance, when thrown into boiling water, parts with all its volatile constituents, and its carbon is, as a crust, deposited upon all sides of the boiler with singular uniformity, adhering with great firmness to the iron plates by the peculiar action of the force, which appears to condense fluid matter on solid surfaces. Thus a kind of graphite coating is formed, whicha protects the iron most effectually from corrosion.- Scientific American.
The Astor Library. The work of constructing the Astor Library, in Lafayette Place, has at length commenced. The building, which is calculated to contain 100,000 volumes will be completed at the end of two years and a half, at an estimated cost of $75,000, exclusive of the furniture, shelving, &c. About $14,000 worth of iron-work will enter into its composition. It will be, in every respect, a noble structure. From the level of the side-walk to the upper line of the parapet, its height will be about 70 feet. To the apex of the lantern, above the hall, the height will be 84 feet. Its length is 120 feet, width 65. Mr. Alexander Sælzer, of Berlin,' is the architect.
Fossilized Forest.—The remains of a fossilized forest have been discovered beneath the mud deposit in Wallaseypool, near Liverpool.
A new method of regaining the hearing has been invented by Dr. Yeareley. Cotton is passed down to the membrane tympani, and the hearing returns.
Macaulay's History of England.-Mr. Macaulay is laboring hard at the work every day, but he does not expect to have the third volume ready for the press in less than a year.
M. Cousin has issued the first volume of his edition of the works of Abelard, with a preface of elaborate Latinity. He detrays the cost of the edition.
M. Thiers.—The ninth volume of Thiers's “ Consulate and the Empire" has appeared in Paris.
The French Academy after discussing the new dictionary of the national tongue during nine years, have not yet completed the letter A!
Miss Martineau's Travels Condemned.—The committee of the the principal library in Burton-upon-Trent, by a majority of one, burned a copy of Miss Martineau's - Travels in the East," which had found its way into the library, " on account of its irreligious nature.”
Thomas Moore.—The poet is in the enjoyment of good health, physical and intellectual, at his cottage at Sloperton.
The Dead of 1849.--The following distinguished personages and literary characters have died during the year :-Queen Adelaide, of whom it may be truly said hat “her memory is blessed.” Besides her, death has numbered among his victims, Charles Albert, ex-King of Sardinia; William II, King of Holland ; Prince Waldemar, of Prussia ; Mehemet Ali, the ablest modern ruler of Egypt; Ibrahim Pacha, his son; the Shah of Persia ; Marshel Bugeaud and ex-President Polk. The list of eminent literary charactersand artists who were last year taken from among us, contains many names whom “the world would not willingly let die." Maria Edgeworth ; Captain Marryatt; Bernard Barton, Horace Smith; the Countess of Blessingtɔn; Madame Decamier ; Dr. Cooke Taylor ; Bishops Stanley, Coplestone, and Coleridge ; Frazer Tytler, the Scottish historian ; Ebenezer Elliott, the “ People's poet;" W. Etty, the artist ; Madame Catalani, the singer: Kalkbrenner, the musician ; Chopin, the pianist ; Kreutzer, the composer, Charles Horn, the English composer ; Robert Vernon, the great patron of British art. Hon. Albert Gallatin; Madame Cavaignac; Signor De Begnis; James Reyburn ; Madame Marrast; Theodore Lyman, of Boston ; David B. Ogden ; Marquis D'Alizre, the French Millionaire ; Henry Colman, the Agriculturist ; Dr. Fisher, original Editor of the New York Albion ; Dr. Crolly, R. C. Primate of Ireland; Duke of St. Albans; Sir Edward Knatchbull; Sir E. Paget ; Prof. Carmichael, of Dublin; Gen. Sir Hector Maclean ; Lieutenant General Sir Benjamin D'Urban; Bishop of Landaff; Peter C. Broods, the Millionare of Boston ; Madame Catalani; Lady Ashburton; Cardinal Mezzofante, the linguist ; Sir Andrew Agnew; Horace Twiss ; Gen. Sir R. T. Wilson ; George Knoop, the Violincellist; David Hale; Hartley Coleridge ; Dr. Pritchard, the Naturalist; Sir Charles Forbes ; Earl Carnarvon ; Sir M. I. Brunel.
Acuteness and Sagacity of the Deer.--The deer is the most acute animal we possess, and adopts the most sagacious plans for the preservation of its life. When it lies, satisfied that the wind will convey to it an intimation of the approach of its pursuer, it gazes in another direction. If there are any wild birds, such as curlews or ravens, in its vicinity, it. keeps its eye intently fixed on them, convinced that they will give it a timely alarm. It selects its cover with the greatest caution, and invariably chooses'an eminence, from which it can have a view around.
benefits--given as its instructions are by masters whose superiors we have never seen in any Normal School.
Editorial Notices, &c. EsTABLISHMENT AND PROGRESS OF TAR NORMAL SCHOOL.—The attention of legislators and other enlightened friends of education is respectfully directed to the second article in this number (p. 19) on the Origin and Progress of the Normal School of the State of New-York,—being part of an Address delivered by the State Deputy Superintendent of Schools, at the close of the last Session of the Normal School. An attentive perusal of that beautiful Address cannot fail to impress every reader with the vast importance attached to the Normal School department of a public school system by the most experienced and devoted friends of education in the State of New York, and also the great delicacy and difficulty connected with the successful establishment of such an institution as a part of the system of public instruction; and it is only such a view of the subject that will enable public men and general readers to form an adequate notion of the responsibility and care connected with the introduction of this department of the Canadian School System. Whether those on whom this difficult task devolved were more worthy of suspicion and attacks, or of support and sympathy, any reader can judge. That the task has been successfully accomplished thus far, has been admitted on all sides. Yet the new School Act changes the constitution of the Normal School, and that at the instigation of persons who had never even been in a Normal School, much less understood its management, and without consulting a single indi. vidual to whose counsels and co-operation the Normal School owed its existence and successful operations. In addition to this, the new Act imposes a condition upon student-teachers, with which no young man of self-respect would comply, and which has never been proposed to be imposed upon the student-teachers of any Normal School in Europe or America. The 62nd Section of the Act does not permit the Board of Education to aid any candidate for teaching to attend the Normal School unless he shall “enter into a bond with two sufficient sureties" to fulfil hs promise to teach for a specified time, or pay back the amount granted him. All that the Board of Education has given to facilitate the attendance of candidates for teaching, is £5 10s. each, ar a dollar a week during a Session of five months, and that upon :he same declaration that the authorities of the State Normal School of Albany have, from the beginning, required of each student-teache: entering the School namely, that he will devote himself to school teaching, and that his object in coming to the Normal School is to qualify himself better to discharge the duties of his profession. But to value the honour or integrity of a young person producing a certificate of good character at less than £5 10s, and to bind him in a bond with two sureties for that pittance, is, in the view of those who have had the most experience in such matters in different countries, degrading in its moral influence, unnecessary and impolitic. A country receives, rather than confers, a benefit by thus aiding in the training of School Teachers. About nine-tenths of all the student-teachers who have been admitted to the Normal School were school teachers at the time. Though the population of all the State of New-York is about five times as large as that of UpperCanada, the average atten- | dance at the Canadian Normal School has been nearly one half that of the New-York State Normal School. In most of the Districts · of the Province testimony has been given of improvement in school teaching and of the salutary influence which has gone forth through the medium of the Teachers who have been trained in the Normal School. The Board of Education,—the members of which have gratuitously devoted so much time to the Institution is as deeply interested in the public welfare as those who devised the ill-advised provisions of the new School Act, and is quite competent to judge as to what regulations and conditions will best promote the great public objects of the Normal School. Most earnestly do we deprecate any thing that will limit and cripple the usefulness of this Institution ; and most fervently do we pray for the still wider extension of its
PRINCIPLE OF APPORTIONING THE SCHOOL FUND. In October, 1848, (upwards of a year since) the Superintendent of Schools for Upper Canada, submitted, in the proper quarter, remarks and recommendations for the distribution of the School Fund according to the ratio of attendance at School, instead of the ratio of population of school age-taking the average attendance of pupils during both winter and summer as the basis of distribution. In the draft of Bill which he submitted at the same time, was contained a simple clause for carrying this recommendation into effect. The recommendation did not contemplate any change in the priociple heretofore acted upon in the apportionment of the School fund to Districts, Cities, Towns, and Townships, but only a discretionary power in its distribution to the various school sections of a Township, Town or City, according to the ratio of attendance at School, -a principle of distribution most earnestly advocated by the Hon. HORACE MANN.
We are happy to find our own views corroborated by the recommendations of the Superintendent of Schools for the State of NewYork, who, in his report submitted to the Legislature the first of the last month, makes the following remarks on the apportionment of the School Fund :
“The annual revenue from the capital of the Common School Fund, $280,000, together with an equal sum raised by the Boards of Supervisors upon the several towns, and an additional equal sum levied upon the respective counties, under the act establishing Free Schools, is apportioned among the several towns and wards of the State, in proportion to the whole population of each, as ascertained by the last preceding census. The town and ward officers apportion the amount thus received, among the several School Districts of their respective towns and wards according to the whole number of children between the ages of five and sixteen residing therein. It is respectfully suggested to the Legislature whether the ratio of apportionment and distribution of the School money might not advantageously be so changed as to have reference to the attendance of pupils upon the District Schools for a certain specified period, during the preceding year, instead of being based upon either population or the number of children actually residing in the District. By the adoption of this mode of distribution, strong inducements would be presented to the taxable inhabitants of the several Districts, to place their children in the Common Schools, and to keep them there for a sufficient length of time to secure an additional share of the public money."
INSPECTION AND SUPERVISION OF SCHOOLS, &c.—The first article in this number—from the pen of the Head Master of the Provincial Normal School is recommended to the attention of Legislators and all friends of educational progress. It is to be hoped the School Law will soon be so restored and amended as to afford facilities for giving some practical effect to the general practical views presented in the article referred to—views which cannot be practically developed under the provisions of the new School Act.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS-To the 28th of February, inclusive.
For the 3 Vols., Col. K. Cameron, Rev. W. H. Landon ; For 1st and 3rd Vols., Rev J. Tawse, A. M.; For 2nd Vol., Rev. W. Clarke, (2), D.D'Everardo, Esq. (20), G. Fieldhouse, W. Hutton, Esq. (2); For 2nd and 3rd Vols., W. Townsend, J. Willson, Esq., M.P.P., Rev. J. Carroll; For 3rd Vol., A. McCallum, A. Weldon, R. McClelland, Rev. Dr. Chisholm, Clerk, County Carleton (13), A. Corson, J. Kilborne, Esq., W. Elliot, Esq., W. K. Grahame, Esq., D. Higgins, R. Blush, Dr. Curlett, T. A. Ferguson, T. Diffrill, W. Warner, J. C. Moulton, R. Waugh, Esq., J. Devlin, P. Thornton, Esq., T. Higginson, Esq. (3), Rev. J. Neilson, A. Campbell, jr. (3), T. Topping, Rov. W. Ormiston, A. B., A. Washington, Esq.
IMPORTANCE OF COMMON SCHOOLS.
building of the mighty ship that shall bear an embattled host around
the world; or the man, who can devise the plan of a magnificent It is manifest that the calm independence, the stern integrity, temple, and guide the construction of every part, until it shall present the enlightened patriotism, on which the stability of our civil insti to the eye of the beholder a perfect whole, glowing with the untutions depends, are excellences which can be the product only of a speakable beauty of a symmetrical form. And here is a third, who wise culture of the minds and hearts of the people, in the forming has comprehended the structure of the solar system. He has period of life. If the community would avail itself of the intellec ascertained the sizes of the planets, and at what precise moments tual and moral power within its embrace, it must multiply, it must they shall severally complete their circuits. He has even weighed elevate, purify and quicken our common schools. If the community the sun,-measured the distances of some of the fixed stars,—and would show due respect to itself, it must show respect to the indi foretold the very hour, « when the dread comet," after an absence viduals who compose it. The whole body politic has a deep con of centuries, “shall to the forehead of our evening sky return." cern in the intellectual and moral developement of every one of its | These men are the sume beings, who, thirty years ago, were members
puling infants, scarcely equal in their intelligence to kittens of a Did our fellow cilizens but take this view of our civil condition,
week old. how would our common schools rise in their esteem! What ne There, too, is a man who sways the destiny of nations. His cessary expenditure for their improvement, would be withheld, or empire embraces half the earth, and throughout his wide domains grudgingly bestowed ? How careful would the guardians of this his will is law. At his command, hund:eds of thousands rush to great social concern be, in the selection of teachers ; and how arms, the pliant subjects of his insatiable ambition, ready to pour highly would those be honored, who faithfully and wisely discharged
out their blood like water at his bidding. He arranges them as he the duties of this most important office !
pleases, to execute his purpose. He directs their movements, as Whether we realize it or not, the most important trust we have
if they were the creatures of his hand. He plunges them into battle, to commit to others, is the care of our children,—the most momen
and wades to conquest over their dead and mangled bodies. That tous of all our social concerns is the education of our children.
man, the despotic power of whose mind overawes the world, was Who, that has any forecast, can look upon the rising generation,
once a feeble babe, who had neither the disposition nor the strength without heartfelt solicitude ? Out of these infants and joyous youth
to harm a fly. are to arise the wise and good men and women, that shall bless,
On the other hand, there is one who now evinces unconquerable and the ignorant and vicious men and women, that shall curse the energy, and the spirit of willing self-sacrifice in works of benevocoming age. Can any one be indifferent whether they shall turn lence. No toil seems to overbear his strength. No discourageout to be of the one class or of the other ? Because a few years ment impairs his resolution. No dangers disarm his fortitude. He will intervene before their characters shall be unfolded-because will penetrate into the most loathsome haunts of poverty or vice, the change from infancy to manhood will be gradual, let it never, that he may relieve the wretched, and reclaim the abandoned. He for a moment, be forgotten, that a momentous change is coming to will traverse continents, and expose himself to the capricious all children that live. In every infant there are the rudiments of
cruelty of barbarous men, that he may bear to them the glad tidings a man or a woman.
of salvation. Or, he will calmly face ike scorn or rage of the When we look at a flower-see its calix filled with petals of
civilized world, in opposition to the wrong, however sanctioned by exquisite form, of the most delicate texture, of diverse colors so
custom or hallowed by time; or march firmly to the stake, in mainrich and nicely blended, that no art can equal them,--and withal
tenance of the true and the right. This man, a few years ago, perpetually diffusing a delicious perfume, we can hardly believe that
might have been seen crying for a sugar-plum, or quarreling with all this variety of charms was evolved from a little seed, not larger his little sister for a two-penny toy. than the head of a pin.
And who are they that are infesting society with their daring When we contemplate a sturdy oak, that has for a hundred years
crimes—scattering about them “ firebrands, arrows, and death ;" defied the blasts of winter,--has spread wide around its sheltering
boldly setting at defiance the laws of man and of God? Are they limbs, and has seemed to grow only more hardy the more it has been
not the same being that a few years ago were children, who, could pelted by the storm, we find it difficult to persuade ourselves that
they have conceived of such deeds of darkuess as they now perpetrato the essence, the elements of all this body and strength were once
without compunction, would have shrunk from them instinctively concealed in an acorn. Yet such are the facts of the vegetable
with horror ? world. Nor are they half so curious and wonderful as the facts These surely are prodigious changes, greater far than any exhibwhich are disclosed in the history of the human mind and heart. ited in the vegetable world. And are they not changes of infinitely Here is a man, now master of twenty languages, who can con
greater moment? The growth of a mighty tree from a small seed verbe in their own tongues with persons of as many different nations,
may be matter for wonder--for admiration ; but the developement - whose only utterance thirty years ago, was very much like, and
of a being, capable of such tremendous agencies for good or for evil, not any more articulate than the bleating of a lamb. Or, it may be,
should be with us all a matter of the deepest concern. Strangethat he, who could then send forth only a wailing cry, is now
passing strange, that it is not so! Go through the community and overwhelming the crowded forum, or swaying the Legislature of the
you shall find hundreds ready to adopt the best plans for the culture nation by bis eloquence, fraught with surpassing wisdom.
of vegetables, or fruit trees, where you will find one who is watchThere is another, who can conceive the structure, and direct the
ing with due care over the growth of his immortal child.- Rer. | Mr. May's Lecture before the American Institute.
DUTY OF LEGISLATORS RESPECTING THE EDUCATION hours, day after day, and year after year, the unwholesome and OF THE PEOPLE.
almost suffocating atmosphere of a crowded and ill-constructed It seems strange that so few of the great men in Politics have
school-room ! How many teachers in our land, go daily home, cared much for the Education of the People ; only one of those,
languid and dispirited, with pale and haggard countenances, all now prominently before the North, is intimately connecied with it. from inhaling the vitiated and life-destroying atmosphere of the lle, (Hon. Horace Mann] at great personal sacrifice of money, of
school-room! And this evil may now be remedied, and by a procomfort, of health, even of respectability, became Superintendent of
cess so simple, as to be within the means of every school district The Common Schools of Massachusetts, a place, whence we could
in the land. Methods have recently been adopted for heating and ill spare him, to take the place of the noble man he succeeds. Few
ventilating buildings, which, when applied to large and crowded of the prominent scholars of the land, interest themselves in the
school-rooms, as they have been in many places, render the atmospublic education of the People. The men of superior culture think
phere in them as healthy and agreeable as that which we breathe the Common School beneath their notice ; but it is the mother of
beneath the broad canopy of the heavens. them all.
Great improvements have also been made in the construction of None of the States of the North has ever given this matter the
seats and desks in school-rooms. The old blocks and benches, attention in demands. When we legislate about public Education
upon which we sat and conned our tasks in childhood, and over this is the question before us :-Shall we give our posterity the
which so many lovely youths have been tortured and deformed, are greatest blessing which one generation can bestow upon another ?
fast giving place to the easy and convenient school chair, and imShall we give them a personal power which will create wealth in proved desk, which now ornament so many of our school-rooms, every form, multiply ships, and roads of earth, or of iron ; subdue conducing to the comfort and health of those who occupy them. the forest, till the field, chain the rivers, hold the winds as its vassals,
These and other conveniences are to be furnished by the people, bind with an iron yoke the fire and water, and catch and tame the
and they have only to know and feel the necessity of having them, lightning of God? Shall we give them a personal power which
and they will all be readily and cheerfully supplied. We, who are will make them sober, temperate, healthy and wise; which shall engaged in the immediate business of instruction, are too apt to keep them at peace, abroad and at home, organize them so wisely declaim against the illiberality of the people in thiş respect, and thai all shall be united, and yet, each left free, with no tyranny of we are often guilty of great injustice by so doing. The people the few over the many, or the little over the great ? Shall we
are not illiberal in those things in which their children are interenable them to keep, to improve, to double the manifold, the political, 1
ested. The love of offspring is inberent in our nature. The social and personal blessing they now possess ; shall we give them
moment a human being becomes a parent, he breathes a new this power to create riches, to promote order, peace, happinessmall
existence. He ceases to live for himself alone; he exists in his forms of human welfare, or shall we not? That is the question. offspring. Their wants open the hearts—ay, and untie the purseGive us intelligent men, moral men, men well developed in mind strings, too, even of the hardened and avaricious. Could children, and conscience, heart and soul, men that love man and God, indus
therefore, be made to know and express their wants in matters trial prosperity, and social prosperity, and political prosperity, are
relating to education, they would all be supplied with the same sure to follow. But, without such men, all the machinery of this
readiness, as the toys and playthings are now supplied to gratify threefold prosperity is but a bauble in a child's hand, which he will
their childish wishes. The people, then, must be instructed in soon break or lose, which he cannot replace when gone, nor use
these things; and it becomes our duty as public educators to keep while kept.
these subjects constantly before them. Let us, then, upon all Rich men, who have intelligence and goodness, will educate their occasions, in our lectures and discussions, in our literary and educhildren, at whatever cost. There are some men, even poor men's cational journals, continue to make known these wants, until the sons, born with such native power that they will achieve an
whole people shall know and feel their importance; and then, and not education, often a most masterly culture ; men whom no poverty
till then, will they all be readily supplied, and the means afforded for can degrade, or make vulgar, whom no lack of means of culture can carrying forward and perfecting the great work of public instruction. keep from being wise and great. Such are exceptional men ; the
Another important duty incumbent upon the people is the commajority, nine-tenths of the people, will depend, for their culture, on pensation of teachers. Show me the town or city in which the the public institutions of the land. If there had never been a free teachers are liberally compensated for their services, and I will there public school in New England, not one-half of her mechanics and
show you good and flourishing schools. I care not how many plans farmers would now be able to read, not a fourth part of her women.
are devised for the instruction of teachers—all the Normal Schools I need not stop to tell what would be the condition of her Agricul and Teachers' Institutes that have been, or can be established, will ture, her inanufactures, her Commerce ; they would have been,
avail but little, unless the precaution is taken to retain the services perhaps, even behind the Agriculture, Commerce and Manufactures
of thoso who are educated in them. Men of genius-men who are of South Carolina. I need not ask what would be the condition of qualified to carry on that great work of public instruction, cannot her free churches, or the civil institutions which now beautify her be retained unless they are liberally compensated for their services. rugged shores and sterile soil; there would be no such churches,
They will seek other and more profitable callings in life. The no such institutions. Take away the free schools, you take away laborer is worthy of his hire, and if the community would command the cause of our manifold prosperity ; double their efficiency and
and retain the services of able, faithful, and efficient teachers, value, you not only double and quadruple the prosperity of the they must be willing to make liberal provision for their People, but you will enlarge their welfare-political, social, personal support.-Lecture before the American Institute, by Wm. D. Swan, - far more than I now dare to calculate.-Theodore Parker, of Esq., of Boston. Boston, before a Teachers' Institute, Syracuse, N. Y., Oct. 4. 49.
DUTY OF THE FRIENDS OF RELIGION TO PROMOTE DUTY OF THE PEOPLE IN RESPECT TO THE COMMON UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE AND EDUCATION AMONG SCHOOLS.
THE PEOPLE. Upon them rests the responsibility of furnishing the means of The friends of religion should show themselves interested, in the education to every child in their respective cities and towns. This intellectual and moral improvement of the people. There has been must be done by making liberal appropriations of moneys for the not merely neglect here, but much weak fear. Fear, however, prosupport of schools, and everything pertaining to them. If new duces what it imagines. It is altogether out of place here. school-houses are to be erected, let liberal provision be made for Knowledge is the food of the mind ; and he who would monopolize this purpose. In locating them, be sure that they are placed in it, the people shall curse him. We have no surer hold on the gratipleasant situations, and where the grounds and space will admit of tude or the convictions of a people than by securing their spiritual it, let trees, and shrubs, and flowers be planted. Make them, as growth. We want, in the fair sense of the term, national education. far as they can be made, even in their outward appearence, attrac-1 We want schools for all, without offending the conscience of any. live to those who shall occupy thein. Let the rooms be large and The school, the college, the chair, should be equally accessible to commodious, with proper means for heating and rentilating them. I all; and the reason wby all do not attain the highest honors should Who shall say how many thousands of our youth have contracted be, that they pause in the course, and not that they are fenced off diseases, and gone down to an untimely grave, by breathing for by others from an approach.